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ocean     
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  海洋
     The Simulation Study of Ocean Ship Wakes Imaging by SAR
     海洋舰船尾迹合成孔径雷达成像仿真研究
短句来源
     Research on the Theory, Method and Application of Ocean Economy and Sustainable Development
     海洋经济和海洋可持续发展理论方法及其应用研究
短句来源
     Measurement and Analysis of Bubbles in Ocean Surface Layer and Sub-surface Layer
     海洋表层及次表层气泡测量及分析
短句来源
     Studies on Adjoint Method for Ocean Numerical Modeling
     海洋数值建模中伴随方法的研究
短句来源
     Study on Soft Fusion Strategy of Multi-Channel Incertitude Information in Digital Ocean
     数字海洋中多渠道不确知性信息软融合策略研究
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  大洋
     This paper uses the sea ice data during 1973- 1988,and divides the South Ocean into fiveregions: 20 ̄ 88°E, 90 ̄ 158°E, 160°E ̄ 132°W,130 ̄ 62°W and 60°W ̄ 18°E, to analyse the spatial distribution of the Antarctic sea ice extent and its time variation.
     应用1973~1988年海冰资料,将南大洋划分为5个海区,即:20~88°E,90~158°E,160°E~132°W,130~62°W,60°W~18°E,按这5个海区分析了南大洋海冰的空间分布特征及其时间变化特征。
短句来源
     The mean concentrations for the dissolved fractions are Cu 0 100 μg/dm 3,Pb 0 060 μg/dm 3, Zn 0 086 μg/dm 3, Cd 0 007 μg/dm 3,which is close to the world open oceans level.
     测得各重金属的平均值如下 :Cu 0 1 0 0 μg/dm3 ,Pb 0 0 6 0 μg/dm3 ,Zn 0 0 86 μg/dm3 ,Cd 0 0 0 7μg/dm3 ,接近世界大洋水的浓度水平 .
短句来源
     A method for simultaneous determination of Si, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, Al and Ti in Co rich crusts from the Pacific Ocean by ICP AES was developed. Samples were dissolved in mixed acid (HCl+HNO 3+HF) and in a medium of 0.2 mol/L HF and 0.3 mol/L H 3BO 3.7 elements mentioned above were simultaneously determined by ICP AES.
     大洋富钴结壳试样经HCl+HNO3+HF溶解 ,在 0 .2mol/LHF和 0 .1 3mol/LH3BO3介质中 ,用感耦等离子体发射光谱法同时测定Si、Mn、Fe、Ca、Mg、Al、Ti元素的含量。
短句来源
     Study on Sorption of SO 2 Using Ocean Polymetallic Nodules
     大洋多金属结核吸附SO_2的研究
短句来源
     2. The concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) in Jiaozhou Bay ranges from 0.08-3.16mg/L. and the average is 1.33mg/L and is a little higher than the COD in the ocean water.
     2.胶州湾COD的浓度范围为0.08~3.16mg/L,平均值为1.33mg/L,略高于大洋水的COD水平。
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     A Numerical Study of the Influence of the Global Ocean on the Variabilities of the Southeast Asian Marginal Seas Circulation
     全球环流对东南亚边缘环流影响的数值研究
短句来源
     SEASONAL DYNAMICAL CLIMATE MODEL OF SEA ICE AND OCEAN TEMPERATURE FEEDBACK SYSTEM
     冰—温反馈系统的季节性动力气候模式
短句来源
     Some Statistic Features of North Atlantic Ocean Surface Temperature And 500hpa Monthly Mean Circulation
     北大西洋温与500hPa月平均环流的若干统计特征
短句来源
     ATMOSPHERE AND OCEAN INTERACTION AND TELECONNECTION IN THE ATLANTIC IN THE NORTHERN WINTER
     北半跨冬半年大西洋地区气相互作用及其遥相关
短句来源
     Combined PC and CPC Analysis of SST Anomalies over the Pacific Ocean in Connection with El Nino Recurrence Periods
     El Nino的周期变化和空间特征——兼应用PC和CPC分析太平洋温距平场
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     The average Al_2O_3/(Al_2O_3+Fe_2O_3)=0.047,average MnO/TiO_2=0.93,Ce negative anomaly,Ce/Ce*=0.548 and La_n/Ce_n=1.661 (all for radiolarian silicalite),show that the formation of radiolarian silicalite bear affinitive relation on the ocean ridge or opened ocean.
     放射虫硅质岩的 Al_2O_3/(Al_2O_3+Fe_2O_3)值平均为0.047,MnO/TiO_2比值平均为0.93,Ce 具负异常,Ce/Ce*=0.548,La_n/Ce_n=1.661,表明放射虫硅质岩的形成环境与中脊有密切关系。
短句来源
     Uncontaminated asthenosphere (or plume) -generated continental basaltic rocks are normally characterized by (Th/Nb)N<1, Nb/La≥1, low 87Sr/86Sr(t) ratios, high εNd(t) values, similar La/Nb and La/Ba ratios to ocean island basalts (OIB) and “hump-shaped” mantle-normalized multi-element patterns without negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies.
     没有受到混染的软流圈(或地幔柱)源大陆玄武质岩石通常是以(Th/Nb)N<1、Nb/La≥1、低87Sr/86Sr(t)比值、高εNd(t)值及La/Nb和La/Ba比值与岛玄武岩相似并以具有缺乏Nb、Ta、Ti负异常的“隆起”状多元素地幔标准化分配型式为特征。
短句来源
     (2) Late ocean crust subduction (J_3-K_1)--peculiarvolcanic - arc(adakite) stage;
     ②晚期(J_3-K_1)壳俯冲—特殊火山弧(adakite)发育阶段;
短句来源
     From the Triassic to Oligocene, there was still the Tethys Ocean with lower extension velocity(0 2~1 6cm/a)in the southwestern area of China.
     在印支期—华北期,中国西南地区一直存在着扩张速度较低(02~16cm/a)的特提斯
短句来源
     The five evolution stages are developed in the Paleo-Asia ocean plate:①rifting(Pt2);
     古中亚板块有5个演化阶段:①裂谷阶段(Pt2);
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      ocean
    Currents, possibly ocean currents, could pull out the macroalgal holdfasts from the soupground and break off the macroalgal foliations.
          
    (3) In the phylogenetic tree, the species in the Atlantic Ocean were associated closely with those in the Pacific Ocean, which suggested that the Cyt b sequences of Epinephelus were highly conserved.
          
    It is likely to be an effective way to mate the species of the Atlantic Ocean with those of the Pacific Ocean to improve the inheritance species.
          
    Therefore, it is inferred that the North Qilian orogenic belt was previously an archipelagic ocean in the Ordovician.
          
    The mantle flow has an effect on controlling the movement of plates and the distributions of ocean ridges, subduction zones and collision zones.
          
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    In the summer half year,the average intensity of the Pacific high pressurechanges more or less abruptly.It strongly increaseses from June to July and de-creases gradually from April to June.In middle September it decreasees suddenly. In.the summer season(from June to August),tha advance and retreat of theWestern Pacific pressure ridge(moving from east to west or reversed)is intimatelycorrelated with teh upper westerlies.At the same time,the Pacific High itselfis an important factor of the atmospheric circulation.When...

    In the summer half year,the average intensity of the Pacific high pressurechanges more or less abruptly.It strongly increaseses from June to July and de-creases gradually from April to June.In middle September it decreasees suddenly. In.the summer season(from June to August),tha advance and retreat of theWestern Pacific pressure ridge(moving from east to west or reversed)is intimatelycorrelated with teh upper westerlies.At the same time,the Pacific High itselfis an important factor of the atmospheric circulation.When the zonal circulationis strong,the intensity of the Pacific High is also relatively strong and the posi-tion of the western Pacific pressure ridge changes little.When the small wavesin the westerlies move out from Asia into the Pacific Ocean,the position ofthe western Pacific pressure ridge only vibrates slightly.But,when the waves in thewesternlies are strong,the western Pacific pressure ridge advances westward andthen retreats eastward apparently.The period advance and retreat of the ridgeis about five or six days During the period of fow zonal circulation index, thewestern Pacific pressure ridge moves eastward.when the circulation index growsfrom low to high,the ridge advances westward.The range of longitudes ofoscillation of the ridge in this type is largest,about 30-40 degrees,and the periodof oscillation is longest,about half month in general.The longest period reachesone month. Besides,the movement of the Pacific High ridge is also studied in relationto he tropical systems,such as typhoons.

    夏半年太平洋高压的平均变化,带著突变性质的增强和减弱,突然的增强发生6月到7月,而4月至6月更有逐渐减弱的趋向,到9月中旬以後则突然的减退。 夏季西太平洋高压脊的东西进退和整个西风环流变化及西风环流的情况密切关连,同时太平洋高压本身也是西风环流及其变化的重要因素之一。当西风环流强时,太平洋高压比较强大,这时太平洋高压脊的变化很少,在西风环流小波动东移的过程中,太平洋高压脊只有微小的摆动。但西风带波动较大时,随着西风槽和高压脊的东移,太平洋高压脊便有了比较长时期的和明显的东退和西伸,它的周期一般都在5、6天左右。如果西风环流起了大型的变化,即西风环流由强转弱,再由弱转强,太平洋高压脊随之不断的东退和西伸,进退的范围可达30-40经距。它的周期较长,一般都在半个月的光景,最长的可达一个月,10天以内的很少。 太平洋高压脊除了和西风带的环流,极地高压和低压槽有关外,也和它南边的气压系统,如台风和热带风暴有关。

    Ⅰ. General SKETCH The Cenozoic basalt lavas are widely distributed along the coastal regionand its adjacent districts in eastern China. They form either widespread plateausor scattered mesa-like hills; and, in some places, the volcanic craters are stilladmirably preserved to-day. These basalt sheets were erupted extensively in lateTertiary and early Quaternary times. They belong to the multiple-vent basalts,but not the plateau basalt in the type of eruption. In this paper are given the results of a petrochemical...

    Ⅰ. General SKETCH The Cenozoic basalt lavas are widely distributed along the coastal regionand its adjacent districts in eastern China. They form either widespread plateausor scattered mesa-like hills; and, in some places, the volcanic craters are stilladmirably preserved to-day. These basalt sheets were erupted extensively in lateTertiary and early Quaternary times. They belong to the multiple-vent basalts,but not the plateau basalt in the type of eruption. In this paper are given the results of a petrochemical study of the Ceno-zoic basalt in eastern China. Geological and petrographical studies of the basaltsare not described in detail. Judging from the chemical compositions, the mostoutstanding characteristic feature of the most basaltic rocks is the richness inalkalis, especially in K_2O, also the undersaturation in silica, and, therfore,the most of the basalts distinctly belong to the alkaline rock suite. Such chemicalcharacters are closely related to modal compositions. The general petrogra-phical characters of the basalt may be now as well described. In North Chinaand South Manchuria most basalts are trachy basalt and its allied types, andoccasional nepheline basalt. The constituent minerals of these basalt are cha-racterized by the presence of anorthoclase, potash-adesine, plagioclase, titanaugite,as well as by the abundance of olivine. In South China the main basalt is olivinebasalt, consisting of olivine, augite, and plagioclase as usual. At some placesthe basalt may be slightly silica saturated that the occasional presence of hyper-thene and quartz (xenocryst) is noteworthy. In North Manchuria the dominant basalt is leucite basalt, containing leucite and olivine as phenocryst and groundmass constituent. Xenocryst of quartz and feldspar grains are sometimes present.In Taiwan Province, basalt of Kuanyinshan volcano is of the tholeiite type,but, in some other districts, the alkaline basalt with feldspathoidal constituentalso occurs. In view of the above-mentioned facts, the petrographical difference seemsto be matched by the differences of the major tectonic forms of China. Thesefacts may be tabulated below: Geographical region Tectonic forms Basalt type 1. North Manchuria Granitized region in Varisclde Leucite basalt 2. North China & South Precambrian Sino-Korean Trachybasalt Manchuria massive 3. South China Huanan platform in Yenshanide Olivine basalt 4. Taiwan Himalayide Tholeiite basalt Ⅱ. Regional INVESTIGATION In Table 1 the chemical analyses of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks in easternChina published up to 1951 were collected, of which 74 analyses are basalticrocks. The available analyses of every basalt sheet are taken an average to re-present the regional composition of the basaltic rocks. The localities of the basaltsheets where the analyzed chemical data are referable are shown in Figure 1.In all, 21 localities of basalt are investigated. The average chemical compositionsof each basalt locality, together with the normative minerals, Niggli's valuesand Zavarickij's numbers are given in Tables 2 A and 2 B respectively (localnos. in Table 2 correspond to the numerous in circle in Figure 1). For theconvenience of comparison, the average chemical composition of some standardbasalts (after S. R. Nockolds, 1954), some alkaline basalt in New Zealand (afterW. N. Benson, 1944) and Uganda (after A. Holmes, 1937), and the world's ba-salts, together with the normative minerals, Niggli's values and Zavarickij'snumbers of our calculation, are selected and given in Tables 3A, 3B, 7A, 7Brespectively. As mentioned above, the chemical composition of eastern China basalt ischaracterized by the high content of alkalies, and especially the K_2O. This cha-racter is definitely revealed by the normative feldspar, which is given in Table2 A and graphically shown in Figure 2. From this graphical representation,it is recognized that the normative feldspar becomes increasingly enriched ormolecular from South China to North Manchuria. Although the projected points appear to be scattered, a trend of clustering of the normative feldspars in accor-dance with its geographical distribution is apparent upon close inspection. Inthe normative pyroxene diagram, Figure 3, it is shown that most basalts of easternChina are rich in Wo molecular, falling near the Di-Hd line; On the otherhand, those of Kuanyinshan basalts of Taiwan Province are poor in Wo andcluster in the central part of the Di-Hd-Fs-En field. Therefore, that the easternChina basalt, excluding that of Kuanyinshan, belong to the alkaline rock suiteis justified. The comparison diagrams of qz, al-alk, C-(al-alk) and K-mg ofNiggli's values, based on the data given in Tables 2 B, 3 B, and 7 B, are gra-phically shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 respectively. As will be seen from thesefigures, in general, the qz and al-alk of Niggli's value are lower, but C-(al-alk) and K-mg are higher than those of some common basalts. Fig. 8 isZavorickij's petrochemical vector diagram, from which the petrochemical cha-racters of high alkaline property in eastern China basalts are clearly justified. Ⅲ. Serial COMPARISON For ascertaining and understanding the general chemical characters, theCenozoic eastern China basalt and its differentiated associations are divided,based on the SiO_2 content, into 5 chemical types, the average composition ofwhich is given in Table 5A. As the chemical composition of Kuanyinshanvolcanic rocks in Taiwan Province shows a distinct calc-alkaline affinity, it is,therefore, dealt with the same procedure as well. The average chemical compo-sition of the volcanic rocks is given in Table 5 B. Since the Cenozoic basalt ineastern China covers the region adjacent to the Circum-Japan Sea and the Ja-panese Archipelagoes which are well known by the occurrence of alkaline andcalc-alkaline rock suite respectively. The serial variation in the chemical com-position of eastern China volcanic rocks is examinated in comparing them withthose of the Circum-Japan Sea and the Japanese volcanic rocks. The data usedfor the Circum-Japan Sea and Japanese rocks, which are given in Tables 6 A and6 B, are based on Tomita's and Yamada's calculated results respectively. Zavaric-kij's number of the same rocks, based on Zavarickij's data, is given in Table6 C. Following various petrochemical methods, some graphic diagrams are cons-tructed in order to express the chemical characters of the rock series of easternChina more definitely. The difference in chemical composition as comparedwith the Circum-Japan Sea alkaline rock suite is shown in the normal varia-tion diagram Figure 9. Other petrochemical indices (proposed by Peacock, Hol- mes and Tomita respectively) obtained are summarized below: Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ alkali-lime index (Fig. 10) 65.5 59.0 63.0 52.0 alkali-alumina index (Fig. 11) -- -- 67.8 63.3 Ol-Q index (Fig. 12) 20.0 43.0 72.5 76.5 Ne-Hy index (Fig. 13) -- -- 55.0 59.9 Di-C index (Fig. 14) 46.5 46.5 -- -- Ⅰ. Japanese volcanic rocks; Ⅱ. Taiwan volcanic rocks; Ⅲ. Circum-Japan Sea alkaline suite; Ⅳ. eastern China volcanic rocks.From these graphical solutions in Figs. 10-14, it may be justified that thevolcanic rocks in eastern Asia have increasingly enriched the alkali contentfrom the Japanese Archipelagoes to the mainland of China. Figure 15 is avariation diagram of the normative feldspar of the eastern China series, incomparison with that of the Circum-Japan Sea region, the Japanese Archipela-goes and New Zealand. As will be seen from the diagram, the variation of thenormative feldspar of eastern China rock series is quite discriminative. Notonly is it richer in or molecular, but the positions of point N and O (corres-pond to the respective Ol-Q and Ne-Hy indices as shown in Figs. 12 and 13)of the eastern China series are also in a later course than the others. Figure 16is a paragenetic diagram of the normative plagioclase and pyroxlene of theeastern China series. In the variation diagram of the normative pyroxene, Fig.17, the distinct difference in the course of variation between the alkaline andcalc-alkaline series is clearly revealed. In this connection, the directon of varia-tion in the normative pyroxene of the alkaline series differs from that of thecalc-alkaline series. It is also notable that the range of variation in the easternChina series is smaller, due to the presence of higher Wo molecular in bothbasic and acidic types, as compared with that of the Circum-Japan Sea series.Figure 18 is Zavarickij's petrochemical vector diagram of the eastern Chinaseries compared with that of Circum-Japan Sea and Japanese series. It may be acomplemental diagram of the serial comparison diagram of eastern Asia volcanicrock series, prepared by Zavarickij (cf. A. N. Zavarickij's Introduction to Petro-chemistry of Igneous Rocks, 1950, Fig. 61, p. 205, in Russian). The distinctdifference of these rock series may be clearly observed in the graphical solution.In Table 7 A is given the average chemical composition of eastern China basalt,together with the composition of basaltic rocks of the world (including olvinebasalt and Toleiite, Ocean basalt and Continent basalt) for comparison. Theeastern China average is very similar to the average composition of the olivine- basalt of the Circum-Japan Sea region (based on Tomita, 1935, and recalculatedby the writer), while it differed more or less from that of any of the world'sbasalts by the high content of alkali and especially K_20. This character isdefinitely revealed by the normative feldspar and pyroxene, which are graphi-cally shown in Figs. 19 and 21 respectively. Figure 20 is Zavarickij's petroche-mical diagram of the world's basalt. As shown in these diagrams, it suggests atransitional relation rather than a sharp cleft in the petrochemical charactersof the world's basalts. There are no distinct types of basalt magma but rathera continuous series from silica saturated (tholeiitic) to silica-undersaturated(olivine-basalt) rock, although the chemical distinction may be too subtle to beread directly from chemical analyses. Ⅳ. ORIGINAL Basalt Magma The original magma of eastern China basalt belongs to the olivine basaltmagma type. In this discussion it is assumed that the primary olivine basaltmagma is melted from a crust of peridotitic crystalline rock in the upper partof the sima layer. Olivine basalt magma may be modified by the gain of alimited amount of silica and some alkalies to produce a derived melt, whichappears to coincide with the tholeiitic

    ~~

    The action of Wave on vertical wall is one of the important problem. in wave theory. The invstigation of it is valuable not only because of the fiact that it will enable us to learn more deeply the important phenomena of the wave motion of the ocean. Since Sainflou established his theory of standing wave, many famous scientists have been waking researches on that problem. This problem should be studied not only theoretically and experimentally, but also should be studied in the light of experiences of...

    The action of Wave on vertical wall is one of the important problem. in wave theory. The invstigation of it is valuable not only because of the fiact that it will enable us to learn more deeply the important phenomena of the wave motion of the ocean. Since Sainflou established his theory of standing wave, many famous scientists have been waking researches on that problem. This problem should be studied not only theoretically and experimentally, but also should be studied in the light of experiences of the breakwater failures occured in the past. Therefore when-ever a failure of breakwater occurs in any part of the world, the investigatort attention will be at once taken upon it. On the 19th Feb. 1955, a great damage of the breakwater at port Genoa, Italy occured. At the suggestion of the Soviet specialist A. A. Kasparson(A. A. ), then working with us, a model test for investigating the cause of failure of breakwater at Port Genoa was conducted in our laboratory. After observing and analyzing many times the failure of breakwater in the process of this experiment, We find that it may be classified as concern to the phenomena of failure into two types, namely, types of long-wave failure and that of short-wave failure. As to the failure which occured at port Genoa, it belongs to the type of short-wave failure. In this experiment, the ware pressure on the face of the vertical wall has also been measured. Besides that, for the purpose of increasing the wall's ability to resist against long-wave failure, several tests of strengthening the stone bed near the harbour side are made.

    波浪对直立堤的作用是波浪理论中的一个重要问题。这个问题的研究不仅是进行港口设计所必需的,而且还有助于我们深入地了解海洋中的波浪运动。 自从森弗罗(Sainflou)建立了他的立波理论以来,许多知名的科学家进行了这方面的工作。这今问题不仅是需要在理论上和在实验室内加以研究,而且还应该深入地去研究已经发生了的外堤破坏事故。因此一旦在某处发生这类的事故,就必然会引起各国科学家们的注意。 1955年2月19日,在意大利热那亚港发生了一件巨大的外堤破坏事故。那时苏联专家A.A.卡斯巴申(A.A.Каспарсон)还在我院工作,在他的建议下,在我们的实验室内进行了模型试验以研究热那亚港外堤的破坏原因。 在实验中,我们观察和分析了外堤的许多破坏现象,根据这些观察和分析,我们可以把破坏按其现象分成二类:即长波破坏和短波破坏。而热那亚港的破坏事故则属于第二类。 在这个实验中,我们还测了直立堤上的波压力。此外,为了增加外堤抵抗长波破坏的能力,我们还做了几个加强港侧基床的试验。

     
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