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ecosystem     
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  生态系统
     Studies on Symbiosis Ecosystem of Fish and Grass
     鱼草共生生态系统的研究
短句来源
     Long-term Changes of Main Ecological Factors of the Jiaozhou Bay Ecosystem
     胶州湾生态系统主要生态因子的长期变化
短句来源
     Study on Preferential Flow of Dark Coniferous Forest Ecosystem in the Upper Reach Area of Yangtze River
     长江上游暗针叶林生态系统优先流机理研究
短句来源
     Research on the Hydrological Process and Laws of Larix Gmelini Ecosystem at the Greater Xingan Mountains
     大兴安岭落叶松林生态系统水文过程与规律研究
短句来源
     Ecosystem Modeling Study on the Fishery and Environment of Taihu Lake
     太湖渔业和环境的生态系统模型研究
短句来源
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  生态
     Long-term Changes of Main Ecological Factors of the Jiaozhou Bay Ecosystem
     胶州湾生态系统主要生态因子的长期变化
短句来源
     Research on the Regional Industrial Ecosystem of High-tech Enterprises
     高技术企业的区域产业生态研究
短句来源
     Effect of Pesticide on Loquat Orchard Ecosystem and Ecological Control of Major Pests
     农药对枇杷园生态系的影响与主要害虫生态控制研究
短句来源
     Research on the Forest Ecosystem Based on the Space Analysis of GIS
     基于GIS的森林生态效益空间分析研究
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     Research on the Rational Allocation for Water Using of Economic and Ecosystem in NingXia
     宁夏经济用水与生态用水合理配置研究
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  生态系
     Behaviour of  ̄(89)Sr in simulated land- aquatic ecosystem
     ~(89)Sr在模拟陆生-水生生态系中的行为
短句来源
     Behaviour of 134Cs in aqueous ecosystem. Ⅰ. Absorption of 134Cs by rquatic animals and distribution of Cs-134 in frog.
     ~(134)Cs在水相生态系中的行为 Ⅰ.水生动物对~(134)Cs的吸收和~(134)Cs在青蛙体内的分布
短句来源
     Studies on the transport, accumulation, and distribution of 141Ce in simulated paddy and simulated aquatic ecosystem were done.
     研究了~(141)Ce在模拟水稻田和模拟水生生态系中的迁移、积累和分布。
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     Study on Fate of BHC in Soil Ecosystem
     土壤生态系中BHC归趋的研究
短句来源
     Effects of Vitamin B_(12) on phytoplanktonic community in marine enclosure ecosystem
     添加维生素B_(12)对围隔生态系内浮游植物群落动态影响的初探
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  生态系统的
     Studies on Symbiosis Ecosystem of Fish and Grass
     鱼草共生生态系统的研究
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     Study on City Hydrology Ecosystem System Influence Suffered from the Urbanization and Countermeasures
     城市化对水文生态系统的影响及对策研究
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     On the Adaptive Innovation Mechanisms of Business Ecosystem in the Network Environments
     网络环境下企业生态系统的适应性创新机制研究
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     The Study on Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamics of HABs Ecosystem in Bohai Sea
     渤海赤潮生态系统的非线性随机动力学研究
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     Study on Sustainable Development of Urban Ecosystem and the Application in Tianjin
     城市生态系统的可持续发展研究及其在天津市的应用
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  ecosystem
Increasing the impulsive period τ, the system undergoes a series of period-doubling bifurcation leading to chaos, which implies that the dynamical behaviors of the periodically pulsed ratio-dependent predator-prey ecosystem are very complex.
      
To optimize the spatial structure of an ecosystem, a forest landscape was selected as a research object.
      
Based on the methods of landscape ecology and ecological planning, this paper develops a zoning project of ecosystem functions suitable for various environments.
      
Fourth, efficient measures should be taken to stop human activities that are harmful to Metasequoia and to improve the environment of ONMMT in order to promote the protection of the ONMMT population and its ecosystem.
      
Relationship and its ecological significance between plant species diversity and ecosystem function of soil conservation in semi
      
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1. The southeastern part of Xizang is abundant in its specific topography, ecotype, biotic population and forest vegetation. In this region, there exist a large number of ancient, healthy and natural forest ecosystems, among which the subalpine dark coniferous forests are found to be a widly distributed, extensively stretched, stable and high productive formation group.

一、西藏东南部拥有极丰富而特异的地貌类型、生态类型、生物种群和森林植被类型。藏东南林区有大面积古老,健康而完好的天然森林生态系统。其中亚高山暗针叶林是分布广、面积大、稳定性强、生物生产量高的森林群系。 二,西藏亚高山暗针叶林是寒温带暗针叶林分布最南、最高的林区之一。由于地带三向性的分异,亚高山暗针叶林有明显的水平分区和垂直分带。在各区,带中,森林群系,建群种,林型及其生长状况都有明显的差异。 三,西藏亚高山暗针叶林的水平分布可分为三亚区:(1)三江流域峡谷、山原块状暗针叶林亚区;(2)喜马拉雅山南麓高山峡谷湿润暗针叶林亚区;(3)雅鲁藏布江中下游沟谷暗针叶林亚区。 在分布区的海拔2700—4300米的垂直带内,分布有云杉林群系、冷杉林群系和圆柏林群系。各群系的分布带内,随水热状况的变化组成有规律的林型垂直分布带谱。 四、西藏亚高山暗针叶林的生长特点为;立木高大,生长持续期长,林分蓄积量高。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉林分的蓄积最高达每公顷3500余立方米,平均胸径111厘米,平均高67米。立木最大胸径162厘米,最大树高72米。 五、不同海拔高度与坡向的暗针叶林林分生长差异显著。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉的...

一、西藏东南部拥有极丰富而特异的地貌类型、生态类型、生物种群和森林植被类型。藏东南林区有大面积古老,健康而完好的天然森林生态系统。其中亚高山暗针叶林是分布广、面积大、稳定性强、生物生产量高的森林群系。 二,西藏亚高山暗针叶林是寒温带暗针叶林分布最南、最高的林区之一。由于地带三向性的分异,亚高山暗针叶林有明显的水平分区和垂直分带。在各区,带中,森林群系,建群种,林型及其生长状况都有明显的差异。 三,西藏亚高山暗针叶林的水平分布可分为三亚区:(1)三江流域峡谷、山原块状暗针叶林亚区;(2)喜马拉雅山南麓高山峡谷湿润暗针叶林亚区;(3)雅鲁藏布江中下游沟谷暗针叶林亚区。 在分布区的海拔2700—4300米的垂直带内,分布有云杉林群系、冷杉林群系和圆柏林群系。各群系的分布带内,随水热状况的变化组成有规律的林型垂直分布带谱。 四、西藏亚高山暗针叶林的生长特点为;立木高大,生长持续期长,林分蓄积量高。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉林分的蓄积最高达每公顷3500余立方米,平均胸径111厘米,平均高67米。立木最大胸径162厘米,最大树高72米。 五、不同海拔高度与坡向的暗针叶林林分生长差异显著。在喜马拉雅山南麓湿润区,云杉的最适分布带在海拔2700—2800米,冷杉的最适分布带在海拔3600?

Introducing five Impact problems on mankind, this paper focuses on the energy and environmental probems. The energy which utilized and recognized by mankind may be classified into five categories. (1) mechanical energy (potential and kinetic energy) , (2) thermal energy, (3) electrical energy, (4) radiation energy (5) structural energy of matter (chemical bond energy and neuclear energy) . Jhree principles of utilization of energy must be followed. (1) maximun amount of energy converted from minimum amount of...

Introducing five Impact problems on mankind, this paper focuses on the energy and environmental probems. The energy which utilized and recognized by mankind may be classified into five categories. (1) mechanical energy (potential and kinetic energy) , (2) thermal energy, (3) electrical energy, (4) radiation energy (5) structural energy of matter (chemical bond energy and neuclear energy) . Jhree principles of utilization of energy must be followed. (1) maximun amount of energy converted from minimum amount of energy resource, (2) maximun best quality of goods produced by minimum amount of energy, (3) mininum effect on the ecosystems and relation to their environment fron the utilization of energy. In considering a question in eighr its aspects, the paper analyses the correlations between environmental pollution and exaggeration or abusive utilization of energy. .Therefore, conservation of energy and reasonable use of energy are best methods for environment control

本文从人类面临五方面的挑战性问题,重点探讨能源与环境问题。 能源是能量的资源。人类今天认识与利用的能量可归纳为:(1)机械能(势能与动能);(2)热能;(3)电能;(4)辐射能;(5)物质结构能(化学能与核能)五大类。能源利用应遵守三条原则:(1)用最少的能源转换出最大的能量;(2)用最少的能量生产出最多的优质产品,创造出最大的产值,作出最高的服务效果;(3)能源利用应对生态系统破坏最小。本文从八个方面分析环境污染主要是由能源滥用与浪费的结果,提出合理使用能源、节约使用能源是保护环境的根本措施。

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster...

During the last four years the authors have conducted a series of investigations on the collection, rearing and identification of the parasites of the rice gall midge in Kwangtung Province. Preliminary observations on the bionomics of the parasites and experiments on the effect of insecticides on them were also carried out. The results of studies obtained are summarized as follows:1. Altogether 5 species of hymenopterous parasites on the rice gall midge have been found in Kwangtung Province. They are:Platygaster sp. (gregarious endoparasite)Platygaster sp. (solitary endoparasite)Neanastatus grallarius MasiNeanastatus oryzae PerriereObtusiclava oryzae Sabba RaoThe morphology of the various stages of these parasites are described and a brief account of their bionomics is also given. Usually the gregarious Platygaster parasite is the predominant species, but during the seedling and tillering stage of the late crop (both in the seed-beds and in the field) the population of Neanastatus may increase to as high as 70-80% of the 5 species in total. These parasites possess different characteristics in biology and play different roles in suppressing the outbreaks of the rice gall midge. Further investigations will help us to know how to utilize these parasites in the program of integrated pest management in rice fields.2. The percentage of parasitism of the rice gall midge in the seed-beds and fields of the late crop was found to be very high, in some cases as high as, 90% or more. This contributes an important factor in controlling populations of the gall midge. The outbreak of the gall midge is closely correlated to the cropping system; the late crop and the triple rice crop afford a "bridge" for the favorable reproduction of the gall midge. The irrational application of insecticides kills the natural enemies and is also one of the factors leading to the resurgence of the insect pest.3. According to the investigations made in 1976 in San-Hua brigade, Hua county, the percentage of parasitism on the rice gall midge in the overwintering generation in the wild rice (Oryzae rufipogon) reached as high as 65%, and in the first aad second generations of the early crop the parasitism was found to vary from 32.5% to 33.3%. But in the seed-beds of the late crop, due to the frequent applications of insecticides, usually with a spraying of Methyl parathion-BHC and Dimethoate at an interval of 4-5 days, the percentage of parasitism dropped to 1.53-4.5%, whereas in the field with no insecticide treatment it was about 44%. This indicates that the conventional method of the application of insecticide produces adverse effects to the parasites.4. Laboratory experiments were carried out to determine the toxicity of several insecticides to the parasites of the rice gall midge. As a contact poison the organophosphorus compound Pyrimioxythion (N-23) was the most toxie, and chlorodi-meform was the least toxic. The order of toxicity to Platygaster sp. was: Pyrimioxy-thion > Trichlorofon > Dimethoate > (2,5-Dimethylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate) > Chlorodimeform. The LC50 of the five compounds was estimated to be 1.1, 3.5, 5.5, 15.0 and 24.0 ppm, respectively. As a foliar spray, Pyrimidoxythion is also more toxic than Methyl parathion-BHC to Obtusiclava oryzae and Neanastatus spp. The formulations and methods of applications of the insecticides is very important to the protection of the parasites. As a rule, broadcasting of impregnated-dusts is less hazardous to the natural enemies and the root-zone method of application givea good protection to the parasites and the spiders in the rice field. Thus there is a possibility that the rational use of insecticides will help to increasing the stability of the paddy agro-ecosystem and it may be of great utility in developing an efficient integrated control program for the rice gall midge as well as other insect pests.

在广东稻瘿蚊常见的寄生蜂有5种:(1)黄柄黑蜂Platygaster sp.(群居内寄生天敌);(2)单胚黑蜂Platygaster sp.(独居内寄生天敌);(3)黄斑长距旋小蜂Neanastatus grallartus Masi.;(4)稻长距旋小蜂Neanastatus oryzae Ferriere;(5)斑腹金小蜂Obtusiclava oryzae Subba Rao。这5种寄生蜂中黄柄黑蜂发生较普遍,在一年间大部分时间发生数量多于长距旋小蜂及斑腹金小蜂。稻瘿蚊寄生蜂在晚造秧田及本田寄生率有时达90%以上,对抑制稻瘿蚊的发生起了相当大的作用。 几种常用农药对寄生蜂毒杀作用的比较试验,分别在室内及田间进行。以嘧啶氧磷对寄生蜂毒杀最大,杀虫脒最小。对寄生蜂的毒力大小比较为:嘧啶氧磷>敌百虫>乐果>叶飞散>杀虫脒。

 
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