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     Studies on cDNA Encoding a Kind of Heat Shock Proteins 70 (HSP70) in Shrimps Fenneropenaeus Chinensis and Litopenaeus Vannamei
     编码中国对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)和凡钠对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)一种HSP70的cDNA研究
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     A Kind of Fault-tolerant ATM Switch Research and Network System Simulation and Analysis of Network System Security Scenario
     一种ATM容错交换机研究及网络系统仿真和安全方案分析
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     A KIND OF DIFFERENCE METHOD SOLVING NONLINEAR PARABOLIC PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
     解非线性抛物型微分方程的一种差分格式
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     PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE RELATION BETWEEN A KIND OF PRESSURE WAVES IN THE ATMOSPHERE AND EARTHQUAKES
     大气中一种压力波动与地震关系的初步探索
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     A KIND OF FREE-FIELD SHOCK WAVE PRESSURE SENSOR (MODEL YY 2) IN FINALIZED PRODUCTION
     一种自由场冲击波压力传感器(YY2型)定型生产
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     Qualitative Properties of a Kind of Quasilinear Parabolic Equation
     一类拟线性抛物方程的定性研究
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     Exact Solutions of Nonlinear Equations and Convexity and Smoothness in a Kind of Space
     非线性方程精确解和一类空间的凸性与光滑性
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     Character of a Kind of the Conformally Recurrent Space——Generalization of the Recurrent Curvature Space
     一类共形循环空间的特征——循环曲率空间的推广
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     A KIND OF INVERTIBLE GRAPHICAL PROCESS FOR FINDING RECIPROCAL FORMULAS WITH APPLICATIONS
     获得互反公式的一类可逆图示程序及其应用
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     SOME MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS ON THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF A KIND OF DATA PROCESSORS (Ⅱ)
     一类数据处理机设计与管理中的几个数学问题(Ⅱ)
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     Invasion Mechanism and Control Research of Eupatorium Odoratum a Kind of Harmful Invasion Plant
     有害入侵植物飞机草入侵机理与控制研究
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     Preliminary study on a kind of wasp [Tiphia sp.] which parasitized within white grub
     蛴螬土蜂(Tiphia sp.)的研究初报
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     A KIND OF PERMANENT MAGNETIC MATERIAL WITH LOW REVERSIBLE TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT
     低温度系数永磁材料
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     The Extending Model of Sandwich Plate for a kind of Double Bottom Structure of Ship Hull
     某类船舶双底结构的扩充的夹层板模型
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     A kind of voluminal absorption laser-calorimeter with automatic compensation
     补偿型激光体吸收能量计
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From it, we recover Joseph and Letzter's result by a kind of "quantum duality principle".
      
A kind of direct methods is presented for the solution of optimal control problems with state constraints.
      
A kind of domain decomposition that uses the finite element procedure is given.
      
This paper analyses a mathematical model of the pattern formation on the shell of molluscs which is actually a kind of reaction-diffusion system.
      
However, all the characterizations are much related to the graphic method which was found by Chinese for solving a kind of the transportation problem in the fifties.
      
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1. The oil from fruits of Chinese drug,"Ya-tan-tze", Brucea javanica(Linn.) Merr., has been studied, and its physical and chemical constants determined. The composition of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter were also individually identified. 2. The composition of fatty acids was fractionated by a specially modified method of fractional precipitation with silver nitrate solution, while the unsaturated fatty acids were fractionated with bromo-derivative method. The percentage contents of the various fatty acids...

1. The oil from fruits of Chinese drug,"Ya-tan-tze", Brucea javanica(Linn.) Merr., has been studied, and its physical and chemical constants determined. The composition of fatty acids and unsaponifiable matter were also individually identified. 2. The composition of fatty acids was fractionated by a specially modified method of fractional precipitation with silver nitrate solution, while the unsaturated fatty acids were fractionated with bromo-derivative method. The percentage contents of the various fatty acids present are as follows: (1) Saturated fatty acids: Arachidic acid......66.94% Unknown acid......30.09% Caproic acid......2.96% (2) Unsaturated fatty acids: Oleic acid......99.25% Linolenic acid......0.75% Clupanodonic acid......trace 3. From the unsaponifiable matter fraction, a higher homologue of hydrocarbon was isolated. It is a kind of colourless flake crystal, m.p. 61-63℃, its formula being proposed as C_(35)H_(72) by molecular weight(Rast method) determination. This hydrocarbon is thus preliminarily proved as an isomer of pentatriacontane, a new constituent in this genus of the plant, although the isolation of another hydrocarbon, hentriacontane, C_(31)He_(64), from the fruits of Brucea sumatrana Roxb. had been previously reported. Besides the hydrocarbon, a trace of phytosterol was also found in the unsaponifiable matter, its acetylated product, a kind of colourless thin flake crystal, m.p. 104-106℃, admixed with a trace of paraffin wax.

此部分工作是作者於1942年在昆明前中央藥物研究所完成,近閱1950年中華醫學雜誌有于光元及李寶實两氏,又1955年中華耳鼻喉科雜誌有王世勳、陳守毅兩氏相继發表的关於鴉胆子固定油具有醫疗乳头瘤或及外耳道和喉乳頭狀瘤之臨床效能报告,为配合此方面研究與决定有效成分問题的發展,作者謹將此文發表。根據本研究,這植物果實固定油成分中含种類繁複的脂酸類和特異的高碳烃及(石享)類等化合物。這似與近年Grabtree及Patter等氏報導關於有機不飽和酸類抑制瘤腫作用有关,(Cancer Research,2:688,1942;4:688,1944:5:546,1945)頗足为探研鴉膽子油治瘤有效成分的参考。

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show...

Sweet-potato wilt,a dangerous disease of sweet potatoes,has made itsappearance for more than 10 years in several districts of the south-easternKwangsi and south-western Kwangtung.During recent years it has been found tocause a heavy loss of sweet potato crop in these two provinces. Sweet-potato wilt is a kind of wilt disease which infects the fibrovascular ??bundles of the plant.It begins to infect the vine cuttings and those parts thatare in close contact with the sick-soil.The infected parts first show the water-soaked appearance and then extend upwardly,and eventually become blackenedand rotted.As a rule,ths leaves of the infected plants show an abnormal coloror pale yellow,and drooping appearance.In the meantime,the root tips of theadventitious roots of the vines lose their cortex and begin to lot.Wilting followsquite rapidly and finally the entire plant dies.If the disease infects the plantafter the potatoes beginning to form,it may extend throughout the vine and in-to the roots,causing the enlarged roots to show brown streaks and finally blackenedand rotted with pungent odor. The cause of the disease may appropriately be considered as due to bacteriaand Fusarium spp.Four types of bacteria,i.e.white smooth type,yellow smoothtype,white rough type and yellow rough type,are able to cause the disease.Atleast four kinds of Fusarium,i.e.white aerial mycelium type,white mycelium withred of a purple tint substratum type,pink mycelium with red of a purple tint sub-stratum type and without aerial mycelium type are responsible for the disease.Which is the main cause of the disease? Either bacteria or Fusarium alone or theboth in combination is able to cause the disease,further tests should be madebefore a definite conclusion may be drawn. The dissemination of the wilt organisms may appropriately be considered inthree ways,namely,(1) by infested roots and vines,(2) by sick-soil,and (3) byinsects,as the sweet-potato weevil (Gycas formicarius Fabr.).The former twoways of dissemination are more definite than the latter,however,further testsand observations should be made. According to the results of 2-years field experiments in Tsen-shi and Peh-liustations,it shows that different varieties of sweet-potato possess different resis-tance to the disease.Among several varieties tested,it is found that Tai-nung No.3being a promising one,because it yields very high and is highly resistant to thedisease and to the drought.Although it is occasionally found to be susceptibleto the disease in the experiment field of Tsen-shi and is more commonly foundin the experiment field of Lin-kwei.The second variety is Tai-nung No.46 dueto its high degree of disease resistance. The results of preliminary tests indicate that the method of reproduction byold vines would decrease both in disease resistance and in yield within the samevariety. From tests conducted in two different fields,i.e.one at dry land and the ??other in the rice field,it shows that the discrepancies were found in the occur-rence of the disease and also in the relation of the method of manuring to thepercent of infection. Dipping cuttings in different disinfectants did not show any significant results.There are discrepancies in both plowed and sunned field test and two methodsof setting the vines test.These may be due to methods of treatment,landand varieties used for experiment being different. According to the results of date of planting tests in Peh-liu,it indicates thatthe occurrence and the development of the disease are closely related to the highhumidity and the high temperature.These climatic factors affect the health ofthe early growth of the plant which in turn would increase the disease resistance.It is suggested that the most suitable date for planting sweet-potato in Peh-liu isin the first decade of August. In comparing the weather records of the three districts—Lin-kwei,Peh-liu andTsen-shi—in relation to the date of early and last occurrences of the disease,itshows that an average air temperature of 23.4-28.4℃ is most suitable for the oc-currence of the disease,and an average relative humidity of 80 per cent is alsoneeded for the infection of the disease.Based on these facts,we may say thatsweet-potatoes in Lin-kwei are capable to be easily infected by the wilt organisms.except the last date of the infection would be preceded 10-20 clays.Any otherregions with similar climatic factors,it is also very possible to be infected. According to the results of 2-years experiments and facts from surveys,sug-gestive control measures are proposed: (1) excluding the disease by regulationthrough the use of quarantines enforced by an inspection station empowered torestrict or eradicate diseased roots and vines to prevent them from becomingsources of infection in disease-free districts; (2) selection of disease resistant varie-ties in combination with cultural practices such as the use of more ash,suitableamount of lime and manure,and suitable date of planting to enable plants toescape or resist the disease.For the present time,we suggest that the use of Tai-nung No.3 in Tsen-shi and Peh-liu may meet the requirement,and promotingthe method of root reproduction in place of an old method of reproduction byrepeating vine cuttings from old vines can prevent the degeneration of the plantand decrease the infection of the disease.

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試...

甘薯瘟是一种具有十余年历史的病害,不仅严重地威胁着广西东南部几县的甘薯生产,同时也严重影响了广东西南部和广西毗鄰的几个县的甘薯生产。甘薯瘟是一种枯萎类型的病害,是侵染維管束的脉管病害,首先侵染插条与土壤接触部位,先呈水漬狀,继而变黑腐爛并向上發展,叶色不正常或呈黄色而萎垂。此时薯藤的不定根根尖脫皮并开始腐爛,最后全株枯死。如在結薯块后才受病,除薯藤显现枯萎現象外,可向薯塊發展而呈褐色条斑,最后变黑腐烂,發出刺鼻臭辣气味。瘟薯的病原初步認为是由细菌和镰刀菌所致。细菌中可分为白色粘滑型,黄色粘滑型,白色干绉型和黄色干绉型;鐮刀菌中包括白色气生菌丝型,白色菌丝基層稍呈紫紅色型,粉紅色菌丝基層呈紫紅色型,无气生菌丝型等。但究以哪类为主导,抑系并發性呢?仍須进一步研究。薯瘟病原的傳播,初步認为有三种方式:带病薯块和薯苗,病土,及昆虫(如小象鼻虫等),其中以前二种較为肯定,后一种則仅属可能,仍有待+于进一步試驗观察。甘薯各品种間确具有不同的抗病性能,如台农三号的抗病性較强而产量最高,又能抗旱,台农46号的抗病性最高,但产量則較低,因而台农三号是最有希望的品种,但在岑溪試驗地,会略有發現蔓割病(可能是薯瘟病原之一),临桂試驗田也会發生过多次。老藤繁殖会降低同一品种的抗病性和产量,值得我們注意。在旱地和水田不同試驗地上所得結果,可初步说明發病情况很不一致,追肥与不追肥处理的發病率也不一致。藥剂处理种苗效应不显著,翻晒土壤及二种种植法試驗结果不一致,想与試驗方法、試驗地不同和供試品种不同有密切关系。薯瘟的發生与發展和高温潮湿有密切关系,而这些气候因素对于植株的早期生??長壮健及增强抗病性也有关系。初步建議,在北流地区以立秋(8月上旬)种植較为适当。从临桂雁山、北流和岑溪三处的气候記录,和薯瘟开始發生与最后發生日期的記录看来,可以初步說平均气温23.4—28.4℃最适于薯瘟的發生。相对湿度平均在80%以上亦适于本病的發生。由此可見,在临桂雁山地区,薯瘟可能是容易發生的,不过停止發病日期会提早10—20天。其他地区如有相似气温与湿度情况,那也是会發生薯瘟的。根据二年試驗結果和調查所得情况,初步提出防治薯瘟的办法如次:(1)应采取种薯和种苗的檢疫措施,禁止病区的种薯运往無病地区,以防蔓延;(2)选育抗病品种为主,結合先进的栽培管理法;多施草木灰,适当施用石灰,根外追肥,适期种植等,以增强植株的抗病性,避免病害的侵染,保証丰产。目前在岑溪及北流地区,可先推广种植“台农三号”品种,并提倡以薯塊育苗,切勿采用老藤繁殖,以避免植株的衰退,减少薯瘟的發生。

The present article deals chiefly with the skillful utilization of gear trains in ancient China. The authors analyze chiefly three examples, all of who will be reconstructed for exhibition by the Historical Museum of China. The first example is the water-powered astronomical apparatus equipped with clock-work indicating the day of the month, which was invented by Chang Heng (张衡) in the Han dynasty, about 130 A. D. The second example is the same kind of apparatus invented by I-Hsing (一行) and Liang Ling-tsan(梁令瓒)...

The present article deals chiefly with the skillful utilization of gear trains in ancient China. The authors analyze chiefly three examples, all of who will be reconstructed for exhibition by the Historical Museum of China. The first example is the water-powered astronomical apparatus equipped with clock-work indicating the day of the month, which was invented by Chang Heng (张衡) in the Han dynasty, about 130 A. D. The second example is the same kind of apparatus invented by I-Hsing (一行) and Liang Ling-tsan(梁令瓒) in the T'ang dynasty, in the year 725 A.D. And the third example is the south-pointing carriage invented by Wu Te-jen (吴德仁) in the Sung dynasty in the year 1107 A.D. From the above examples, we see that the ancient Chinese scientists already knew the following principles: 1. by using a kind of gear train mechanism that is, by the combination of a number of toothed wheels with different number of teeth, they could obtain a regular and uniform reduction of rotary motion; 2. by using gear trains they could transmit motion from one driver to two or more different followers with different speeds and directions; 3. by putting in or taking out an idler (or an intermediate wheel) between two toothed wheels, they could make the follower connect or disconnect with the driver; 4. by putting in one or several intermediate wheels between the driver and the follower, they could easily change the direction of rotation of the follower and reduce the total space needed by the whole train; 5. by putting in one intermediate wheel between two toothed,wheels having the same number of teeth, they could get them to rotate with the same speed and direction. From all this, we can clearly see that, almost all the important principles relating to gear trains were discovered by our,ancient scientists.

本文主要叙述中国古代对于齿轮系的巧妙应用。详细地分析了三个实例,并将由中国历史博 物馆古代技术工作室把它们都复原出来,在中国历史博物馆里陈列。第一个实例是汉代张衡在公 元130年(永建五年)左右发明的水力天文仪器;第二个实例是唐代一行和梁令瓒在公元725年 (开元十三年)发明的水力天文仪器;第三个实例是宋代吴德仁在公元1107年(大观元年)发 明的指南车。 根据这三个实例,可以知道中国古代的科学家们早已掌握了下列有关齿轮系的原理:1、由 不同齿数的若干个齿轮组成一个齿轮系可以得到很规律的减速运动;2、由一个原动轮的迴 转运动,可以传达到两个,三个,甚至更多的从动轮,得到彼此不同速度不同方向的运动;3、 由一个中轮的嵌入或离开,可以任意使从动轮与原动轮联系或不联系;4、由嵌入中轮的作用, 可以任意变更从动轮迴转的方向并可大大缩小全机构所占的空间;5、两个齿数相同的齿轮,中 间嵌入一个中轮,可以使它们按同一速度和同一方向迴转等。 根据上边所说的一切,我们可以很清楚地看出,所有一般有关齿轮系的主要原理都早已被我 国古代科学家们发现了。

 
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