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genetic
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    AFLP Fingerprint analysis and Genetic Relationship among Eco-types of G.soja and G.max in China
    中国野生大豆与栽培大豆AFLP指纹分析及生态群体遗传关系研究
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    Genetic Diversity of Soybeans Germplasm on Cercospora sojina by RAPD and SSR
    大豆灰斑病种质资源遗传多样性的RAPD和SSR分析
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    The Studies on Constructing Expression Vector of Nematode Resistance Gene and Genetic Transformation
    抗线虫基因表达载体质粒构建和遗传转化研究
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    Studies on Genetic Basis of Heterosis for Yield in Upland Cotton
    棉花产量性状杂种优势的遗传基础研究
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    Analysis of Genetic Bases of Important Traits in Rice(Oryza sativa L.)
    水稻重要性状的遗传基础分析
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    The Studies on Constructing Expression Vector of Nematode Resistance Gene and Genetic Transformation
    抗线虫基因表达载体质粒构建和遗传转化研究
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    Floral organ structural characterization,genetic analysis and molecular tagging of genes for two mutants from rice
    两份水稻花器官突变体的解剖结构观察、性状遗传分析及相关基因的分子标记定位
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    Production of Transgenic Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Plants with Insectresisting gene via Three Optimized Genetic Transformation Systems
    优化三种遗传转化体系创造转抗虫基因小麦(Triticum aestivum)新种质
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    Studies on Genetic Transformation of Bivalent Fungi-resistant Genes into Soybean
    双价抗真菌病基因对大豆遗传转化的研究
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    Optimization of Tissue Culture System and Genetic Transformation of Bivalent Insect Resistant Genes in Soybean
    大豆组织培养体系优化与双价抗虫基因遗传转化的研究
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    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON QUANTITATIVE INHERITANCE OF HEVEA BRASILIENSIS. Ⅰ(a): ESTIMATES OF BROAD SENSE HERITABILITY AND GENETIC CORRELATION FOR SOME CLONES
    巴西橡胶数量遗传的初步研究 Ⅰ(a):多无性系广义遗传力与遗传相关的估算
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    A STUDY ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHARACTER INHERITANCE OF SUGARCANE Ⅱ. Cluster Analysis of F_1 Sugarcane Population in Their Genetic Distances
    甘蔗数量性状遗传的研究 Ⅱ.甘蔗F_1代群体的遗传距离和聚类分析
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    A study on the Inheritauce of Dwarfing Gene in Maize I. Genetic Effect of Dwarfing Gene and the Relationship Between the Dwarfing Grne and the Number of Nods, Length of Inter-Nod in Maize.
    玉米矮化遗传的研究——Ⅱ.矮化基因的遗传效应以及节间数和节间长度与矮化的关系
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    GENETIC ANALYSIS OF RESISTANCE OF WHEAT TO SCAB
    小麦抗赤霉病性遗传的初步分析
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    NUCLEO-CYTOPLASMIC GENETIC ANALYSIS OF FRACTION I PROTEIN AND ISOZYMES FROM HYBRID BETWEEN BARLEY AND WHEAT
    大、小麦亚族间杂种核质遗传的组分 Ⅰ蛋白和同工酶分析
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    STUDY ON INDEX SYSTEM AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS OF DROUGHT RESISTANCE IDENTIFICATION IN MAIZE
    玉米抗旱性鉴定指标体系及抗旱鉴定指标遗传特性的研究
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    Molecular Biology of the Wild Genetic Resources in Hordeum L.Native to China
    中国野生大麦种质资源分子生物学研究
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    Construction and Application of Genetic Transformation System for Sichuan Wheat Elite Cultivars
    四川小麦转基因技术体系构建及应用研究
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    Studies on the Regularity of PPO Activity of Potatoes and Anti-wounded-browning Genetic Engineering for Tubers
    马铃薯PPO活性变化规律及抗块茎损伤褐化的基因工程研究
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    Studies on Compositive Factors and Genetic Characters of Fiber Quality of Transgenic Insect-Resistant Hybrid Cotton
    转基因抗虫杂交棉纤维品质性状的构成因素和遗传特性的研究
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  genetic
More particularly, Genetic Algorithms, Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic methods seem to be the most promising tools to speed up and optimize the search for new leads and focused libraries.
      
Herein we describe the 3D QSAR study of 4-anilinoquinoline-3-carbonitrile by Genetic Function Approximation (GFA) and Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA).
      
In this paper a hybrid algorithm which combines the pattern search method and the genetic algorithm for unconstrained optimization is presented.
      
The algorithm is a deterministic pattern search algorithm, but in the search step of pattern search algorithm, the trial points are produced by a way like the genetic algorithm.
      
Novel Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Its Applications
      
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This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances...

This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances was inadequate to meet with the re-quirement of the normal development of the boll,it is difficult to obtain hybrids.In orderto promote the boll setting,pollinated maternal pollen grains ware applied on the stigmatawhich had been pollinated with paternal pollen grains several hours before.In this way,wegot the interspecific hybrids. 2.The interspecifie hybrids between these two species are physiologically abnormal.Thehybrids are highly sterile,either by selfing or by back crossing.The pollen grains of theUpland or Asiatic cotton may germinate on the stigma of the F_1 hybrids and the growing rateof their pollen tubes is also normal.Abnormality of the ovules may be the main cause forabortion.Most of the hybrid ovules have no embryo sacs.Occasionally a few ovules fertilized,but aborted during the development of embryoes.The chromosome number of the pollen mothercells of the F_1 hybrid,in general,is 39,or occasionally 52.The chromosome behaviour isirregular in meiosis,forming not only quartets,but also micronuclei.The percentage ofapparently well developed pollen grains is only 7.1% most of which are inviable too.The back-crosses either with the Upland or the Asiatic cotton as recurrent parent with F_1 hybrids aspollen parents are also with difficulty,because their pollen grains are highly abortive.3.The suitable concentration of sucrose in agar medium for artificial germination ofcotton pollen grains varies with cotton species:G.arboreum,34-35%,the Upland cotton,37-40%,and the Sea Island cotton,37-39%.4.By treating the mixed solution of 38% sucrose and a small amount of vitamin B1 onthe stigma of the F1 hybrid,the fertilization and development of the ovules may be promoted.The formation of the abcission layer of the stalk may be inhibited by the treatment of 5 p.p.m.2, 4-D linolin paste.By using the forementioned treatments,the fruiting percentage of theF_1 hybrids backcrossed with the Upland cotton rise up to 4.19%,even though there is only afew bolls with one mature seed,quite a number of them are seedless.Alternatively,by meansof repeated pollination,the fruiting percentage was 0.19%,and seeds are obtained.By usingG.arboreum L.as recurrent parent in backcrosses with the F_1 hybrids,the fruiting percentagerises up to 9.16%,but no seed has ever been obtained.5.For the purpose of improving the lint length and Ginning percentage,it is importantto choose the recurrent parent in the backcross with the F_1 hybrid.It may be ineffective forincreasing the number of backcrosses.6.The range of segregation of the lint length and ginning percentage of the backcrossprogeny,is wider in using F_1 hybrids as female parent than as males.Thus,it should beconcerned for selection of higher lint length and gining percentage.7.In the progeny of the interspecific hybrid of 1944 Combination,individual plants withgood economic characters were observed,such as lint length 41.3 mm.,ginning percentage 41.9%,hairiness,disease resistant,and early maturity,etc.By applying repeated selection of in-dividual plant,four desirable new strains were obtained:“Long Fibre No. 2,”“NankingCotton No.25,”“1003-7,”and “5161-2.”The characteristics of the “Long Fibre No.2”areearly maturity,long lint,single boll weight 5.28g.,fibre length 36 mm.,ginning percentage 31%,lint index 5.22g.,seed index 11.48g..The corresponding characters of the other varieties are:“Nanking Cotton No.25”:5.54g.,30-32 mm.,37-39%, 6.51g.,10.04g;“1003-7”:5.8g.,31,5mm.,38.6-39.18%,6.56g.,10.48g.;“5161-2”:5.20g.,30.31 mm.,39-39.7%,6.80g.,10.76g,respectively.

1.对陆地棉与中棉的杂种第一代和克服杂种第一代的不孕性进行研究,初步找出了不孕的原因和克服办法,为创造种间杂种,丰富育种材料,提供了可能。2.种间杂种遗传基础复杂,与具有优良性状多的陆地棉品种回交,获得许多超越亲本性状的新类型,可以选育出丰产、优质、抗病性强等的新品系。3.杂种第一代花粉母细胞染色体数,在同一花蕾上就有所不同,说明受精卵细胞在分裂的过程中已不正常,每一细胞的染色体数也不尽相同。

Heterosis and genetic variance component studies on 36 wheat crosses and 14 parentsrevealed that:1.Yield per plant,kernels per spike and kernel weight of F_1 hybrids showed a markedheterosis over mid-parental values by 20-30%.Plant height and date of heading ranked next,which averaged about 10% in magnitude,being negative in direction for heading date.Fertilespikelets per head manifested only a slight degree of heterosis.F_(1-)MP's for these characterswere highly significant as shown by t-tests.However,head...

Heterosis and genetic variance component studies on 36 wheat crosses and 14 parentsrevealed that:1.Yield per plant,kernels per spike and kernel weight of F_1 hybrids showed a markedheterosis over mid-parental values by 20-30%.Plant height and date of heading ranked next,which averaged about 10% in magnitude,being negative in direction for heading date.Fertilespikelets per head manifested only a slight degree of heterosis.F_(1-)MP's for these characterswere highly significant as shown by t-tests.However,head length,kernel weight per head andheads per plant showed,on the average,no heterosis.2.Variability of heterosis of these characters descended in the following order:yield perplant→heads per plant,fertile spikelets per head→kernel weight per head,kernel perhead→kernel weight→heading date→head length,plant height.3.Heritability estimates (in the broad sense) as analyzed from F_1 data were from highto low as follows:head length→plant height→kernel weight→kernel weight per head→kernel per head,fertile spikelets per head→heads per plant,yield per plant.4.Relative values of general comining ability (g.c.a.) from high to low were as follows:head length,fertile spikelets per plant→plant height,kernels per head→kernel weight perhead→kernel weight,heads per plant→yield per plant.For yield per plants,specific com-bining ability played an important role.5.There was a close relation between the general combining ability value and the cor-relation or regression coefficient of F_1 on m(?)d-parental values.The larger the g.c.a.value,the higher the correlation or regression coefficient,indicating that many characters of F_1 hybridswere determined to a certain extent by parental means.The r or b value became non-significantas the g.c.a.decreased below 40%.6.In predicting the breeding value of parents or hybrid combinations,actual performanceof F_1 hybrids should be emphasized first.The extent of heterosis might also be of value,sincea part of heterosis arisen from epistasis could be fixed in later generations.Mid-parentalvalues were of considerable importance.

本文通过优势和配合力的分析研究小麦亲本选配问题。试验表明:杂种第一代的一株粒重、一穗粒重、千粒重的优势最大,一般比两亲平均值大20—30%;其次为株高和抽穗期:其他穗部性状的优势很小或无显性。应用遗传变量成分分析法估算八个性状的配合力,在供试的亲本中,以穗长和结实小穗数的一般配合力为最大;株高、一穗粒数和一穗粒重次之;千粒重与一株穗数,一般配合力和特殊配合力所占的比重互有高低,因组合类型而异;一株粒重的一般配合力最小,它的特殊配合力占居主导地位。一般配合力大的性状,杂种与两亲平均值的相关或迴归系数也大。初步认为,在第一代对亲本或组合的评价,既要看杂种的实际表现,还要考虑它的优势,而以前者为主要依据;两亲平均值也有相当重要的意义。

An analysis of the components of variations and the estimation of four genetic para-meters,namely heritability,genetic correlation,genetic advance and selection index,in F_2population and F_3 progenies of six crosses between varieties of different ecolog cal type ofkeng rice,were made at the Institute Farm,Peking in 1962-1963.1.The heritabilities of important economic characters of rice as estimated from 4 differentmethods (heritability in the broad sense,regression of offsprings on parents,correlation...

An analysis of the components of variations and the estimation of four genetic para-meters,namely heritability,genetic correlation,genetic advance and selection index,in F_2population and F_3 progenies of six crosses between varieties of different ecolog cal type ofkeng rice,were made at the Institute Farm,Peking in 1962-1963.1.The heritabilities of important economic characters of rice as estimated from 4 differentmethods (heritability in the broad sense,regression of offsprings on parents,correlation be-tween them and variance analysis) showed a uniform tendency with the exception of grainsper ear and 200-grain weight.The heritability of heading days was the highest,those ofplant height and ear length ranked next,while those of sterility,ears per plant and ear weightper plant were among the lowest.2.Phenotypic,genotypic and environmental correlations among characters were calculated.In all instances,genotypic correlations were higher than the corresponding phenotypic corréla-tions,and both were of the same direction.The degrees of correlation between charactersvaried with different crosses.Thus,in Kwang-Fu No.1 & Foji-Saka No.5,correlations be-tween yield (ear weight per plant) and other characters were comparatively low;while with853 & Norin No.20,there were high geotypic correlations between yield on the one hand andheading days,plant height,ear length on the other hand.3.By selecting the 5% top or bottom performing F_3 progenies,the expected genetic pro-gress and its relative efficiency for plant height were the heighest in the cross Bih-Chieh 800granis & Norin No.20,being 17.88 cm.and -14.7% respectively;those of sterility were thehighest in Shui-Yuan 300 grain & Ping-Shah native variety,being -6.81 and -33.82% respec-tively.In the cross of 853 & Norin No.20,both genetic advance and its relative efficiencywere high for heading days,200-grain weight and yield (ear weight per plant).4.Selection of one character in hybrid population would simultaneously affect the geneticprogress of other characters.For example,through a 5% selection toward shortness for plantheight in Kwang-Fu No.1 & Foji-Soka No.5,the selected progenies showed earlier in ma-turity,had less grains per ear.5.A number of selection indexes were formulated.Using data on yield components;i.e.grains per ear,200-grain weight and ears per plant,the reliability of the expected geneticprogress in yield was 42% higher than that from straight selection for ear weight per plant.If the index was worked out on the basis of grains per ear and 200-grain weight,the relativeefficiency was 14% higher than on yield alone.Selection scores calculated from the most effec-tive selection index was used to evaluate the relative performance of superior progenies insome crosses.6.Experimental results revealed that the four genetic parameters mentioned above,wereeffective means for increasing the effectiveness of selection in the breeding programme of rice.

水稻性状遗传力的位次,在不同估算方法(广义法、迴归及相关法、变量分析法)间,除一穗粒数、粒重有出入外,其它几个性状都有一致的趋势,即抽穗日数最高,株高、穗长次之,空壳率、穗数及穗重最低。性状间的相关程度因组合而异,遗传相关一般高于表现型相关,两者的正负方向大体相同。性状遗传进度的大小决定于遗传力及遗传变异幅度,在5%选择强度下,性状的遗传进度,组合间有显著的差异。性状遗传进度间的相关表明,向矮稈选择时,后代会引起早熟、一穗粒数减少等现象。选择指数的效果因其构成而不同,应用具有较高效率的选择指数,分别算出各系统的综合评价点数,以判断系统的丰产价值。

 
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