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combustion
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  燃烧
     Al_2O_3-ZrO_2 composite ceramics with hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic composition could be fabricated through SHS process with adding ZrO2 (4mol Y2O3) to (CrO3+Al) combustion system.
     通过在(CrO_3+Al)燃烧体系添加ZrO_2(4molY_2O_3)组元,利用SHS技术可以制备具有亚共晶、共晶和过共晶成分的Al_2O_3-ZrO_2内衬复相陶瓷。
     Al2O3ZrO2 composite ceramics with hypoeutectic, eutectic and hypereutectic composition could be fabricated through SHS process with adding ZrO2(4mol Y2O3) to (CrO3+Al) combustion system.
     通过在(CrO3+Al)燃烧体系添加ZrO2(4molY2O3)组元,利用SHS技术可以制备具有亚共晶、共晶和过共晶成分的Al2O3 ZrO2复相陶瓷。
短句来源
     On basis of using gravitational separation SHS process to produce ceramic lined composite pipes, CrO 3+Al+(TiO 2+C+Al+NiO) combustion system is used with three layer structure of steel, intermediate alloy and ceramics.
     基于重力分离SHS法制备陶瓷内衬复合管 ,采用CrO3 +TiO2 +C +Al+NiO燃烧体系合成出具有钢基体、中间过渡合金与内衬陶瓷三层结构的复合管 .
短句来源
     A unified second-order moment (USM) turbulence-chemistry model is used to simulate NO formation in methane-air swirling combustion for different swirl numbers, and the simulation results are compared with those using the EBU-Arrhenius (E-A) combustion model and the simplified PDF turbulent reaction model of NO formation and the corresponding measurement results.
     用统一二阶矩(USM)湍流反应模型对不同旋流数下甲烷-空气旋流燃烧NO生成进行了数值模拟,并和EBU-Arrhenius(E-A)燃烧模型对燃烧的模拟结果和简化PDF湍流反应模型对NO生成的模拟结果以及相应的实验结果进行对比。
短句来源
     Research of Controlling of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion Procedure
     均质压燃(HCCI)燃烧过程控制方式的研究
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  “) combustion”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Research of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion
     均质压燃式(HCCI)燃烧的研究
短句来源
     From the perspective of forming homogeneous premixed gas and having well chemical reaction kinetics effect after ignition,comparison experiments of different approaches which can achieve HCCI(homogeneous charge compression ignition) combustion mode were carried out on a 135 single-cylinder diesel engine with double contract annular chamber,P-pump,pro-injection mode,conical spray nozzle and emulsified oil and diesohol.
     从形成均匀预混合气及着火后具有良好化学反应动力学效应的角度出发,在单缸135直喷式柴油机上采用双收口型燃烧室、P型喷油泵、预喷射、伞喷油嘴、乳化柴油及乙醇柴油等方法,对实现均质充量压缩着火(homogeneous charge compression ignition,HCCI)燃烧的多种途径进行了对比试验。
短句来源
     This paper describes the recent research and development of gas turbine at abroad, they are mainly: developing dry low Nox (DLN) combustion chamber at one's best, commercialized application of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant, development and application of alternative fuels, study of inter-cooled aeroderivative (ICAD) gas turbine and advanced turbine system (ATS) etc.
     介绍了近期国外燃气轮机的研究和发展情况,主要有大力开发干式低NOx(DLN)燃烧室,整体煤气化联合循环(IGCC)电厂的商业化应用,代用燃料的开发应用,间冷式航空改型(ICAD)燃气轮机和先进透平系统(ATS)研究等。
短句来源
     N2O is one of pollutants from circulating fluidized bed(CFB) combustion. In the freeboard of CFB boilers,the bed circulating materials of high concentration usually show catalytic activity for the thermal decomposition of N2O.
     N2O是循环流化床锅炉产生的主要污染物之一,在循环流化床中,高浓度的循环灰能促进N2O的热分解.
短句来源
     The difficulty in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition(HCCI)combustion is its controllability in ignition.
     实现汽油机均质混合气压燃(HCCI)的难点是着火控制。
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  相似匹配句对
     b) combustion control;
     b燃烧控制;
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     Optimal Combustion Control
     燃烧过程的最优控制
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  combustion
According to combustion phenomenon, polymer 4 was supposed to be processed with a good flame-retardant property because of its excellent crosslinked structure during pyrolysis or combustion.
      
Preparation of nanometer MgO by sol-gel auto-combustion
      
Nanometer MgO was prepared via a sol-gel auto-combustion technique using magnesium nitrate as raw material and citric acid as chelating agent.
      
By studying the different TG curves of magnesium citrate gel prepared by different methods, we found that a combustion process occurred and the nitrate ions acted as an oxidant in the combustion process.
      
TEM photographs of synthesized powders from the sol-gel auto-combustion showed that the crystallites were uniform in size.
      
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Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification...

Ⅰ. The Coal Classification Method for the Chinese Coals. (а) The Ultimate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile Mateer on Combustible basis Vr as abscissa and the simplified coal characteristic coefficient as ordinate. (б) Proximate Analysis Graphical Coal Classification Method-Use the volatile matter on combustible basis VT as abscissa and the fixed carbon on ash free basis F. C.w Ⅱ. The Ranks (kinds) of the Chinese Coals-By using the two above mentioned graphi- ed coal classification methods, the Chinese coals available with ultimate analysis or proximate analysis data can be easily classified into the following different kinds as known internationally: -anthracite (A), semi-athracite (T), semi-bituminous ( C), coking coal (k), steaming fat coal ( ), gas coal ( ), long flame (candle) coal ( ) and lignite coal ( ), as tabulated on Table - 4. Ⅲ. The Properties of Chinese Coals. (а) The composition of the Chinese Coals - with the exception of ash and sulfur which vary irregularly, the other constituents. like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and analytical moisture vary regularly with the variation of the vodatile matter on combustible basis V in the different stage of carbonization. (б) The Reltation between the ultimate analysis and proximate analysis for the Chinese Coals- In the bituminous coal region, the data of proximate analysis can be transferred to the ultimate analysis proximately according to the straight line formula, as for the bituinous coal. The other constituents like H, O and N, S can also be obtained by the straight line formulas as shown on the graph. (в) The Heating Value of Chinese Coals - The Heating Value of Chinese Coals; when only ultimate analysis data is available, can be checked by using the Mendeleef formula; when Duly the proximate analysis data is available, the heahng value can be checked by the Goutal Formula. When illers is only the ultimate data without any bomb calorimeter, the heating value can be obtained by the following empirical formulas:(p) The Coking Property of the Chinese Coals---The ebbing property can be represent6d by' foe coking coeffident as suggested by the author, the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen on combustible. basis (%). With the exception of anthraede, semi--anthracite and liana, ' which will have the ash in powderform, when burned, the other bituminous coals like (1) Semi--bituminous and part of the coking coal, when Vr- 16 ~ 24 7o and (%) = 0.90 1 .8, the ash after combustion will become softly caked; (2) for coking coal, Steaming fat Hr coal and gas coal, when Vr~25-47 and M~0. 58-1 .2, the ash after combustion will become strongly caked; (3) FOr gas coal and long flame coal, when Vr~31 ~46 ac and aam: =0. 34-0. 50, the ash will become softly caked. f {if) The Combustion Characteristics of Chinese Coals -- The combustion characteristics vary with the kind of coal. Which kind of coal is suitable for what kind of industrial use and which type of furnace is suitable for burning what kind' of 'coal,. all depends uPOn the rank, composition and combustion charact6rislics of the coal. F6, economy, it is necessary >to burn the poor quality coal nearby and the problem of caking inside the furnace resulting from poor quality coal muSt be properly solved. ' (in) The ash Fusion point of Chinese Coals -- The ash composition affects the fusion point. greatly. The change in ash composition will of feet the fusion poillt. Thus increasing the met,ilie oxides in the coal ash liko FeZO3, CaO and MAO ate. will raduce the fusion point and will fadlitate the ash disposal in fluid form. On the other hand, whother increasing 'the kaolin (fire clay) in the ash composition will raise the ash fusion point or not is a problem worthy for further investigation and research. ' '. It may be reaseonably assumed as suggested by the auther that the coal ash is mainly consisted of kaolin (Al.O, ZFios ZHZO) + free SiOZ + different motailic odddes (FavOr, CaO and MgO, etc ). When coal is burned, the free SiOZ will combine with some of the metallic

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则...

(Ⅰ)中国煤的分类法 (а)元素分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则用简化特性系数 (б)实用分析图解分类法─—横坐标采用纯燃质挥发物百分数V而纵坐标则采用去灰定炭百分数F.C。 (Ⅱ)中国煤的分类类别 根据上列二个新的图解分类方法,中国煤在有元素分析或实用分析数据后,即可从图解上求得分类类别,中国煤按照国际间一般分类标准,可以分为无烟煤,瘠煤、蒸汽结焦煤,炼焦煤,蒸汽肥煤,瓦斯煤,长火焰烟煤,褐煤等,已列在中国煤突用分析数据表的最后一项。 (Ⅲ)中国煤的特性 (а)中国煤的成分─—中国煤的成分,除灰分与硫磺的变化无规律外,其他成分如碳素,氢素,氧素,氮素,分析水分等的变化极有规律,此外煤的工作质水分则受外界气候影响而变化,但吸收水分(即分析水分)划与煤的含氧量有失,而变化很有规律。 (б)中国煤的元素分析与实用分析的关系─—中国煤的实用分析数据,在烟煤区域,可以按照直线关系公式,转变力元素分析的近似数据。例如其他成分如H,O及N S等亦可从直线公式(如图上所示)求得平均数值。 (в)中国煤的发热量──中国煤的发热量,若有元素分析数据,则应用门捷列夫公式来计算核对;若仅有实用分析数据,则可用古?

Using photoelectric tube and D. C. Amplifier to record the light of a spectral line, it is possible to watch directly how an element vaporizes during the combustion of a sample in an electric arc.

应用光电法记录光谱线的强度,可以直接观察在电弧中某一元素燃烧的过程。 用Zn-Cu合金含锌量在50%至0.01%广大范围内,取锌线λ=4810.5A作为分析线,我们看到当某一定量的试样完全燃烧掉时,光电流对时间的积分,也就是光电荷,是和样品中的含锌量成正比例的。 这样的积分法作为定量分析法的优点可以避免光源的飘动与不稳定。

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of...

Through graphical investigation of Soviet coal and Chinese coal, the follow-ing important conclusions are obtained. (1) The inadequacy of old coal classification methods is discussed and anentirely new method of coal classification with volatile matter on combustiblebasis as abssicca and the coal characteristic coefficient β=2.35((H~P-0.126O~P+0.04N~P)/(C~P+0.375S_?~Pas ordinate is proposed, The graphical charts show perfectly satisfactory withthe different kinds of coal located in perfectly distinct areas of classification.Thus the detailed classification which the old methods fail to give out, is perfectlypossible with the new method. (2) The ultimate composition of coal on combustible basis, like C~2, 0~2, H~2,N~2 and the analytical moisture, W~a and their variation with the volatile matteron combustible basis and with each other is graphically investigated and it isfound that their variation with each other proceeded with distinct regularitywith the exception of sulphur and ash, so that their composition percentage canbe approximatety estimated with rough accuracy through these graphs and theclose check of analytical results of ultimate composition can be carried outthrough the use of these graphs. (3) a general relationship in the proximate and ultimate composition of the pure coal substance on combustible basis for typical Chinese coals can bederived with the following straight line formula for the average percentage of car-ben on combustible basis in terms of the volatile matter on combustible basisin the region of bituminous coal: C~2=93.3-(V~2/4.55) during (8combustion products F_(c.2.)~(мцн) andwet combustion products V_2~(мцн) in m~3/kg can be expressed as straight line for-mulas in terms of Q_H~P for the Chinese coals: V_o~(мцн)=(1.075Q_H~P)/1000 V_(c.2.)~(мцн)=((1.075Q_H~P)/1000)-0.2 V_2~(мцн)=((0.955Q_H~P)/1000)+1.10 For Soviet coals, straight line formulas are also derived as shown on thegraph. (6) This paper will find practical use in the fuel industry and power indus-try in operation and design work of power plants. The monographs for the coalcombustion calculations will be shown in another paper for the practical use forpower plant operation, because of too many graphs in one paper. Owing to the fact that the only data available for the ultimate analysis ofChinese coal is from the Northeast region and North China region, the degreeof accuracy of these graphs for Chinese coal is limited by the available data,although the comparison with the graphs for Soviet coals show a perfect simi-larity so that it can be concluded these graphs can be used for the Chinesecoals in other regions. Critical opinions are welcomed by the author to improve this paper.

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃...

此文系用图解方法进行研究: (Ⅰ)煤的分类方法,以何种方法为最合适(图解图1—9); (Ⅱ)煤的成分变化是否有一定的规律,及其相互间是否有一定的关系(图解图10—20); (Ⅲ)煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系(图解图21—23); (Ⅳ)煤的发热量的变化(图解图24—28); (Ⅴ)燃煤所需理论空气量、理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量的变化(图解图29—31)。原始资料系利用:(1)中国各地产煤实用分析; (2)中国东北区及华北区原素分析; (3)苏联全苏热工研究所公布的固体及液体燃料的计算特性数据; (4)英国及德国的数据。图解研究结果,得出结论: 1.新的煤分类方法,以纯燃质挥发物为分类基础而同时结合煤的特性系数β的方法为最合适,或可认为近百年间国际间,对煤分类法的一个很重大的建议。 2.煤的成分变化,极有规律而成分间具有一定的关系。 3.煤的原素分析与实用分析间的关系,可用平均数值推演估计,而比较正确数据,可根据图解估计, 或可利用图解核对分析数据。 4.煤的发热量,即纯燃质氧弹发热量的变化极有规律,可用平均数据,利用近似公式推算,或按照肯定的煤的类别,根据图解来比较正确的估计,或利用图解核对试验的数据。 5.燃煤所需理论空气量,理论乾烟气量及湿烟气量均可用近似公式推算。

 
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