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land
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  土地
    Research on Land Resources Allocation and Sustainable Development in China
    中国土地资源配置与可持续发展研究
短句来源
    Research on Key Technologies of Land Use Monitoring by Remote Sensing and Its Application--A Case Study of Poyang Lake Region in Jiangxi
    土地利用遥感监测的关键技术及其应用研究——以江西鄱阳湖地区为例
短句来源
    The Effects of Agricultural Land Use on Biodiversity and Change of Soil Organic Carbon in North China Plain
    华北平原农业土地利用对生物多样性和土壤有机碳变化的影响研究
短句来源
    The Decision-Tree Method for Extracting Changing Information of Land Use/Cover Based on Remote Sensing
    遥感土地利用/土地覆盖变化信息提取的决策树方法
短句来源
    Study on Regional Land Use Change and Its Analytical Methodology
    区域土地利用变化及其分析方法研究
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    APPLICATION OF EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT SCHEME OF EVENNESS DESIGN IN FERTILIZER TEST ON NURSERY LAND
    均匀设计试验布点方案在苗圃土壤施肥研究中应用初探
短句来源
    Study on the Impact of Hillslope Land Development in Taipei City on Hydro-environment in the Lower Reaches
    台北市山坡之开发特性与其对下游水文环境冲击之研究
短句来源
    Delineation of Potential Landslide Regions on Hillslope Land of Hsing-Yi District in Taipei City
    台北市信义区山坡潜在崩坍区划定之研究
短句来源
    Results showed that sediment yielded from slope chiefly come from arable land and bare land located at slope,and the quantity of sediment yielded from arable land located at the slope above 25°accounted for about 50% of the total sediment yielded from slope.
    结果表明,当坡面流失的泥沙主要来源于坡耕和裸,25°以上陡坡耕侵蚀的泥沙量,约占坡面产沙总量的50%。
短句来源
    Land cover types had significant effects on sediment yield of slope. At the same time,the amount of sediment could be decreased 71.05%-95.58% if the forest cover rate reached 70%-80%.
    土覆被状况对于泥沙的产生有重要影响,同等条件下,若林覆被率达到70%~80%,则能够减少71.05%~95.58%的泥沙产生量。
短句来源
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  耕地
    A Design and Application of Systemic Cultivated Land Quality Evaluation System
    系统化耕地质量评价体系的构建与应用
短句来源
    Experiment of the evaluation on the benefits of soil and water conservation measures for slope land Ⅱ.mathematical models of water and sediment retaining benefits by soil and water conservation measures on slope land
    黄土高原坡耕地水土保持措施效益评价试验研究 (Ⅱ)坡耕地水土保持措施蓄水拦泥效益数学模型研究
短句来源
    Experiment of the evaluation on benefits of soil and water conservation measures for slope land——Ⅰ.effect of soil and water conservation measures on the infiltration of rainfall ln slope land
    黄土高原坡耕地水土保持措施效益评价试验研究 (Ⅰ)坡耕地水土保持措施对降雨入渗的影响
短句来源
    Experiment of the evaluation on benefits of soil and water conservation measures for slope land Ⅲ. evaluation to the comprehensive benefits of soil and wafer conservation measures on slope land
    黄土高原坡耕地水土保持措施效益评价试验研究 (Ⅲ)坡耕地水土保持措施综合效益评价
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    Analysis on Ways to Improve Slope Land and Their benefits
    坡耕地改造途径及其效益分析
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  “land”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Experimental Study on Transport of Phosphorus and Water in Soil from Sloping Land
    坡地土壤磷素与水分迁移试验研究
短句来源
    Study on Land Surface Soil Moisture Retrieval Method with ERS Wind Scatterometer Over Tibetan Plateau
    基于ERS散射计数据的青藏高原土壤水分估算方法研究
短句来源
    An Analysis of Matter Cycles in Rainfed Land Agroecosystem in Dingxi County
    定西县旱农生态系统中物质循环的分析
短句来源
    THE CHARACTERISTICS OF UNCULTIVATED LAND RESOURCES OF CANJIANG MOUNTAIN-HILL REGION AND THE WAYS FOR DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION
    赣江山地丘陵荒地资源的特征与开发利用方向
短句来源
    On the problems of preservation, development and utilization of water resources for irrigation of arid land
    谈干旱地区灌木资源的保护培育和开发利用问题
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  land
Our study indicates that the model can be applied to study the interaction between land surface processes and atmospheric boundary layers over various underlying surfaces and their regional climate effects.
      
Regularities of wind-erosion of different land-use types in Yongding River sandy land, Beijing
      
The threshold wind velocity of a number of variables was studied in four different land-use types: farm land, forestland, wild grassland and a flood plain in the Yongding River sandy land in Beijing.
      
The following conclusions were drawn: 1) The order of decreasing threshold of wind speed for sand displacement and surface roughness were forestland, wild grassland, farm land, sparse wild grassland and flood plain.
      
At a height of 0-20 cm, the height increased while the sediment discharge percent of sand flux decreased; there were significant differences in the sand flow formation under different land-use types.
      
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On the basis of a series of soil survey made in the Hwaiho Valley(淮河流域),a plan on land classification for this area has been proposed asreferences for making arrangement in establishing irrigation systems,inland utilization,as well as in soil improvement.Three fundamental principles are considered to be important on landclassification,i.e.(1)the practices in soil improvement must be consideredin connection with those in land utilization,(2)the land classificationshould be considered on land...

On the basis of a series of soil survey made in the Hwaiho Valley(淮河流域),a plan on land classification for this area has been proposed asreferences for making arrangement in establishing irrigation systems,inland utilization,as well as in soil improvement.Three fundamental principles are considered to be important on landclassification,i.e.(1)the practices in soil improvement must be consideredin connection with those in land utilization,(2)the land classificationshould be considered on land utilization both of the present day and of thefuture time,and(3)the main factors and criteria adopted for landclassification must be appropriate to the particular regional conditions.The main factors used in land classification of the Hwaiho Valley aresuggested as follows:(1)soil types together with their physical andchemical properties,(2)geomorphological characteristics,(3)depth andchemical composition of ground water,(4)present status and furtherimprovement in drainage and irrigation,(5)present status in land utiliza-tion and estimate on soil productivity,and(6)fundamental problems inthe promotion of soil fertility.According to the factors just mentioned,a system of land classificationhas been proposed for the Hwaiho Valley where the land may be classifiedinto seven main types.

淮河流域土壤改良利用分区的目的是供水利方面选择灌区和初步计划灌溉设施及农业方面确定农业区划和改进农业技术措施的参考。分区的基本原则有三:第一,土壤改良必须与利用规划结合,其次分区应注意综合性、长远性和现实性,第三划区的主要因素和标准必须符合地区的特点。淮河流域土壤改良利用分区的主要参考因素为(1)土壤发生分类和主要理化性质,(2)地貌,(3)地下水的深度、矿化度及化学组成,(4)灌溉排水现状及需要改进的情况,(5)土地利用现状及对生产的评价,(6)提高土壤生产力的关键性问题。

After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground...

After soil survey of the whole region,it is found that the soils of the North China Great Plain consist of four great soil groups including drab soil,light meadow soil,glei swamp soil and saline soil.The term“calcareous alluvial soils” formerly used hardly interprets any mean of soil formation and productive cha- racteristics. The drab soils formerly named as“Shangtung brown soils”are generally located on the alluvial fan and the foot of mountains.Owing to the higher relief,excess drainage and deeper ground water(below 4—6 meters),saliniza- tion is not found.The drab soil is neutral to slightly alkaline in reaction. The chemical data show no evidence of chemical decomposition of clay,but the disintegration of soil particles-clay formation is quite obvious.Along the foot of Taihang range,the drab soils are covered with new calcareous material and bring out the process of recalcification shown by the presence of pseudo- mycelins in the Soil profiles. Light meadow soils are generally distributed in the alluvial plain with higher ground water table laying at 2—3 meters.Owing to the frequency of the fluc- tuation of the ground water in the soil profile,oxidation and reduction are alternately carried out and lots of rusts and mottlings are found in the soil profile of these soils.Under intensive cultivation,the surface soil of light meadow soil is usually loose and mellow and contains lower content of organic matter. The glei swamp soils are formed by the lakeside and in the depressed lowlands where ground water table is quite shallow and sometimes close up to the sur- face.In the depressed lands contacted with mountain foot,longer duration of water-lodging produces strongly gleyed swamp soil with higher content of humus. In the depressed portion of alluvial plain,the temporary water-lodging gives weakly gleyed swamp soil with low content of humus,whilst the strongly gleyed soils are found in the depressed land along seacoast. Salinization of soils is influenced by the ground water and relief.Saline soils are usually distributed in the lowland with higher ground water table and higher mineral content of the water.Irrigation without drainage system will rise ground water table and causes the process of secondary salinization. Saline soils of North China plain may be divided into two subtypes:(1) Saline soil of alluvial plain and(2)Saline soils along the seacoast.The former belongs to the chloride-sulfate saline soils in which the ground water table is about 1.5—2.0 meters and the mineral content of the ground water is about 1—3 grams/liter.In the coastal region,the chloride saline soils are usually found with high ground water table at 1.0—1.5 meter and also high mineral content more than 10 grams/liter.The transitional belt between these two soils above-mentioned is sulfate-chloride saline soils where the ground water table is around 1.5 meter and the mineral content of ground water is 5—10 grams/liter. These four genetic soil types are closely related each other and also alternate between themselves.It is very interesting to study the transitional types among these four soil groups. Between drab soils and light meadow soils,the transitional soil types as meadow drab soils and drab meadow soils are formed under different transitional circumstances.The meadow drab soil is distributed at the bottom of alluvial fan with higher ground water table(1.5—3 meters),while the drab meadow soil is formed on the old riverbed in the alluvial plain with comparatively uplifting relief where the ground water table becomes deeper(3—3.5 meters). Many transitional soil types are also developed between the light meadow soils and glei swamp soils.The worse water lodging condition enforces the meadow soil transfering to glei swamp soil,whilst promotion of water condi- tion by diking drainage cannel or local silting up of lowlands causes the trans- formation of glei swamp soil in to light meadow soil or even to the drab soil. Salinization of soil is always accompanied with the formation of light meadow soil.Rising the ground water table and increasing the mineral content of ground water will induce or enforce the process of sainization of soils.On the other side,desalinization of soils can be carried out when the ground water table becomes lower.When the seatide is shut by dikes and the drainage condition is improved,the saline soil in the coastal region will be transfered to the light meadow soils.

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有机质的积累则...

经过一年多的大规模调查,证实了华北平原的土壤都具有不同的类型和不等程度的发育,其中包括很多土类、亚类和变种,过去简称华北平原土壤为“石灰性冲积土”,是很难反映情况和说明问题的。华北平原的主要成土过程有褐土过程、浅色草甸土过程、沼泽过程和盐土过程。褐土多发育于山麓及冲积扇形地上,地势较高,排水良好,地下水埋藏较深,约在4—6米以下。在降水淋洗之下,可溶盐类皆被淋失,不发生盐演化现象,土壤只及于粘化作用,pH 值多属中性至微碱性。太行山麓的褐土因受石灰性沉积物的覆盖,发生次生碳酸盐化作用,土壤剖面中有假菌丝体存在。浅色草甸土多分布于冲积平原,其形成过程受地下水的影响极显著。地下水埋藏深度约2—3米,也可达4—5米。由于地下水升降频繁,氧化还原作用交替进行,土壤中呈现显明的锈纹斑,但无假菌丝体。土壤疏松多孔而有结构性,因土壤中有机质较少、土色浅淡而多受人为耕作的影响,故称耕种浅色草甸土。洼地及湖淀附近,地下水埋藏较浅或地表积水,土壤发生沼泽化过程。山麓交接洼地,积水时期长久,潜育作用及腐殖质积累均较显著。平原中洼地比较平坦,积水时间亦较短,腐殖质积累和潜育作用都较轻微。海滨洼地中,潜育作用较为剧烈,但有机质的积累则不一致,水浅处的有机质积累较多。因地形及地下水的情况不同,土壤盐渍程度各地不一。盐渍土多发生于山前交接洼地、碟形洼地边缘,以及槽状洼地和地上河流的两侧。有些灌区由于缺乏合理的灌排系统和灌溉制度,土壤发生了次生盐演化现象。华北平原盐渍土可分为内陆及海滨两种:内陆盐渍土多属氯化物硫酸盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5—2.0米,地下水矿化度约1—3克/升;海滨盐土区多属氧化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.0—1.5米,地下水矿化度大于10克/升;过渡地带(即海滨盐土与内陆盐土的过渡地带)的盐渍土多属硫酸盐氯化物盐土,地下水埋藏深度约1.5米左右,地下水矿化度5—10克/升。华北平原中的四个主要成土过程是互相联系,而且有过渡阶段的。褐土和浅色草甸土的形成条件,主要在于排水情况和地下水位的不同。所以这两种土壤分布毗鄰而有互相过渡的发展情况。扇形地中下部,地面排水尚好而地下水埋藏较浅(1.5—3米),褐土区中可发育浅色草甸褐土。在泛盐平原中地势相对高起的黄河故道或靠近冲积扇地区,地下水埋藏较深(3.5—5米),可发育褐土化浅色草甸土。泛溘平原中的洼地积水愈久,沼浑化过程愈强,可由沼泽化浅色草甸土过渡至浅色草甸沼泽土或沼泽土。但经人工挖沟排水或洼地淤平以后,土壤可由沼泽土转向浅色草甸过程或褐土过程发展。浅色草甸土中如地下水埋藏浅而矿化度高,则土壤可向盐土方向发展。海滨盐土如不再受海潮影响和改善排水情况,则土壤也可由盐土向浅色草甸土发展。

Mechanical properties of soil including resistance to pressure, shearing, and deformation, internal pressure in relation to soil moisture content were studied with model experiment of paddy soils in rice stubble field and in wheat stubble field under laboratory condition. The mechanical strength of paddy soil in rice stubble field changed greatly with changing soil moisture content.This is due to a rapid development of attraction of molecular resulting from intensive shrinkage. Paddy soils in wheat stubble field,...

Mechanical properties of soil including resistance to pressure, shearing, and deformation, internal pressure in relation to soil moisture content were studied with model experiment of paddy soils in rice stubble field and in wheat stubble field under laboratory condition. The mechanical strength of paddy soil in rice stubble field changed greatly with changing soil moisture content.This is due to a rapid development of attraction of molecular resulting from intensive shrinkage. Paddy soils in wheat stubble field, however, were found to show less change in this respect. When soil moisture content was high, the internal friction of clay soil approached zero. Its shearing strength was effected by soil cohesion only and its internal friction increased with the change of texture from heavy to light. When soil moisture content dropped, the internal friction of all the soils studied increased rapidly and was effected by the strength of aggregates and the degree of roughness of the shearing surfaces. When soil moisture dropped to the lower part of plasticity, fragility of soil began to occur, but a certain degree of plasticity and viscosity still remained. Fragility may occur at high content of soil moisture to soils with light texture and weak arrangement. As the change of a soil from plastic to solid is a continuous process, a larger range of soil moisture content should be allowed for the demarcation between a plastic and a solid soil. Since the internal pressure of the paddy soil in rice stubble field increased rapidly upon decrease of soil moisture content, especially so in the case of clay paddy soil. Hence, for cultivation on such soils a higher optimum soil moisture content is suggested for the main purpose of tillage and to minimize soil plasticity and viscosity. On account of this, it is necessary to have the plow to form soil blocks of smaller primary shear planes, to have a higher speed of plowing, to have the land plowed twice, first far in advance of planting and then immediately before planting, and to have a larger contact surface between soil and tire so as to increase the draft force of the tractor.

在实验室条件下,模拟稻茬和麦茬两种土壤状况,研究了抗机械强度、变形性质和内压力三者与土壤含水量的关系。稻茬田土壤抗机械强度随含水量变化的曲线的坡度很大,麦茬田则较小。前者因强烈收缩使分子引力很快发展之故。粘质土壤的内摩擦力,在含水量大时接近于零,抗剪强度只决定于内聚力,质地变轻内摩擦力微有呈现。含水量降低各种土壤内摩擦力增加快,并受土壤剪断面的粗糙度和团聚体强度所影响。土壤含水量降低到塑性下部,土壤脆性开始形成,但仍有一定的塑性和粘滞性,土壤质地变轻及垒结疏松时,土壤的脆性能够在更高的含水量范围内产生。土壤塑性体与固体的转变是渐次过渡的,所以二者的分界应是一个较大的湿度范围。稻茬田土壤含水量降低内压力增加很快,特别是粘质水稻土。所以我们认为水稻土耕作时湿度不宜过低,克服水稻土的塑性和粘滞性是耕作上的首要任务。为此,犁要能使土壤形成较小的初剪面土块,耕速要大,在播种期前先耕翻,并于播种时复耕。同时为发挥机具的曳引力,其行走部分与土壤的接触面积宜大。

 
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