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dominance     
相关语句
  优势度
     the dominance is 0.8022,0.5861 and 0.5092,respectively;
     优势度依次为0.8022、0.5861和0.5092;
短句来源
     The highest index of dominance is community D(0.7222),community F(0.0930) the lowest.
     优势度指数最高为群落D(0.722 2),优势度指数最低为F(0.093 0);
短句来源
     The Shannon-Weiner index of diversity,evenness index,ecological dominance of the communities are 0.53~3.30,0.48~0.89 and 0.06~0.71,respectively.
     群落的多样性指数为0.53~3.30、均匀度指数为0.48~0.89、生态优势度0.06~0.71。
短句来源
     the diversity index of landscape in the study area is 2.42, the index of dominance is 0.98, both show that the type of landscape in the study area is not so much, the landscape is dominant by several types of landscape, mainly TEPAri01, TERAac01 and TEFPen02, the area of the three types accounting for 57.63%.
     研究区的景观多样性指数为2.42, 优势度为0.98, 可见研究区的多样性指数不高,优势度却很高,说明研究区的景观类型并不多,主要为几种优势景观类型所主导, 这几种优势景观为TEPAri01、TERAac01和TEFPen02,这三种景观类型的面积占了研究区的57.63%。
     The correlation coefficient between relative dominance of C_4 forage and soil pH value, or salt content was 0.826 or 0.760 respectively, but that for C_3 plants was negative.
     4草相对优势度与土壤pH值和含盐量的相关系数分别为0.826和0.760,而C_3植物均为负值。
短句来源
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  显性
     Dominance effects were -0.014 and -0.09 Kg.
     显性效应为-0.014和-0.09 Kg。
短句来源
     Dominant degree analysis showed that sequence of average dominant degree was X_6>X_4>X_5>X_2>X_1>X_3, X_6 and X_4 presented positive dominance, X_1, X_2, X_3 and X_5 presented negative partial dominance.
     显性度分析表明,6个性状显性度群体效应的大小顺序为X6>X4>X5>X2>X1>X3,X6和X4以正向显性效应为主,X1、X2、X3和X5主要以负向部分显性为主。
短句来源
     IR24 possessed two pairs of dominantones Rf_1 Rf_1 Rf_2 Rf_2,which characterized by incomplete dominance anddosage effect.
     IR24具有相应的两对显性育性恢复基因 Rf_1 Rf_1 Rf_2 Rf_2。 恢复基因的显性作用是不完全的,具剂量效应。
短句来源
     17.3% QTLs (that was 17 loci) expressed dominance effect;
     显性效应的 QTLs 有 17 个,占 17.3%;
短句来源
     The mean degrees of dominance (H_1/d)~(1/2) of protein and lysine content were overdominance.
     蛋白质和赖氨酸含量的平均显性度((H_1/D)~(1/2))均为超显性
短句来源
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  优势
     Analysis of C4I2WS System for Capturing Information Dominance of USA
     美军C4I2WS信息优势获取系统分析
短句来源
     the diversity index of landscape in the study area is 2.42, the index of dominance is 0.98, both show that the type of landscape in the study area is not so much, the landscape is dominant by several types of landscape, mainly TEPAri01, TERAac01 and TEFPen02, the area of the three types accounting for 57.63%.
     研究区的景观多样性指数为2.42, 优势度为0.98, 可见研究区的多样性指数不高,优势度却很高,说明研究区的景观类型并不多,主要为几种优势景观类型所主导, 这几种优势景观为TEPAri01、TERAac01和TEFPen02,这三种景观类型的面积占了研究区的57.63%。
     K149AJN-13,K83(37)65ALK783 and K Zhengzhou 891ALK783 were high_yielding and strong_dominance combinations.
     由LK783配制组合的SCA效应值较高。 K149AJN—13、K83(37)65ALK783和K郑州891ALK783为三个高产优势强的组合。
短句来源
     The dominance index of forest cover was increased from 0.611 to 0.692 during the period from 1985 to 1993,and that of climax forest community was increased by 70%.
     1985~1993年间,有林地优势地位加强,优势度从0.611增加到0.692,顶极群落优势度增加70%;
短句来源
     F1 had the highest competitive dominancy,then F2 and F3 whose decreasing ratio is consistent with their competitive dominance,and their average yield decreasing ratios were 12.59% and 17.62%,respectively.
     F1竞争优势最大,其次为F2,F3.F2,F3的衰退率与竞争优势一致,其平均优势衰退率分别下降了12.59%和17.62%.
短句来源
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  支配
     Definition 1(dominance) Given two individuals X 、Y in? population X (t) ,iffi(x) ≤ fi(y),for everyi∈{1,2,?,n}, andfj (x) < fj (y) ,there exists at least a j ∈{1,2,?,n}then we say that X dominates Y ,or Y is dominated by X .
     定义1(支配关系)设X 、Y为种群X(t)中的个体,如果满足:fi(x) ≤ fi(y),对任意i∈{1,2,?,n}fj (x) < fj (y) ,至少有一个 j ∈{1,2,?,n}则称个体X 支配个体Y,或称个体Y被个体X 支配
短句来源
     Study of dominance chance constrained DEA model
     支配机会约束DEA模型
短句来源
     Researches on Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm Based on Adaptive ε Dominance
     基于自适应ε支配多目标遗传算法的研究
短句来源
     At first, summarize the system of quasi possession and expand that dominance relationship de facto to property rights that don't take place by way of direct possession should be guaranteed.
     本部分首先对准占有制度进行简要概述,说明社会上需要保护的事实上的支配关系不仅仅是对物的直接支配关系,不以对物的直接占有而成立的对财产权的事实上的支配关系也是需要受到保护的,因此以成立准占有制度加以保护。
短句来源
     The result shows that when reaching balance,the relative dominance of the Castanopsis eyrei(Champ.) Tutch. and its associated species are 59.79% and 40.21% respectively.
     结果表明,甜槠及其伴生树种的相对优势度分别为59.79%和40.21%,说明未来甜槠林仍由甜槠及其伴生树种共优组成,甜槠将支配整个群落。
短句来源
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      dominance
    In terms of Simpson's dominance index, the dominance of certain species in the regeneration layer increased from gaps to closed canopy (p>amp;lt;0.01).
          
    For example, Shannon-Wiener index and abundance index is higher and Simpson's dominance index is the lowest in succession layer of medium-size gap (100-250 m2) in the broad-leaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains.
          
    Simpson's dominance index reached its maximum when the gap size was between 200 and 250 m2.
          
    The Shannon-Wiener index, evenness index, and abundance index in gap were higher than those under canopy in the seedling layer, while the community dominance in the seedling layer increased in closed canopy.
          
    Dominance of Dremomys pernyi and Callosciurus erythraeus in small mammal communities, time niche breadth, and time niche overlap between the two small mammals were calculated, respectively.
          
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    In order to study the distribution of the virus entities which cause“Kwuting”symptomsof Chinese cabbage on various cruciferous crop plants,diseased specimens were collected fromPeking and Tientsin throughout the growing season in 1962.Isolations and routine diagnosiswere made during 1962-63.On basis of the differential host reactions,109 isolates weregrouped into seven types,among which types Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ being reacted with K_1 (TurnipMosaic Virus) antiserum were thus considered to be related strains.These strains...

    In order to study the distribution of the virus entities which cause“Kwuting”symptomsof Chinese cabbage on various cruciferous crop plants,diseased specimens were collected fromPeking and Tientsin throughout the growing season in 1962.Isolations and routine diagnosiswere made during 1962-63.On basis of the differential host reactions,109 isolates weregrouped into seven types,among which types Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ being reacted with K_1 (TurnipMosaic Virus) antiserum were thus considered to be related strains.These strains were de-signated K_(1-2) for type Ⅰ,K_(1-3) for type Ⅱ and K_(1-4) for type Ⅲ.Type Ⅰ neither infectedNicotiana tabacum nor N.glutinosa.Type Ⅱ did infect N.tabacum causing local lesions,butnot N.glutinosa.Type Ⅲ with its T.D.P.slightly higher than 65℃ did infect N.glutinosacausing local lesions,but might or not infect N.tabacum.Type Ⅳ being identical to theKwuting Virus 1 (A type strain of Turnip Mosaic Virus on Chinese cabbage) was designatedK_(1-1).Types Ⅴ and Ⅵ had not yet been identified,while type Ⅶ was identical to the former-ly reported virus K_3 (A ringspot strain of TMV).In fields,types Ⅰ and Ⅱ occurred more frequently.They were 59.0 and 32.0 per cent ofthe total isolates respectively.Type Ⅲ was apparently less prevalent (5.5 percent) and theother types occurred more rarely (less than 0.9 percent each).Therefore the two TurnipMosaic Virus strains K_(1-2) and K_(1-3) were the most prevalent and responsible for the epiphyto-tics of the Kwuting disease of Chinese cabbage in 1962.However,in Peking K_(1-2) was lessabundant than K_(1-3),while in Tientsin the condition was quite the reverse.The difference ofstrain dominance might be attributed to the different varieties of Chinese cabbage cultivatedin these two localities.For instance,the main Chinese cabbage variety cultivated in Pekingwas“Qinpaikou”,from which the isolates of K_(1-3) and K_(1-2) were in the ratio of 3:2.Themain Chinese cabbage variety grown in Tientsin was“Tianjinl(?)”,from which the isolates ofK_(1-3) and K_(1-2) was in the ratio 1:5.Isolates made from two kinds of seeding plants,namely the overwintered seed plants plant-ed out in spring and the seed plants grown from vernalized seeds,revealed that they wereessentially K_(1-2) and K_(1-3).It was believed that these virus entities were carried in the over-wintered seed plants and disseminated to other cruiferous plants after planting out in spring.These two essential virus entities were isolated from successive cruciferous crops throughoutthe growing season.Therefore the summer sown cabbage served as one of the principal hostsfor the virus to tide over summer,while the autumn Chinese radish which was sown usually10-15 days earlier than Chinese cabbage,served as one of the important bridge hosts.

    1962年至1963年系统地调查北京及天津白菜区十字花科作物上逐月出现的病毒类型及其相对数量,以确定十字花科作物之间病毒的相互关系。从109个分离物中,根据寄主反应,区分成7个类型,其中Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ型都和芜菁花叶病毒(白菜孤丁病毒1号即 K_1)的抗血清起反应,因此认为它们是白菜孤丁病毒1号的相关株系:Ⅰ型定为 K_(1-2),根本不侵染菸草;Ⅱ型定为 K_(1-3),能侵染普通菸,产生局部坏死斑,但不侵染心叶菸;Ⅲ型定为 K_(1-4),能侵染心叶菸产生局部坏死斑,能或不能侵染普通菸与产生局部坏死斑,致死温度稍高于65℃;Ⅳ型为典型的白菜孤丁病毒1号的原株系(K_(1-1));Ⅴ及Ⅵ型是未经鉴定的毒原;Ⅶ型是典型菸草环斑型花叶病毒(K_3)。京、津两地109个分离物中,Ⅰ型(K_(1-2))占59%,Ⅱ型(K_(1-3))32%,Ⅲ型(K_(1-4))5.5%,Ⅳ型(K_(1-1))0.9%,Ⅴ型0.87%,Ⅵ型0.87%,Ⅶ型(K_3)0.87%。其中以 K_(1-2)及 K_(1-3)(芜菁花叶病毒亦即白菜孤丁病毒1号)为主,其他类型均不重要。北京及天津两地十字花科作物上病毒类型的分布显然有些差别,在北京...

    1962年至1963年系统地调查北京及天津白菜区十字花科作物上逐月出现的病毒类型及其相对数量,以确定十字花科作物之间病毒的相互关系。从109个分离物中,根据寄主反应,区分成7个类型,其中Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ型都和芜菁花叶病毒(白菜孤丁病毒1号即 K_1)的抗血清起反应,因此认为它们是白菜孤丁病毒1号的相关株系:Ⅰ型定为 K_(1-2),根本不侵染菸草;Ⅱ型定为 K_(1-3),能侵染普通菸,产生局部坏死斑,但不侵染心叶菸;Ⅲ型定为 K_(1-4),能侵染心叶菸产生局部坏死斑,能或不能侵染普通菸与产生局部坏死斑,致死温度稍高于65℃;Ⅳ型为典型的白菜孤丁病毒1号的原株系(K_(1-1));Ⅴ及Ⅵ型是未经鉴定的毒原;Ⅶ型是典型菸草环斑型花叶病毒(K_3)。京、津两地109个分离物中,Ⅰ型(K_(1-2))占59%,Ⅱ型(K_(1-3))32%,Ⅲ型(K_(1-4))5.5%,Ⅳ型(K_(1-1))0.9%,Ⅴ型0.87%,Ⅵ型0.87%,Ⅶ型(K_3)0.87%。其中以 K_(1-2)及 K_(1-3)(芜菁花叶病毒亦即白菜孤丁病毒1号)为主,其他类型均不重要。北京及天津两地十字花科作物上病毒类型的分布显然有些差别,在北京地区 K_(1-3)占51.2%,K_(1-2)占34.1%,K_(1-4)占7.3%,其余 K_(1-1),Ⅴ及Ⅵ各占2.5%,无 K_3,而在天津地区则 K_(1-2)占68.8%,K_(1-3)占22.9%,K_(1-4)占6.3%,有 K_3的出现(2.1%),而无 K_(1-1),Ⅴ及Ⅵ。这种差异可能与当地所栽品种及十字花科蔬菜种类有关,因为北京的白菜以青白口品种为主,而 K_(1-3)和 K_(1-2)在青白口品种上的出现此数为3∶2。天津地区的白菜品种邓鄯沽大核桃纹、高杆连心壮及天津绿上的 K_(1-3)和 K_(1-2)的出现比数相应为1∶5,1∶2及3∶4。根据两种采种株,即越冬菜株及当年播的春化种子的种菜上的毒原类型分析,一般均为,K_(1-2)及 K_(1-3),而出现的次数在越年采种株上为多,可见越年采种株是白菜孤丁病毒的主要越冬寄主之一,春化种子的种菜上的病原可能是从越冬采种株上传来的,根据3—10月各种十字花科作物上病毒类型出现次数的分析,K_(1-2)及 K_(1-3)在四至五月间在留种菜、小白菜、油青菜及甘兰上达到高峯,六月间则出现在白菜及甘兰上,最后则出现在秋白菜上,其中甘兰是京津六至九月间的连续作物,因此作为主要越夏寄主的可能性更大,而萝卜则因其播种较秋白菜早10天至15天,正当传毒翅蚜的发生期,因此认为是一个比较危险的过渡寄主。

    The inheritance of mature plant resistance to race CY-2 of Puccinia glumarum Erikss.et Henn.was studied in 133 sets of intervarietal crosses of winter wheat during 1955 to 1958.When immune varieties were used as one of the parents,resistance in the F_1 generation inmost of the crosses was shown to be dominant.The dominance of the resistance of F_1 hybridwas found to be not only conditioned by the immune parent but also more or less influencedby the degree of resistance of the other parent,being less with...

    The inheritance of mature plant resistance to race CY-2 of Puccinia glumarum Erikss.et Henn.was studied in 133 sets of intervarietal crosses of winter wheat during 1955 to 1958.When immune varieties were used as one of the parents,resistance in the F_1 generation inmost of the crosses was shown to be dominant.The dominance of the resistance of F_1 hybridwas found to be not only conditioned by the immune parent but also more or less influencedby the degree of resistance of the other parent,being less with susceptible varieties thanwith resistant ones.With the resistant × resistant and resistant × susceptible crosses,therewas also a small portion in which the resistance of F_1 hybrid was shown to be dominant.Studies were made on F_1 plants of 24 pairs of crosses,F_2 plants of 8 pairs of crosses andF_3 plants of 2 pairs of crosses,for any reciprocal differences in the inheritance of resistance,each pair involving an immune and a susceptible parent.No difference was observed whe-ther the immune variety was used as maternal or as paternal parent.Analysis based on careful field observations indicated that the stability and the heritabilityof resistance of“partial immune”hybrid plants (only the middle and upper leaves being im-mune,while the lower leaves showing a susceptible or moderate resistant reaction) appearedto be lower than that of the“whole plant immune”ones (all leaves of the plant showing anuniform immune reaction).When varieties with“partial immune”reaction were used as theresistant parents,plants with infected middle and lower leaves were relatively common in theF_1 population.When a“whole plant immune”variety was used all the F_1 population wasfound to be unaffected.The importance of choosing the“whole plant immune”variety asresistant parent and selecting the“whole plant immune”hybrid plant in breeding rust resistantvarieties was emphasized.

    对133个小麦品种间杂交组合的观察结果指出,凡有免疫品种为亲本的组合,其 F_1抗病性表现显性的机率都很高,而其机率的高低又与另一亲本抗病性的强弱呈正相关。对24对正反交组合的 F_1代,8对的 F_2代和2对的 F_3代作比较观察的结果表明用免疫品种作父本与母本,对后代抗病性的表现和分离并无不同影响。根据田间调查结果,看出杂种后代中底部叶片轻微发病的植株其抗病性稳定程度和遗传力低于“全株免疫株”;用底部叶片发病,中上部叶片表现免疫的品种作抗病亲本,F_1代的中下部叶片发病比较普遍;而用全株免疫的品种作抗病亲本,F_1代一般没有发病现象。试验结果证明 F_1代和 F_2代中的“少茎病株”(同一植株中多数分蘖免疫,个别或少数分蘖感病),其后代(F_2和 F_3)分离出的免疫株率与全株免疫株差别不明显。感病分蘖与同株免疫分蘖的后代在抗病性的分离上也无显著差别。石特14×胜利组合 F_2免疫株的后代(F_3)中有15.8%的株系全部植株免疫;“0;”型和“1”型 F_3植株分离出的免疫株率各达到80.3%和55.5%,但汉有出现免疫的株系。

    The phenomenon of dominant and segregation of hybrids is of essential importance ingenetics.What is the rule which governs this phenomenon? According to Morganists thisphenomenon is controlled by the behavior of genes,while the Michurinists took it as the resultof mutual assimination of the germ cells of two parents.More than sixty years ago,genetists could not determine exactly how many genes are in-volved in a quantitative character,nor chould they demonstrate how the genes react.Al-though there are many theories...

    The phenomenon of dominant and segregation of hybrids is of essential importance ingenetics.What is the rule which governs this phenomenon? According to Morganists thisphenomenon is controlled by the behavior of genes,while the Michurinists took it as the resultof mutual assimination of the germ cells of two parents.More than sixty years ago,genetists could not determine exactly how many genes are in-volved in a quantitative character,nor chould they demonstrate how the genes react.Al-though there are many theories to explain this genetical phenomenon,yet it seems that noneof them is able to give a general explanation for dominance and segregation of hybrids.The aim of this paper is to analyze,mathematically the phenomenon of dominance andsegregation of hybrids in a new theory,that the average measurements of one character of thehybrids are determined by the relative intensity of heritability of the two parents withoutconsidering how many pairs of genes,or how the genes effect the character.Under certain conditions,the phenotypic expression is determined by two factors:one isthe relative intensity of heritability of two parents,and the other is the average measurementsof their characters.Besides,the nature of transmission of genetical materials to their pro-genies is also significant to the phenotypic expression of the hybrids.According to a numberof genetical data,the action of inheritance between parents and hybrids may be either arith-metical or geometrical.If we take a_1 and a_2 as the relative heritability of two parents and.P_1 and P_2 as theiraverage measuremenst of a given character,then the measurement of the character of theirhybrids will be:(i)in arithmetical relationF_1=P_1a_1+P_2a_2 (1)(ii)in geometrical relationF_1=P_1a_1.P_2a_2or lnF_1=a_1lnP_1+a_2lna_2 (2)in which a_1+a_2=1.By formulae(1)and(2),we may explain many types of genetical data in one formin which should be explained separately in the theory of genes,such as,genes of independentassortment,several types of factors interaction,and others.Other rules may also be derived from formulae(1)anh(2)as follows:Ⅰ.When the relative heritability of two parents is equal,then we have(i) in arithmetical relationF_1=1/2(P_1+P_2) (3)(ii)in geometrical relationF_1=(P_1P_2)~(1/2) or lnF_1=1/2(lnP_1+lnP_2) (4)Ⅱ.When the measurements of a character of parents and hybrids are known,we maycalculate the relative heritability of two parents by formulae(1)and(2),i.e.(i)in arithmetical relationa_1=(F_1-P_2)/(P_1-P_2) (5)and a_2=(P_1-F_1)/(P_1-P_2) (6)in which the value of a_2 is coincident with the“degree of dominance”derived by Zeleny(1920)in another way,and is equivalent to the“hybrid index”of Hubbs(see Riley,1948).(ii) in geometrical relationa_1=(lnF_1/P_2)/(lnP_1/P_2) (7)and a_2=(lnP_1/F_1)/(lnP_1/P_2) (8)Ⅲ.When the relative heritability of two parents is equal,and when the hybrids areselfed or backcrossed with their parent,then the measurement of a given character of pro-genies in second generation will be:(i) in arithmetical relation(?)(9)(ii)in geometrical relation(?)(10)These formulae are more fitting than those derived by Wright(see Power,1942)Ⅳ.When the hybrids are selfed or backcrossed for n-l generaations,the average measure-ments of a given character of progenies(no selection)will be:(i) in arithmetical relation(?)(11)Where Pr is the average measurement of the recurrent parent.The measurement of F_nis coincident with the result of Burdick(1956).(ii) in geometrical relationF_n=F_1B_n=P_r(2~(n-1))/(2n).P1/(2~n) (12)All the above mentioned equations have been proofed in theory and in practice.

    相对遗传力理论是作者根据数学原理,在遗传、育种试验基础上,提出的有关遗传传递力规律的见解。它企图在不假设任何基因的情况下,用同一的测量尺度,统一质量性状与数量性状的解说方式;直接从亲本性状的平均测定与相对遗传力,通过数学公式的运算,对杂种后代的性状数值与遗传动态(完全显性、部分显性、无显性或超亲遗传等),作一定的估算和预测。

     
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