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genetic
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  遗传
    Studies on the Genetic Diversity of Mongolian Wheatgrass(Agropyron mongolicum Keng)
    蒙古冰草(Agropyron mongolicum Keng)的遗传多样性研究
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    Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships Among Populations of the Leopard Cat(Felis bengalensis)
    豹猫(Felis bengalensis)的遗传多样性及系统发育研究
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    Molecular Ecological Studies on Genetic Vriation and Salt-Resistant Characteristics of several Species of Mangroves
    几种红树植物的遗传变异和抗盐特性的分子生态学研究
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    Study on the ecology and genetic structure of Larix chinensis population
    太白红杉种群生态及遗传结构研究
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    The Study on Genetic Variation and in Vitro Expression of Gene E2 of Classical Swine Fever Virus
    猪瘟病毒E2基因遗传变异及体外表达研究
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    Genetic Transformation of Carrot (Daucus carota L.) with ETEC Colonization Factor Antigen Gene CS3 and Construction of Virus-based Gene Vector for Expressing LTB-ST Fused Gene
    ETEC定居因子CS3对胡萝卜的转化及肠毒素LTB-ST病毒表达载体的构建
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    Molecular Genetic Analysis of an Unusual DNA Modification in Streptomyces Lividans
    变铅青链霉菌DNA异常修饰系统的分子生物学研究
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    Risk Assessment of the Plant Genetic Engineering and the Safety Management
    植物基因工程的风险评估与安全管理研究
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    Construction, Expression, and Activity of a Genetic Engineered Anti-HER2/neu×Anti-CD16 Bispecific Antibody
    基因工程抗HER2/neu ×抗CD16双特异性抗体的构建、表达及其功能的初步研究
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    Study on Genetic Engineering of E Coli Chromosome Using the Recombineering System and a Novel Recombinant E.coli Vaccine Vector
    用重组工程技术修饰E.coli染色体及建立新型重组疫苗载体研究
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  genetic
More particularly, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic methods seem to be the most promising tools to speed up and optimize the search for new leads and focused libraries.
      
Herein we describe the 3D QSAR study of 4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile by Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA).
      
In this paper a hybrid algorithm which combines the pattern search method and the genetic algorithm for unconstrained optimization is presented.
      
The algorithm is a deterministic pattern search algorithm, but in the search step of pattern search algorithm, the trial points are produced by a way like the genetic algorithm.
      
Novel Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Its Applications
      
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Crystalline needles and spindles of tropomyosins from the smooth muscles of pig stomach, pig urinary bladder, duck and goose gizzard, the striated muscle of crab (Eriocheir sinensis M. Edw.) and the adductor and foot muscles of bivalves (Anodonta pacifica Heude) and of paramyosins from the two last-mentioned muscles were examined under a HU-11 electron microscope. The samples were either stained with phosphotungstic acid or shadow-casted with Pt or Pt-Ir. All of these showed distinct cross striations. The banded...

Crystalline needles and spindles of tropomyosins from the smooth muscles of pig stomach, pig urinary bladder, duck and goose gizzard, the striated muscle of crab (Eriocheir sinensis M. Edw.) and the adductor and foot muscles of bivalves (Anodonta pacifica Heude) and of paramyosins from the two last-mentioned muscles were examined under a HU-11 electron microscope. The samples were either stained with phosphotungstic acid or shadow-casted with Pt or Pt-Ir. All of these showed distinct cross striations. The banded structure and the appearance of the tapering ends suggested that they were ordered, one-dimensional paracrystalline arrays, not true crystals with threedimensional regularity.The paracrystals of the tropomyosins investigated were all endowed with cross striations with a fundamental repeat period of n×200A, where n=1,2. The 400A period may or may not be accompanied by an intermediate line. These spacings were identical with those of the open-network lattice observed in true crystals of rabbit tropomyosin.The patterns of paracrystals of duck or goose gizzard deserved special attention. In addition to the 400 A and 200 A periods or intraperiod spacings, a prominent 800A (n=4) period was often observed. It seemed not unlikely that 800A corresponded to the particle length of this tropomyosin. Shadow-casted specimens of paracrystals of Anodanta adductor tropomyosin also revealed axial periods of about 800 A.The patterns of the paracrystals of paramyosins obtained from the foot and adductor muscles of Anodonta resembled closely those obtained from the adductor muscles of its marine relatives reported in literature. There were 4 equally-spaced intraperiod lines in a period of about 700 A, the spacing of these lines being 140 A.Obtained in the presence of high salt concentrations, the paracrystalline arrays of the tropomyosins from the adductor and foot muscles of Anodonta differed significantly and interestingly from those obtained conventionally in the presence of low salt concentrations. Although the fundamental repeat of about 400 A remained the same, the intraperiod fine spacings changed now from the 200 A characteristic of tropomyosin to the 140 A characteristic of paramyosin.On the basis of electron microscopic periodicities, it was tentatively suggested that tropomyosin and paramyosin were two different kinds. of proteins. Nevertheless, when they co-existed in one and the same muscle, such as the adductor or foot muscle of Anodonta, the existence of some genetic relationship between the two may have to be reckoned with.

(一)自猪胃、猪膀胱平滑肌、鵝肫、鴨肫平滑肌、河蟹横紋肌和河蚌閉壳肌及斧足肌制备出原肌球蛋白的針状晶体,自河蚌的两种肌肉制备出副肌球蛋白的針状晶体,分別在电子显微鏡下观察其横紋結构与細节。(二)各种原肌球蛋白的針状晶体与河蚌的副肌球蛋白晶体相类,一般都不是具有三維規律性的真正晶体,而是具有横紋結构和整齐外形的纤維聚集物——类晶体。(三)各种原肌球蛋白类晶体的横紋周期,大都属于n×200A(n=1,2,…)数系,周期或为400A、或为200A。其具有400A周期的,有时伴有200A的細节。这些共同的特征与免原肌球蛋白真正晶体的三維网状周期相同。(四)鴨肫和鹅肫原肌球蛋白的类晶体中,除了400A,200A的横紋外,还出現800A(n=4)的周期,显示其分子长度可能至少不低于800A。(五)河蚌斧足肌和閉壳肌副肌球蛋白的类晶体,同海蚌一样,都具有周期約700A的横紋結构。条件适宜时,还可以在每一周期之間观察到4条横紋,細节間距为140A。(六)河蚌閉壳肌原肌球蛋白的类晶体中,也有接近800A的周期。(七)在高盐条件下所获得的河蚌斧足肌和閉壳肌原肌球蛋白的类晶体,与上述一般低盐条件下的类晶体不同,細节間距与副肌球蛋白...

(一)自猪胃、猪膀胱平滑肌、鵝肫、鴨肫平滑肌、河蟹横紋肌和河蚌閉壳肌及斧足肌制备出原肌球蛋白的針状晶体,自河蚌的两种肌肉制备出副肌球蛋白的針状晶体,分別在电子显微鏡下观察其横紋結构与細节。(二)各种原肌球蛋白的針状晶体与河蚌的副肌球蛋白晶体相类,一般都不是具有三維規律性的真正晶体,而是具有横紋結构和整齐外形的纤維聚集物——类晶体。(三)各种原肌球蛋白类晶体的横紋周期,大都属于n×200A(n=1,2,…)数系,周期或为400A、或为200A。其具有400A周期的,有时伴有200A的細节。这些共同的特征与免原肌球蛋白真正晶体的三維网状周期相同。(四)鴨肫和鹅肫原肌球蛋白的类晶体中,除了400A,200A的横紋外,还出現800A(n=4)的周期,显示其分子长度可能至少不低于800A。(五)河蚌斧足肌和閉壳肌副肌球蛋白的类晶体,同海蚌一样,都具有周期約700A的横紋結构。条件适宜时,还可以在每一周期之間观察到4条横紋,細节間距为140A。(六)河蚌閉壳肌原肌球蛋白的类晶体中,也有接近800A的周期。(七)在高盐条件下所获得的河蚌斧足肌和閉壳肌原肌球蛋白的类晶体,与上述一般低盐条件下的类晶体不同,細节間距与副肌球蛋白的相同,为140A,而非200A。(八)根据电子显微鏡下观察到的类晶体横紋周期和細节間距,可以初步推論:一般而言,原肌球蛋白和副肌球蛋白是两类而非一类的蛋白貭。但在两种蛋白貭共存的同一肌肉,如河蚌閉壳肌或斧足肌之中,它們之間还可能存在着一定的亲属关系。

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions....

The glutamic dehydrogenase(GDH)-positive mutant, B. subtilis IRC-3-N-1, produced alanine dehydrogenase(ADH)when grown in nutrient medium. The formation of ADH by this mutant was inductive in nature. The inducer for ADH synthesis was not restricted to the substrate of the enzyme. Aspartic acid, threonine, both enantiomorphs of alanine and pyruvate were all effective.During the fractionation of the enzymes, GDH and the induced ADH were coexistent in the same fraction and distributed in almost the same proportions. The inductive ADH was found to be indistinguishable from its constitutive form in the wild type in regard to electrophoretic mobility. Since inductive formation of ADH did not cause a corresponding decrease of the constitutive GDH and contrarily, inhibition of ADH synthesis did not bring about any change of the level of the GDH in the mutant cells, the possibility that GDH was converted metabolitically to ADH was ruled out.All the GDH-positive mutants including those obtained by nitrous acid treatment and those of spontaneous origin are capable of inductive synthesis of ADH.In view of the inducibility of ADH synthesis in the GDH-positive mutants and the foregoing data on the immunology of these two enzymes, it was assumed that the genetic transition of ADH to GDH was a result of the mutation of a regulatory gene concerned in the synthesis of ADH.

枯草杆菌B.subtilis IRC-3-N-1,GDH~+变种在营养培养基上生长时能产生ADH。这样合成的ADH是誘导性貭的。誘导物除了酶的底物,L-丙氨酸外,尚有DL-天門冬氨酸,DL-苏氨酸,D-丙氨酸与丙酮酸。将酶进行純化时,GDH与誘导性的ADH始終同时存在于每一步驟中,而且两者的比例不变。誘导性的ADH与野生型细菌的本貭性ADH在电泳移动率上沒有区別。由于ADH誘导形成时,并末观察到变种細胞內GDH的相应減少,同时抑制了ADH的誘导合成,并不引起GDH水平的变化,因之由后者直接轉变成前者的可能性并不存在。所有GDH~+变种,包括自亚硝酸誘发突变或自发突变来源的,都能誘导生成ADH。从以上这些試驗結果,以及以前关于ADH与GDH免疫学試驗的結果,作者們认为枯草杆菌中,由亚硝酸誘发突变而引起ADH轉換成GDH的原因是由于与ADH合成有关的調节基因发生突变的結果。

The present paper deals chiefly with a discussion on the problems of content ofinsect population dynamics, which have been generally classified under three categories,namely space, number, and time. Each of them has its own specific feature and bio-logical problem. However, there are certain interrelationships among them.Space is a place which consists of some ecological factors. The main subjects in theproblem of space dynamics are dispersal, distribution and the population differentiation.There are two types...

The present paper deals chiefly with a discussion on the problems of content ofinsect population dynamics, which have been generally classified under three categories,namely space, number, and time. Each of them has its own specific feature and bio-logical problem. However, there are certain interrelationships among them.Space is a place which consists of some ecological factors. The main subjects in theproblem of space dynamics are dispersal, distribution and the population differentiation.There are two types of population differentiation, namely, regional population and habi-tational population. With reference to the effect of changes in environmental factors onthe preservation and development of population characteristics, the author derives anidea of "Population develops under varying environment." On the analysis of population structure, except the population age, sex ratio and theratio of diapausing individuals, more attention is given to the genetic structure whichcorresponds with the variety of reproductive capacity and voltinism. The problem ofself-regulation in population fluctuation has also been discussed briefly. The continuity and the sequence of time are two main problems which have beendiscussed in this paper under the title of time dynamics. Time, not only a factor affec-ting the population dynamics but also one of the practical forms, has its own specificfeature and structure. Such feature and structure reflect the practicality of time dyna-mics. The characters of continuity and sequence conform to the way that population hasto follow, and the consequential interrelations between insect population and environment,in the progression of dynamics. In course of changes on population dynamics, the space, time and the number ofpopulation are all following their own proper orders in progression. But they are con-nected closely with some interrelationships existing among them. Such orders and rela-tionships construct the base of predication for the future of population. In addition,because any change on the population fluctuations has to be taken under a definitecombination of population structures and the functions of space and time, it makes pos-sible the complex phenomena of insect population fluctuations and distributions by use ofbiometric methods to work out the forecasts.

本文讨论了昆虫种群动态的内容,把种群动态概括地分为空简、数量与时间三个方面。生态学上的空简系具有实质结构的场所,种群空间动态主要包括扩散、分布及生态特性的地方分化。作者根据种群的特性保存及特性成长与变动环境的关系,提出了变境成长的概念。 数量结构除了种群年龄、性比、滞育体等指标外,并注意到与生殖力及化性(Voltinism)相联系的种群遗传结构。某些昆虫种群通过作用于繁殖及死亡的反馈机制,在一定程度上可以调节其数量,影响到种群的数量变动形式。 时间连贯性及时间序列系本文在种群时间动态中所讨论的两个主要问题,时间是作用种群动态的一个因素,具有一定的形态外貌,种群的时间外貌与结构反映了种群时间动态的现实性,时间的连贯及序列共同形成了种群动态在时间上的必然途径及其与环境因素相互之间的顺序关系。 空、数、时变化各沿着一定的序列进行,这些序列所以被看成是预测害虫动态的基础,系由于种群任一动态都是在一定的种群结构基础上,以及空间因素与时间因素特定联系的形式下发生的,不同的联系产生不同的生理生态学后果,因而使得此复杂的种群动态问题,有可能借助于生物数量方法,作出种群的数量及分布预测。

 
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