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safety
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  安全度
    Study on Working Condition during Construction Period and Integral Degree of Safety on JinPing Arch Dam
    锦屏高拱坝施工期性态分析及整体安全度研究
短句来源
    AN APPROACH TO THE RELIABILITY OF DEGREE OF SAFETY OF CONCRETE GRAVITY DAM
    混凝土重力坝安全度的可靠性探讨
短句来源
    On the Problems of the Dam Safety
    对大坝安全度若干问题的探讨
短句来源
    Analysis of Safety Against Cracking for Rolled Concrete Dam
    碾压混凝土坝抗裂安全度分析
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    Back Analysis of Actual Safety Degree of Concrete Dams with Prototype Observation Data
    用原型观测资料反馈混凝土坝的实际安全度
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  “safety”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The Elastic Shear Strength Formula for Investigating the Sliding Stability along the Dam Base—with Analysis about the Safety Factor of Shear Fracture Formula
    岩基重力坝抗滑稳定审查的弹性抗剪强度公式——兼论抗剪断安全系数
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    Data Diagnose Methods for Setting Up Safety Determination Model of Dam
    数据诊断方法在建立大坝监控模型中的作用
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    Based on the results from the traditional design theory of diversion tunnel plug,analysis of the stress and deformation characteristic of the diversion tunnel plug has been carried out by using the large-scaled universal FEM software ANSYS,and the integral slide-resistance stability of the plug structure has been analyzed through the integral safety factor method.
    在传统设计理论提出堵头结构初步设计成果的基础上,使用大型通用有限元软件ANSYS,分析导流隧洞堵头结构在封堵工况下的应力、变形分布规律,并采用整体安全系数法进行堵头结构的整体抗滑稳定分析;
短句来源
    Critical stability ctriterion formula and design safety factors of RCC gravity dams
    碾压混凝土坝稳定临界准则公式及设计安全系数研究
短句来源
    APPLICATION OF MODEL GW-2 STEEL WIRE DISPLACEMENT SURVEYING INSTRUMENT IN SAFETY MONITORING OF HIGH SIDE SLOPES
    高边坡监测中GW-2钢丝位移测量仪的应用
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  safety
A group of scientists conducted a comprehensive investigation on ecological safety and water and soil erosion in the Northwest Loess Plateau, Northwest China.
      
Therefore, the extension scale of converting cropland to forest could be enlarged properly in the reservoir area, while it should be limited in the non-reservoir area due to the issues of higher population density and food safety.
      
The infrared sensors around the robot improved its safety in avoiding barriers.
      
Frequent natural disasters and man-made catastrophes have threatened the safety of citizens and have attracted much more attention.
      
Disaster prevention, disaster reduction and disaster rescue are the important parts of national public safety.
      
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In recennt years field tests have shown that the moduli of elasticity of rock foundation E_(OC) are generally not greater than those of concrete E_σ.When E_(OC)=E_σ, the coefficients of foundation restraint R are given in the following table,as shown by photoelasticity experiment. Coefficient of Foundation Restraint R (When E_σ=E_(OC)) y=height of the point in consideration. L=length of the block. When E_B≠E_(OC),R may be computed hy the following semi-empirical formula: R'=(1.82R)/(1+0.82(E_σ)/(E_(OC))) Where...

In recennt years field tests have shown that the moduli of elasticity of rock foundation E_(OC) are generally not greater than those of concrete E_σ.When E_(OC)=E_σ, the coefficients of foundation restraint R are given in the following table,as shown by photoelasticity experiment. Coefficient of Foundation Restraint R (When E_σ=E_(OC)) y=height of the point in consideration. L=length of the block. When E_B≠E_(OC),R may be computed hy the following semi-empirical formula: R'=(1.82R)/(1+0.82(E_σ)/(E_(OC))) Where R is taken from the above table. Taking into consideration the rise and drop of temperature,the change of E_σ and R with the age of concrete and the plastic flow of concrete,the allowable tem- perature difference Δt=t_p+t_r-t_f may-be computed by the following formula; t_p+k_rt_r-t_f≤(17)/(KR) Where t_p=placing temperature of concrete, t_r=rise of temperature due to heat of hydration, t_f=final stable temperature, K=factor of safety k_r=0.60~70. When E_B=E_(OC),R=0.55,K=1.30,by the above formula,Δt=t_p+t_r-t_f=25~30℃, which is much higher than 17℃,the allowable temperature difference now in use. When there is a temparature difference between the upper and lower portion of the block,the coefficients of restraint of the lower portion are given in the following table,as obtained by the theory of elasticity: Coefficient of Restraint of lower,portion. In the construction of Gootien dam.as 30% rock is placed in the concrete,there is only 110kg of pozzolan Portland cement in 1 M~3 of concrete,the adiabatic tem- perature rise is lower than 18℃;thus the heiglrt of lift may be raised to 6-10 M or greater from November to May of next year.Only in June,July and August pre- cooling and pipe-cooling may be necessary.

大体积混凝土坝的散热问题是如何解决大型水利枢纽建设速度的关键问题之一。本文从温度应力的观点说明考虑到基础变形、早期压应力、徐变及塑性变形等因素,注块的允许温差可以较目前采用的数值适当提高。再加上充分利用低温季节,大量埋入块石,沿主应力做斜缝及人工冷却等技术措施,便有可能大大加快混凝土坝的建筑,使我国水利水电建设的速度发生一个飞跃。

The arch type gravity dam has the advantage of , uniform distribution of stresses in it, and also, of higher compressive stresses near the heel at its base than that of ordinary gravity dam. It is anticipated that the arch type gravity dam will have greater factor of safety. Rupture tests have been made to study the overloading factors of the arch type gravity dam and to compare it with the ordinary gravity dam. In the paper, model similarity of rupture test is derived. The method of the tests is described....

The arch type gravity dam has the advantage of , uniform distribution of stresses in it, and also, of higher compressive stresses near the heel at its base than that of ordinary gravity dam. It is anticipated that the arch type gravity dam will have greater factor of safety. Rupture tests have been made to study the overloading factors of the arch type gravity dam and to compare it with the ordinary gravity dam. In the paper, model similarity of rupture test is derived. The method of the tests is described. Altogether twelve models have been tested: 2 of the ordinary gravity dam, 1 of the ordinary gravity dam with vertical construction joint, 9 of the arch type gravity dam divided into three groups. From the results of these tests, the following conclusion may be drawn: 1) The Overloading factor under rupture of the arch type gravity dam is 8%-19% higher than that of ordinary gravity dam. And the overloading factor, under rupture, of the ordinary gravity dam with vertical construction joint is 25%-30% lower than that of the ordinary gravity dam without vertical construction joint. Vertical construction joint, however, are always used in the ordinary gravity dams, but could be avoided in the arch type gravity dam. Therefore, the arch type gravity dam will have greater factor of safety than the ordinary gravity dam. 2) During the tests of rupturing the models, cracks occured at the upstream face of the ordinary gravity dam. As for the arch type gravity dam, cracks occured near the inner face of the arch. The cracks at the upstream face of the dam will greatly in crease the uplift pressure, thereby endangering the dam. Therefore, the way of cracking of the dam near rupture is also in favor of arch type gravity dam,

(一)重力坝超载破坏的原因是多方面的,而且比较复杂。本文讨论新型的腹拱式重力坝由于改善了结构特点和应力状态,对提高超载破坏能力的影响,并与相应的宽缝重力坝进行比较。(二)本文阐述了结构破坏的模型试验原理,并附带地提到地基连接条件及纵缝灌 浆条件的模拟。(三)对实验方法,模型制作,加载方法,量测方法,以及实验步骤进行了阐述。(四)根据上述原理和方法进行了十二组模型超载破坏试验,模型材料均采用砼, 比例尺为1:200,根据实验结果初步分析如下: 1)腹拱坝和同体积宽缝坝的超载能力,在其他条件相同时,腹拱坝较宽缝坝大 8%-19%,初步证明了腹拱坝具有较好的承载能力。 2)就腹拱坝而言,其坝体剖面形状对超载能力亦有颇大影响。实验结果,初步认 为腹拱高约占坝高1/3左右,倾角与合力线大致吻合(一般为60°-66°),拱顶曲率 适当减少,前后腿厚度比在1.2-1.4之间比较适宜。 3)坝体破坏的原因均由于主拉应力破坏,宽缝坝裂缝由外而内,腹拱坝则由内拱 向外裂开,因而在抵抗渗透的危险上腹拱坝亦有利。 4)对带有纵缝灌浆的宽缝坝进行的破坏试验说明,从缝对超载能力有一定影响,超载系数与同样的整体宽缝坝要低25-30%左右,...

(一)重力坝超载破坏的原因是多方面的,而且比较复杂。本文讨论新型的腹拱式重力坝由于改善了结构特点和应力状态,对提高超载破坏能力的影响,并与相应的宽缝重力坝进行比较。(二)本文阐述了结构破坏的模型试验原理,并附带地提到地基连接条件及纵缝灌 浆条件的模拟。(三)对实验方法,模型制作,加载方法,量测方法,以及实验步骤进行了阐述。(四)根据上述原理和方法进行了十二组模型超载破坏试验,模型材料均采用砼, 比例尺为1:200,根据实验结果初步分析如下: 1)腹拱坝和同体积宽缝坝的超载能力,在其他条件相同时,腹拱坝较宽缝坝大 8%-19%,初步证明了腹拱坝具有较好的承载能力。 2)就腹拱坝而言,其坝体剖面形状对超载能力亦有颇大影响。实验结果,初步认 为腹拱高约占坝高1/3左右,倾角与合力线大致吻合(一般为60°-66°),拱顶曲率 适当减少,前后腿厚度比在1.2-1.4之间比较适宜。 3)坝体破坏的原因均由于主拉应力破坏,宽缝坝裂缝由外而内,腹拱坝则由内拱 向外裂开,因而在抵抗渗透的危险上腹拱坝亦有利。 4)对带有纵缝灌浆的宽缝坝进行的破坏试验说明,从缝对超载能力有一定影响,超载系数与同样的整体宽缝坝要低25-30%左右,破坏规律?

Test results as well as experimental techniques in the investigation of steel-lined pressure chambers and conduits buried in solid rock are briefly summarized and analyzed whereby the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The concrete-rock carries 55—85% of internal pressure. Stresses in ordinary steel-linings are comparatively low. 2. An important new subject is the in situ buckling test of steel linings under external water pressure. Further investigations are needed to simulate actual conditions. 3. It is of...

Test results as well as experimental techniques in the investigation of steel-lined pressure chambers and conduits buried in solid rock are briefly summarized and analyzed whereby the following conclusions are drawn: 1. The concrete-rock carries 55—85% of internal pressure. Stresses in ordinary steel-linings are comparatively low. 2. An important new subject is the in situ buckling test of steel linings under external water pressure. Further investigations are needed to simulate actual conditions. 3. It is of paramount importance to have well back-filled concrete and high quality grouting to transmit internal pressure onto the external rock. 4. Grout holes must be carefully plugged and sealed to prevent serious leakage. 5. Temperature effects should be carefully observed. The temperature of water for pressure testing should not be too low to induce brittle fracture. 6. Due consideration should be paid for proper selection of loading and unloading speeds and pressure divisions for accuracy and safety. 7. It is recommended to adopt several different types of deformation measuring apparatus in order to check against each other. Due to the irregular deformation of steel linings, it is highly recommended to measure their total deformations. It is emphasized that long-term observations should be systematically carried out to account for temperature and creep effects under operating conditions.

本文介绍了国內外埋藏式高压钢管道试验研究工作的进展情况、试验內容和方法、量测设备以及某些工程的试验成果,并进行了综合分析,得出以下几点结论: 1.钢衬周围的混凝土-岩石一般承担55~85%的內水压力,因而研究其力学特征是很重要的.在设计荷载下,实测的钢衬应力都不大,埋藏管的总体安全度都较高。 2.外水压力作用下钢衬的屈曲试验是新课题,目前在现場进行的试验研究工作不多,但外水压力往往是设计的控制因素,今后应开展更多的工作. 3.回填混凝土的质量和灌浆工作非常重要,它直接影响钢衬、混擬土和岩石的联合作用. 4.灌浆孔的填塞封孔工作应作好,否则将影响管道的防渗性能。 5.试验时的水溫和溫度变化对于试验成果的影响,也应给予注意。 6.试验程序、试验压力、分级大小、加卸荷速度等都需仔细研究后确定. 7.变形测量最好同时采用几种方法,以便补充验证.由于钢衬的变形不是轴对称的,设法直接测出钢衬的总体变形是很有意义的. 此外,在运转条件下,长期系统地观测溫度和徐变的影响也是很重要的.

 
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