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ingredients
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  成分
     Powder Gas Ingredients and Simplified Equation of State
     火药气体成分与简化状态方程
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     Determination of Effective Ingredients in Jiangyale Tablets by High Performance Liquid Chromatogra- Fhy
     高效液相色谱定量测定降压乐的有效成分
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     Analysis of Active Ingredients in Wuren Liguid
     五仁液有效成分分析
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     THE UTILIZATION AND ANALYSES OF NUTRITIVE INGREDIENTS IN DRAGON-PEARL TEA
     龙珠茶营养成分分析与开发利用
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     Some Food Ingredients Used to Improve Athletic Performance
     提高运动成绩的食物成分
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  组分
     The mean recoveries(±RSD) of the three ingredients were 99. 25%±1. 22%,99.39%±0. 44%,99。 25%±1. 00%,re-spectively.
     3个组分回收率±RSD依次为99.25%±1.12%,99.39%±0.44%,99.25%±1.00%。
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     The average recoveries of the two ingredients were 99.87%±0.57% and 100.8%±0.65% respectively.
     两组分的平均回收率分别为99.87%±0.57%和100.8%±0.65%。
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     In this paper, drilling fluid ingredients and additives including bentonite, NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, XY-27, FLCS, CMC, PSC and PEG were evaluated using THF/SSW method.
     用THF/SSW测试法对部分钻井液组分做了评价试验,包括粘土、NaCl、MgCl2、CaCl2、XY-27、FCLS、CMC、PSC、PEG等。
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     All ingredients were separated completely. The average recoveries ( n =5) were 99.14% and 99.21% with RSD of 1.4%and 1.5 %, respectively.
     结果 样品中各组分完全分离且呈良好线性关系 ,氯化十六烷基吡啶回收率为 99.14 % ,RSD =1.4 % (n =5 ) ,维生素C回收率为 99.2 1% ,RSD =1.5 % (n =5 )。
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     Results The ferulic acid could be totally separated from other ingredients in plasma. The linear range was 1.88—188.00 ng/μL (r=0.999), the lowest detectability was 0.47 ng/μL, and the average recovery was 94.85%.
     结果阿魏酸与血浆中其他组分能很好分离,阿魏酸在1.88~188.00ng/μL线性关系良好(r=0.999),最低检测浓度0.47ng/μL,平均回收率为94.85%。
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     Study on Process and Models for Extraction of Edible and Medicinal Ingredients with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide from Grape Seed
     超临界二氧化碳萃取葡萄籽中食用及药用成分的工艺和模型研究
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     Analysis of the Chemical Ingredients of Angelica Sinensis——Analysis of Non-Volatile Constituents of Roots
     当归化学成份分析研究——根部非挥发性成份分析
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     STUDY ON THE RAPID DETECTION OF SALMONELLAE IN ANIMAL FEED INGREDIENTS BY COAGGLUTNATION TEST AND HRP-SPA STAINING
     动物性饲料中沙门氏菌快速检验的研究——协同凝集试验及HRP-SPA酶染色法的应用
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     THE UTILIZATION OF THE LIQUID FEED INGREDIENTS
     液体饲源的利用概况
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     VARIATION OF LUMINESCENCE PROPERTIES OF A BLUE-GREEN-EMITTING PHOSPHOR (STRONTIUM-BORATE-PHOSPHATE:Eu~(2+)) WITH INGREDIENTS AND TEMPERATURE
     蓝绿粉(掺Eu~(2+)硼磷酸锶)的发光特性随其组份及温度的变化
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  ingredients
The essential ingredients of the approach are scaling and wavelet functions within a biorthogonalisation process generated by locally supported zonal kernel functions.
      
Determination of active ingredients in hawthorn and hawthorn piece by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection
      
The light- and electron-microscopic analysis of the colonies of a bacterial consortium capable of utilizing alkylsulfonates, which are the main ingredients of waste from the synthetic rubber industry, revealed the presence of eight types of cells.
      
The main approaches to simulation of the migration kinetics of ingredients from polymers were considered.
      
The influence of the chosen nitrate compounds on the process of reorganization of the constituent ingredients, evolution of nitrogen into the gas phase, yield of the solid residue, and preservation of nitrogen and phosphorus was revealed.
      
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Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in...

Fineness modulus (F. M.) has served as an index of fineness of aggregates since it was first introduced by Prof. Duff A. Abrams in 1918. In the concrete mix design, the F. M. of sand governs the sand content and hence the proportions of other ingredients. But there are undesirable features in F. M.: it does not represent the grading of sand and manifests no significant physical concept.Prof. suggested an "average diameter" (d_(cp)) in 1943 as a measure of fineness of sand. In 1944, d_(cp) was adopted in 2781-44 as national standard to specify the fine aggregate for concrete in USSR. It was introduced to China in 1952 and soon becomes popular in all technical literatures concerning concrete aggregates and materials of construction.After careful and thorough investigation from ordinary and special gradings of sand, the equation of d_(cp) appears to be not so sound in principle and the value of d_(cp) computed from this equation is not applicable to engineering practice. The assumption that the initial average diameter (ν) of sand grains between consecutive seives is the arithmetical mean of the openings is not in best logic. The value of an average diameter computed from the total number of grains irrespective of their sizes will depend solely on the fines, because the fines are much more in number than the coarses. Grains in the two coarser grades (larger than 1.2 mm or retained on No. 16 seive) comprising about 2/5 of the whole lot are not duly represented and become null and void in d_(cp) equation. This is why the initiator neglected the last two terms of the equation in his own computation. Furthermore, the value of d_(cp) varies irregularly and even inversely while the sands are progressing from fine to coarse (see Fig. 4).As F. M. is still the only practical and yet the simplest index in controlling fineness of sand, this paper attempts to interpret it with a sound physical concept. By analyzing the F. M. equation (2a) in the form of Table 9, it is discovered that the coefficients (1, 2…6) of the separate fractions (the percentages retained between consecutive seives, a1, a2…a6) are not "size factors" as called by Prof. H. T. Gilkey (see p. 93, reference 4), but are "coarseness coefficients" which indicate the number of seives that each separate fraction can retain on them. The more seives the fraction can retain, the coarser is the fraction. So, it is logical to call it a "coarseness coefficient". The product of separate fraction by its corresponding coarseness coefficient will be the "separate coarseness modulus". The sum of all the separate coarseness moduli is the total "coarseness modulus" (M_c).Similarly, if we compute the total modulus from the coefficients based on number of seives that any fraction can pass instead of retain, we shall arrive at the true "fineness modulus" (M_f).By assuming the initial mean diameter (ν') of sand grains between consecutive seives to be the geometrical mean of the openings instead of the arithmetical mean, a "modular diameter" (d_m), measured in mm (or in micron) is derived as a function of M_c (or F. M.) and can be expressed by a rational formula in a very generalized form (see equation 12). This equation is very instructive and can be stated as a definition of mqdular diameter as following:"The modular diameter (d_m) is the product of the geometrical mean ((d_0×d_(-1))~(1/2) next below the finest seive of the series and the seive ratio (R_s) in power of modulus (M_c)." If we convert the exponential equation into a logarithmic equation with inch as unit, we get equation (11) which coincides with the equation for F. M. suggested by Prof. Abrams in 1918.Modular diameter can be solved graphically in the following way: (1) Draw an "equivalent modular curve" of two grades based on M_c (or F. M.) (see Fig. 6). (2) Along the ordinate between the two grades, find its intersecting point with the modular curve. (3) Read the log scale on the ordinate, thus get the value of the required d_m corresponding to M_c (see Fig. 5).As the modular diameter has a linear dimension with a defin

細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是...

細度模數用為砂的粗細程度的指標,已有三十餘年的歷史;尤其是在混凝土的配合上,砂的細度模數如有變化,含砂率和加水量也要加以相應的調整,才能維持混凝土的稠度(以陷度代表)不變。但是細度模數有兩大缺點,一個是模數的物理意義不明,另一個是模數不能表示出砂的級配來。蘇聯斯克拉姆塔耶夫教授於1943年提出砂的平均粒徑(d_(cp))來,以為砂的細度指標;雖然平均粒徑仍不包含級配的意義,但是有了比較明確的物理意義,並且可以用毫米來度量,這是一種新的發展。不過砂的細度問題還不能由平均粒徑而得到解决,且平均粒徑計算式中的五項,僅首三項有效,1.2和2.5毫米以上的兩級粗砂在計算式中不生作用,以致影響了它的實用效果。本文對於平均粒徑計算式的創立方法加以追尋和推演,發現其基本假設及物理意義,又設例演算,以考察其變化的規律性;認為細度模數還有其一定的實用價值,不能為平均粒徑所代替。至於補救細度模數缺點的方法,本文試由模數本身中去尋找;將模數的計算式加以理論上的補充後,不但能分析出模數的物理意義,並且還發現模數有細度和粗度之別。根據累計篩餘計算出來的F.M.應稱為“粗度模數”,根據通過量計算出來的才是“細度模數”。假定兩隣篩间的顆粒是兩篩篩孔的幾何平均值,以代替數學平均值(即斯氏平均?

In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space...

In this paper, the author proposes a simplified method for designing concrete mix. In this method cement paste is considered as one ingredient instead of two separate ingredients——cement and water. The function of cement paste in fresh concrete is that a large portion of the paste fills the void space in the mixed fine and coarse aggregates, and only a small portion coats the surface of the aggregate particles. Therefore the required amount of cement paste is predominantly determined by the void space of the mixed aggregates. The important problem is how to determine the relative amounts of fine and coarse aggregates and cement paste per unit volume of concrete so as to achieve the required strength, durability, workability and economy.

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐...

設計混擬土配合比的方法很多,有繁有簡,繁的需要很多試驗与計算,簡的編成配合此表,祇需按表試配。新的方法还在不断創造,趨向于簡化試驗与計算手續,但又要能切合实际,容易得到符合要求的配合比。早在1948~1949年,作者根据混凝土組成原理,——絕大部分水泥漿是用來填充砂石间空隙,很小部分用來包裹砂石粒面及超潤滑作用——先求得最小砂石混合空隙率,加一常数,就可定出最經济水泥漿量,經过試配,確定最終配合比。1951~1952年,幾处工地試用,当時祇能做出水灰此为0.7坍落度3—7厘米的混凝土。1953~1954年,通过学習苏联混凝土技術,將本法發展到適用於各种要求的混凝土,即灰水比坍落度可任意改变,形成目前較完善的形式,合於工地及試驗室採用。本法在选定灰水比及坍落度後,祇需2—3步即可求出配合此,並算出材料用量;本法計算簡便,祇用兩个簡單的表(表1和表3);本法在進行中有自己校核的作用,計算秤量中如有錯誤容易查出。本法祇需極簡單的設备,易於学習,在大同及大伙房水庫工地祇經一小時的講解,試驗員即会应用。本法通过試配,应用的理論和數据都有正確根据,所以結果能切合实际。希望大家試用研究,提出改進意見,使本法日趨完善,並能逐漸推廣,在混凝土工程中發揮墳產節約与保證質量的作用。

The changes of pH, glucose consumption, nitrogen assimilation, aureomycin production, formation of organic acids and ammonia as well as mycelial respiration during aureomycin fermentation by Streptomyces aureofaciens were studied with two media. One medium(Ⅰ) contained as organic constituents glucose and casein hydrolysate, while to the other medium(Ⅱ) besides the mentioned ingredients meat extract and corn steep liquor were also added. The course of glucose consumption, nitrogen assimilation, ammonia...

The changes of pH, glucose consumption, nitrogen assimilation, aureomycin production, formation of organic acids and ammonia as well as mycelial respiration during aureomycin fermentation by Streptomyces aureofaciens were studied with two media. One medium(Ⅰ) contained as organic constituents glucose and casein hydrolysate, while to the other medium(Ⅱ) besides the mentioned ingredients meat extract and corn steep liquor were also added. The course of glucose consumption, nitrogen assimilation, ammonia formation and aureomycin production did not vary considerably for both fermentation media. Aureomycin formation, however, was five times as high for medium Ⅱ as for medium Ⅰ. Acid formation and mycelial respiration differed between the two media. In experiments with medium Ⅱ two kinds of organisms were encountered. The one possessing a light coloured mycelium had an aerobic metabolism, while the other of dark mycelial colouration possessed a fermentative metabolism. The metabolic changes occuring during the fermentation period may be differentiated into three phases. The growth phase, which lasts to the second or third day, is followed by the stationary phase, which extends to the fourth day, and the phase of autolysis hereafter. Aureomycin in the medium reached maximal concentration during the second phase.

在兩種培養基中觀察了金黴菌培養過程中pH的變化、葡萄糖的消耗,氮的同化、金黴素的產生、氨和有機酸濃度的變化、菌絲的呼吸等代謝變化,這兩種培養基的區別,即在一種培養基中另加入肉湯粉和玉蜀黍漿。 兩種培養基發酵過程中,葡萄糖的消耗,氮的同化,氨和金黴素的產生等變化的一般趨勢,大致相似。加肉湯粉和玉蜀黍漿的培養基中,產生的金黴素量均為不加的5倍。 兩種培養基發酵過程中,有機酸的產生和菌絲的呼吸變化的趨勢有顯著不同。含肉湯粉和玉蜀黍漿的培養基中,培養出的菌絲有兩種類型:一種淺色的氧化代謝特強,另一種菌絲深褐色的呼吸低,代謝變化屬於發酵型,但兩種類型的金黴素的產生量是一樣的。在搖瓶內金黴菌的發酵過程,按代謝可以分為三個階段,第二天到第三天以前為“旺盛生長期”,接着到第四天止菌絲開始自溶為“開始自溶期”最後為“迅速自溶期”。培養基中,金黴素的濃度,在第二期最高。

 
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