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birds
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  鸟类
     NEW RECORDS OF NON-PASSERINE BIRDS OF SZECHWAN
     四川省非雀形目鸟类的新记录
短句来源
     A SURVEY OF THE BIRDS IN SHANGHAI
     上海鸟类调查报告
短句来源
     STUDIES ON BIRDS FROM SOUTHERN YUNNAN Ⅱ.
     云南南部鸟类调查Ⅱ.
短句来源
     A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF BIRDS OF HUNAN PROVINCE PART Ⅱ. PASSERIFORMES
     湖南鸟类初步调查 Ⅱ.雀形目
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     New Records of Birds from Sinkiang
     新疆鸟类的新纪录
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     Flying as Birds——Review on the Bridge Design of Shanghai New Jiangwan City
     如斯革、如翚斯飞——上海新江湾城重点桥梁桥型设计探索
短句来源
     Molecular Characteristics of NA Gene of Caged Pet Birds H3N8 Influenza A Virus
     宠物H3N8亚型流行性感冒病毒NA基因分子特征性分析
短句来源
     Characterization of HA gene of caged pet birds H3N8 influenza A virus
     宠物H3N8亚型流感病毒HA基因的特征性分析
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     The ratio of adult to young and female to male is about 1∶2 and 2∶1 based on the aging of 1138 birds and sexing of 839 birds.
     年龄鉴定1138只,成与幼的比率约为1∶2,性别鉴定839只,雌与雄比率约为2∶1。
短句来源
     The Evolution of H5N1 Influenza Viruses among Wild Birds at Qinghai Lake in China
     青海湖野H5N1亚型禽流感病毒的遗传演化分析
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  “birds”译为未确定词的双语例句
     Two New Records of Chinese Birds from Southern Yunnan——Garrulax raficollis and Ptyonoprogne concolor
     中国鸟类的两个新纪录——栗颈噪鹛(Garrulax ruficollis)与纯色岩燕(Ptyonoprogne concolor)
短句来源
     ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS ON THE SOUTHERN HILLSIDE OF THE TSINLING MOUNTAINS
     秦岭南麓鸟类的生态分布
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     TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON BIRDS FROM SOUTHWESTERN SZECHWAN AND NORTHWESTERN YUNNAN.PART I. NON-PASSERIFORMES
     四川西南与云南西北地区鸟类的分类研究 Ⅰ.非雀形目
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     TAXONOMIC STUDIES ON BIRDS FROM SOUTHWESTERNSZECHWAN AND NORTHWESTERN YUNNANPART Ⅱ. PASSERIFORMES: MUSCICAPIDAE
     四川西南与云南西北地区鸟类的分类研究 Ⅱ.雀形目:鹟科
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     STUDY ON BIRDS IN THE ALTAI OP XINJIANG 1. DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS
     新疆阿尔泰山鸟类的研究(Ⅰ)——鸟类的分布
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  birds
Independent-samples t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to find which variables were important for the birds' nest-site selection.
      
The proximity between forests and shrubs were also found to be important in providing refuge for the birds during winter.
      
Fruits foraging patterns and seed dispersal effect of frugivorous birds on Hippophae rhamnoides sinensis
      
Behaviors of 18 species of birds eating fruits of Hippophae rhamnoides spp.
      
Although ingestion processes of birds had some adverse effects on the seed germination of H.
      
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The present paper deals with the third stage larvae of synanthropic flies col-lected from Shanghai District. A general key is given, comprising 31 identifiedspecies and several undetermined species. The latter are keyed to the family orgenus only. The larvae of Fannia prisca Stein, Ophyra chalcogaster (Wd.), and the pupaeof Graphomyia rufitibia Stein, and Musca convexifrons Thoms. are described for thefirst time. 1. Fannia prisca Stein (fig. 2) Third stage larva: The sculptures of the cuticle of the ventral...

The present paper deals with the third stage larvae of synanthropic flies col-lected from Shanghai District. A general key is given, comprising 31 identifiedspecies and several undetermined species. The latter are keyed to the family orgenus only. The larvae of Fannia prisca Stein, Ophyra chalcogaster (Wd.), and the pupaeof Graphomyia rufitibia Stein, and Musca convexifrons Thoms. are described for thefirst time. 1. Fannia prisca Stein (fig. 2) Third stage larva: The sculptures of the cuticle of the ventral side of theabdominal segments are scale like, those on the posterior one fourth being moreregular. On the same side of segments IV-VII are 2 large non-pediculate strawberrylihe sub-lateral processes, in addition to 6 small ones transversely arranged nearthe posterior border of each segment. The basal portion of the marginal fleshyprocesses of the 8th abdominal segment are provided with bifurcated short branches.The anterior spiracle possesses 9 finger-shaped processes radiating in a fan-likemanner. The pediculate posterior spiracle is provided with 3 rather long processes,on the tip of which the spiracular slit opens. These characteristics when used incombination are sufficient to distinguish this species from F.canicularis (L.) andF. scalaris (F.). In nature, the larvae are chiefly found in decaying Vegetable matter, such asheaps of vegetable leaves in garden or in garbages; occasionally they occur on de-caying animal matter as well as animal and human feces. In the laboratory, thelarvae can be reared easily in dregs from bean curd manufacture. 2. Graphomyia rufitibia Stein (figs. 3, 4) Pupa: Puparium brown, spindle shaped, tapering on both ends. Posterior surfaceof 8th abdominal segment very small, with 3 pairs of posterior processes. Posteriorspiracles small, elliptical, with spiracular slits slightly sinuous and subparallel toeach other. In the anal region are 2 anal, 2 subanal, 2 extra-anal tubercles and asingle preanal protuberance. With the exception of the anal tubercles the remainingtubercles and protuberance are provided with minute spines. Anal plate rather small,the lateral portion gently bent backwards. Anterior spiracle with 5 rounded digits.The general appearance of the bucco-pharyngeal apparatus is similar to the Phaonia type. Egg: The egg has broad dorsal flanges, which run nearly parallel, well separa-ted to each other, and with a bluntly serrated margin. This also suggests that thegenus Graphomyia is closely related to phaoniine flies. The pupae were found twice in garbage heaps. 3. Ophyra chalcogaster (Wd.) (fig.6) Third stage larva: Resembles to O. leucostoma (Wd.), but differing in the fol-lowing points: Anterior margin of the anal plate rounded and oblique to theposterior border of the segment before it, but the posterior margin is curved in-wardly, with the effect that the endings of the plate are directed slightly caudad.In O. leucostoma (Wd.), however, both the anterior and the posterior margins of theanal plate run parallel to the segment border. Near the posterior border of theabdominal segments are 1-2 rows of closely set series of minute spinules. In O.leucostoma (Wd.), these spinules are larger and are irregularly arranged. The larvae breed chiefly in feces of domesticated birds or animals and also ingarbages. 4. Musca convexifrons Thoms.(fig.9) Pupa: Puparium brownish grey. The posterior spiracles are heavily chitinizedwith much sinuously convoluted spiracular slits. There are no spinules along thedorsal grooves of the 8th abdominal segment. The lateral portion of the anal plateis square shaped. On the ventral pads of the abdominal segments is a row of largespines, which is interrupted in the middle. On each side of the row are smallerspines arranged in 2 definit rows arteriorly, but are arranged irregularly posteriorly.Anterior to the anterior margin of the anal plate below the square shaped lateral.portion is an isolated single row of minute spines. As a whole the characteristics as given above are very similar to those givenby Zimin (1948) for the larva of M. larvipara Portsch. In fa

本文用检索表的方式报告了采自上海的50多种与人类杂处的常见蝇类和其他双翅类的幼虫鉴别特征;其中34种(内3种非上海产)有种的鉴别特征,其余的有些仅鉴别到属、亚科或科。对过去还未见记载的元厕蝇和斑跖黑蝇的幼虫、以及绯胫纹蝇和突额家蝇的蛹的形态,文内作了必要的描述。从绯胫纹蝇的口咽器和卵的形态看来,纹蝇属是与棘花蝇类很近缘的。

1. The present paper is a preliminary report on the biological investigationof chiggers infesting chicken during 1954-1956. 2. According to our investigation, together with all the avallable literature onthe subject, 6 species, in 2 genera, of chicken chiggers have so far been recordedin this country. Among them, Neoschongastia gallinarum is widely distributedin Fukien, Chekiang, Anhwei, Taiwan, Shantung, Honan, Kiangsu, Hupeh, Kiangsi,Szechwan and Shanghai. Trombicula deliensis was found in Yunnan and N. posekanyi,N....

1. The present paper is a preliminary report on the biological investigationof chiggers infesting chicken during 1954-1956. 2. According to our investigation, together with all the avallable literature onthe subject, 6 species, in 2 genera, of chicken chiggers have so far been recordedin this country. Among them, Neoschongastia gallinarum is widely distributedin Fukien, Chekiang, Anhwei, Taiwan, Shantung, Honan, Kiangsu, Hupeh, Kiangsi,Szechwan and Shanghai. Trombicula deliensis was found in Yunnan and N. posekanyi,N. americana solomonis were found only in Fukien, whereas Trombicula akamushiand T. corvi were accidentanlly discovered in Taiwan. With the exception of therecord from Kiangsu and Anhwei Provinces, the above-indicated distribution ofN. gallinarum, N. posekanyi, N. americana solomonis on the Chinese mainlandis supposed to be the first report made. 3. As the external parasites of birds, N. gallinarum, N. posekanyi, and N.americana solomonis possess no strict host-specificity, they have commonly beenfound as natural parasites of different species of wild and domestic birds in thecourse of our 2 years' survey. However, the discovery of the common magpie(Picapica sericea), siberian black-billed dipper (Cinclus pallaci), silver pheasant (Lophuranycthemera rufipes), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus amherstiae), big-billed crow(Corvus macrorhynchus), common turkey (Meleagris gallopavo), burmese pea-fowl(Pavo muticus imperator) and eastern turtle dove (Streptopelia decaocto) as naturalhosts of N. gallinarum, and the common turkey as the natural hosts of N. pose-kanyi, are new records. With the exception of the common turkey, it should beemphasized that reports regarding other birds as natural hosts of chiggermitesand the infestation of N. posekanyi and N. americana solomonis among domesticfowls has been vague in literature. 4. Attempts have been made to discuss the sources and factors of infestation,breeding place, distribution, disease relations and damages of N. gallinarum. 5. A preliminary observation of the seasonal distribution of N. gallinarum wasmade and it was found that in East China the difference is not very conspicuous.They are distributed between March and December, being more active and causingmuch damage during June to October. 6. Due to the peculiar characteristics of the pathological picture caused by thebite of the chicken chiggers, the name--"Chicken Chigger Pox"--is herewithproposed for this infestation to distinguish it from viral-borne chicken pox. 7. The damage caused by the chicken chiggers is always very serious in thiscountry, and yet very little attention was paid by the veterinary workers in protectingchickens against the infestation. The present paper emphasize the importance offurther and more intensive study of the mite, especially in the course of our nation-wide socialistic transformation.

1.本文初步总结1954—1956年间所作有关我国鸡体恙螨在生物学方面观察的结果。 2.根据我们的调查,前人的记录和所获的资料,共知我国能见于鸡体的恙螨幼虫有2属6种,其中鸡新勋恙螨广泛存在于福建、浙江、安徽、台湾、山东、河南、江西、湖北、四川及上海等省市。扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种仅见于福建省,地里恙螨见于云南省,而红恙螨及鸦恙螨则偶见于台湾。我国大陆上除江苏、安徽两省以外,其它地区有上述3螨种的存在为国内之首次报告。 3.鸡新勋恙螨、扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种属多宿主的恙螨,两年来在上述地区的多种禽鸟间常见有该3种恙螨幼虫的自然寄生,其中喜鹊、河乌、白鹇、土绶鸡、绿孔雀、灰斑鸠、白腹绵鸡、乌鸦可为鸡新勋恙螨,及土绶鸡可为扑氏新勋恙螨幼虫的自然宿主系首次记录。上述禽鸟中,除土绶鸡体已有恙螨幼虫寄生的报告外,其它鸟类可以作为恙螨幼虫的自然宿主及扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种的幼虫在家鸡体的寄生,国内外尚无文献的记载。 4.本文就鸡新勋恙螨的感染因素,感染来源,孳生和流行,危害及其与疾病的关系等加以讨论。 5.以鸡新勋恙螨的季节分布作了初步的观察,测知在华东诸省境内鸡新勋恙螨的发生与消...

1.本文初步总结1954—1956年间所作有关我国鸡体恙螨在生物学方面观察的结果。 2.根据我们的调查,前人的记录和所获的资料,共知我国能见于鸡体的恙螨幼虫有2属6种,其中鸡新勋恙螨广泛存在于福建、浙江、安徽、台湾、山东、河南、江西、湖北、四川及上海等省市。扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种仅见于福建省,地里恙螨见于云南省,而红恙螨及鸦恙螨则偶见于台湾。我国大陆上除江苏、安徽两省以外,其它地区有上述3螨种的存在为国内之首次报告。 3.鸡新勋恙螨、扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种属多宿主的恙螨,两年来在上述地区的多种禽鸟间常见有该3种恙螨幼虫的自然寄生,其中喜鹊、河乌、白鹇、土绶鸡、绿孔雀、灰斑鸠、白腹绵鸡、乌鸦可为鸡新勋恙螨,及土绶鸡可为扑氏新勋恙螨幼虫的自然宿主系首次记录。上述禽鸟中,除土绶鸡体已有恙螨幼虫寄生的报告外,其它鸟类可以作为恙螨幼虫的自然宿主及扑氏新勋恙螨、美洲新勋恙螨所罗门亚种的幼虫在家鸡体的寄生,国内外尚无文献的记载。 4.本文就鸡新勋恙螨的感染因素,感染来源,孳生和流行,危害及其与疾病的关系等加以讨论。 5.以鸡新勋恙螨的季节分布作了初步的观察,测知在华东诸省境内鸡新勋恙螨的发生与消降情况差异不大。其季节分布为3—12月共占10

Department of parasitology, First Shanghai Medical College The damages that chickens and other poultry suffer from the infestation of Neoschongastia gallinarum larvae are quite serious. It has been found, according to our surveys made since 1954, that N. gallinarum is widely distributed in this country and the infestation rate among the fowls and other land birds is very high. The present paper is a preliminary report on the study of the effects of temperature and moisture on the viability of N. gallinarum...

Department of parasitology, First Shanghai Medical College The damages that chickens and other poultry suffer from the infestation of Neoschongastia gallinarum larvae are quite serious. It has been found, according to our surveys made since 1954, that N. gallinarum is widely distributed in this country and the infestation rate among the fowls and other land birds is very high. The present paper is a preliminary report on the study of the effects of temperature and moisture on the viability of N. gallinarum larvae under the conditions established in the laboratory. N. gallinarum larvae persist to live: (1) 18±1℃ & RH 73% for 26 hours and 20 minutes; (2) 26—29℃ & RH 50—52% for 12 hrs.;(3) 34±1℃ RH 50% for 9 hours; (4) 40±1℃ & RH 45% for 5 1/2 hrs.; (5) 45±1℃ & RH 37% for 2 hrs. and 40 mins.; (6) 50±1℃ & RH 34% for 100 mins.; (7) 56±1℃ & RH 30% for 40 mins.; (8) 61±1℃ & RH 28.5% for 10 mins. Besides, when kept in water, unengorged A. gallinarum larvae were found to survive in the temperature of 28±1℃, 34±1℃, 40±1℃, 50±1℃, 56±1℃, 61±1℃, 65±1℃; for 77 days, 29 days, 26 days, 10 hrs., 40 mins., 40 mins, and 20 mins, respectively. Furthermore the development of the larva to nymphal stage was observed in the above stated temperature especially in the temperature below 40±1℃. N. gallinarum larvae is comparatively resistant to freezing temperature. It is viable in temperatures of 0℃, -5℃, -10±1℃ for 32, 23 and 3 days respectively. With reference to the adaptation of the N. gallinarum larvae toward sudden changes of temperature, the distribution, the epidemiology, as well as the prevention of the "chicken chigger pox" are concisely discussed in this paper.

1.本文就鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在不同温湿度,不同温度的水,及低温等不同环境中的生活力作一初步研究。 2.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在18±1℃,相对湿度73%;26—29℃,相对湿度50—52%;34±1℃,相对湿度50%;40±1℃,相对湿度45%;45±1℃,相对湿度37%;50±1℃,相对湿度34%;56±1℃;相对湿度30%;61±1℃,相对湿度28.5%时分别可活26小时20分;12小时;9小时;5 1/2小时;2小时40分;100分;40分;10分。说明幼虫有相对的抗旱性能。 3.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在28±1℃;34±1℃;40±1℃;50±1℃,56±1℃;61±1℃;65±1℃的水中,未饱食的幼虫分别可活77天;29天;26天;10小时;40分;40分;20分钟。幼虫虽然在上列的温度中或经过該温度处理后尚能具有发育为稚虫的能力,尤以40±1℃以下为显见,由此可知幼虫对高湿度适应的性能。 4.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在0℃;-5℃;-10±1℃时分别可活32天;23天;3天。也说明了它的御寒能力。 5.基于上述的秸果,鸡新勋恙螨幼虫都是在室温中迅速转变为高温或低温的情况下就产生这样快的适应力,故就它在鸡螨痘病的流行、发生及防治...

1.本文就鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在不同温湿度,不同温度的水,及低温等不同环境中的生活力作一初步研究。 2.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在18±1℃,相对湿度73%;26—29℃,相对湿度50—52%;34±1℃,相对湿度50%;40±1℃,相对湿度45%;45±1℃,相对湿度37%;50±1℃,相对湿度34%;56±1℃;相对湿度30%;61±1℃,相对湿度28.5%时分别可活26小时20分;12小时;9小时;5 1/2小时;2小时40分;100分;40分;10分。说明幼虫有相对的抗旱性能。 3.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在28±1℃;34±1℃;40±1℃;50±1℃,56±1℃;61±1℃;65±1℃的水中,未饱食的幼虫分别可活77天;29天;26天;10小时;40分;40分;20分钟。幼虫虽然在上列的温度中或经过該温度处理后尚能具有发育为稚虫的能力,尤以40±1℃以下为显见,由此可知幼虫对高湿度适应的性能。 4.鸡新勋恙螨幼虫在0℃;-5℃;-10±1℃时分别可活32天;23天;3天。也说明了它的御寒能力。 5.基于上述的秸果,鸡新勋恙螨幼虫都是在室温中迅速转变为高温或低温的情况下就产生这样快的适应力,故就它在鸡螨痘病的流行、发生及防治等方面加以分析和探讨。

 
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