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    A Single-Chip-Microprocessor Controlled 1 kW PV AC Pump
    单片机控制的1kW太阳能光伏交流水泵
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    THE STUDY OF TWO-PHASE DRIVING IN PV AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM
    光伏空调系统的两相正弦驱动研究
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    A 60kW DC CONTROL-ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR STAND-ALONE PV POWER STATION
    独立光伏电站60kW直流控制系统
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    THE STUDY OF A PV POWERED REFRIGERATOR SYSTEM
    太阳能光伏冰箱系统研究
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    THE TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATION OF PV SYSTEM
    光伏发电技术及应用
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    TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ANALYSIS FOR PV POWER SYSTEM WITH ENERGY STORAGE BATTERY
    太阳光发电蓄电池储能供电系统技术经济分析
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    PV Technology and Power Supply in the Remote Countryside in China
    光发电技术与我国偏远地区农村供电
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    SEEKING PV CURVES IN BULK POWER SYSTEM
    大型电力系统PV曲线的求取
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    TRACING POWER SYSTEM PV CURVES AND SEARCHING FOR BIFURCATION POINTS
    电力系统PV曲线的追踪与极值分叉点的确定
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    THE OPTIMIZATION DESIGN FOR 4kW WIND/PV HYBRID GENERATING SYSTEM IN TIBET
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Cloning and expression of a luxRhomologue from Xanthomonas oryzae pv.
      
Pressure-volume curve (PV curve) technique is a major method for studying critical plant water potential and critical tissue water content when plasmolysis takes place.
      
In the present study, a mathematical solution method is put forward to obtain parameters based on the PV curve.
      
Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.
      
viceae strain CIAM 1026) and pathogenic (Pseudomonas syringae pv.
      
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Experiments demonstrate the fact that the chemical .composition of some roll-steel's oxide layer which is named "fire scale" is near A.R, and that harmful impurity si may be less than 0.05%. The chemical activity of "fire scale" can be raised by oxidating it at. temperature about 300℃. The ferrite whose property has been up to μ_1≥2000,μ(?)≥20×10~4(1000kc). Based on it ,the authors have succeeded in making U, eores which are used in T.V. with this raw material. The magnetic core's parameter: B_(a(H=10O_e))≥4500G:...

Experiments demonstrate the fact that the chemical .composition of some roll-steel's oxide layer which is named "fire scale" is near A.R, and that harmful impurity si may be less than 0.05%. The chemical activity of "fire scale" can be raised by oxidating it at. temperature about 300℃. The ferrite whose property has been up to μ_1≥2000,μ(?)≥20×10~4(1000kc). Based on it ,the authors have succeeded in making U, eores which are used in T.V. with this raw material. The magnetic core's parameter: B_(a(H=10O_e))≥4500G: volume loss Pv(b=200G) =100~150 mw/cm~3, and other properties of magnetic core are good too. The cost of products can be reduced greatly by substituting "fire scale" for Fe_2O_3 to make soft ferrite products, as applies to industrial production of magnetic material.

长期来,人们认为轧钢表面氧化层——铁鳞的纯度不高,因而忽视其应用于磁性材料中。实践出真知,本文用化学分析、光谱分析证实:铁鳞含有的杂质远比产生它的型钢的杂质少、从磁性材料的制造要求讲,特别可喜的是铁鳞中有害杂质如Si等的含量可小于0.05%,分析证明,它的化学成分可接近分析纯的纯度。对此,本文认为,铁氧高纯的原因在于它是氧化物(Fe_3O_4等),型钢在高温状态下被轧制,只有(?)氧化的成分才成为氧化物而进入铁鳞成分之中,这一结论使铁鳞的应用范围变得广阔了。铁氧体原料性能的好坏,不仅决定于纯度,还决定于活性。直接采用铁鳞作原料,由于活性不高,性能不(?)提高。本文根据差热、热重分析的结果,总结出在低温290°~330℃进行氧化处理可造成活性转化与提高,并将绝大部分Fe_3O_4等氧化成Fe_3O_4(在空气中)。在上述温度范围内保温0.5~2小时,可达恒重(近似)。用此种粉料代替Fe_3O_4制造软磁铁氧体,材料性能已取得μ_i≥2000,μQ≥20×10~4。如果在配方与工艺上再作改进,性能必可提高。此项研制成果可推广于生产较多的软磁铁氧体产品,从而为国家节约资金,并开辟新的原料来源。本项目研制人员已在75...

长期来,人们认为轧钢表面氧化层——铁鳞的纯度不高,因而忽视其应用于磁性材料中。实践出真知,本文用化学分析、光谱分析证实:铁鳞含有的杂质远比产生它的型钢的杂质少、从磁性材料的制造要求讲,特别可喜的是铁鳞中有害杂质如Si等的含量可小于0.05%,分析证明,它的化学成分可接近分析纯的纯度。对此,本文认为,铁氧高纯的原因在于它是氧化物(Fe_3O_4等),型钢在高温状态下被轧制,只有(?)氧化的成分才成为氧化物而进入铁鳞成分之中,这一结论使铁鳞的应用范围变得广阔了。铁氧体原料性能的好坏,不仅决定于纯度,还决定于活性。直接采用铁鳞作原料,由于活性不高,性能不(?)提高。本文根据差热、热重分析的结果,总结出在低温290°~330℃进行氧化处理可造成活性转化与提高,并将绝大部分Fe_3O_4等氧化成Fe_3O_4(在空气中)。在上述温度范围内保温0.5~2小时,可达恒重(近似)。用此种粉料代替Fe_3O_4制造软磁铁氧体,材料性能已取得μ_i≥2000,μQ≥20×10~4。如果在配方与工艺上再作改进,性能必可提高。此项研制成果可推广于生产较多的软磁铁氧体产品,从而为国家节约资金,并开辟新的原料来源。本项目研制人员已在75年试制并生产出中短波磁性天线,按部颁标准,合格率可达80%以上,现已推广使用,又于77年试制成功电视机用U型磁芯。本文以铁鳞代替Fe_2O_3试制成功电视机用U型磁芯为例,探讨材料的制造技术、性能分析与某些机理。在对U型磁芯的研制、测量与分析中,本文提供了提高U型磁芯的一条重要线索:提高软磁材料的起始磁导率μ_i值,从而相对提高材料的可逆壁移成分而下降其不可逆壁移成分,可以下降不可逆弛豫损耗。此项损耗随频率上升而上升,应力求减小。本文内容包括:(一)铁鳞的成分、活性与氧化处理。用理化分析证实铁鳞的纯度可接近于分析纯Fe_2O_3(从应用角度讲),并以事实证明经过氧化处理,可促使活性转化、提高,扩大其应用范围。(二)铁鳞在磁性材料中的应用与性能分析。通过对U型磁芯的分析,从机理上提供提高性能的线索。(三)铁鳞铁氧体材料的工艺探索。目的在于挖潛、节物,提高性能与扩大用途。

In this paper a decoupled OPF approach using Fletcher's QP method is proposed. A decoupled model with active and reactive optimization is derived. In P-model, a very sparse scheme is used as the equality constraints. In Q-model, transmission losses are expressed as deviation of swing generation. The active power at generator buses (except swing generator) is chosen as independent variables in P-6ptimization. The voltage amplitude of PV nodes arid Vθ node, and the ratio of transformation of all tap-changing...

In this paper a decoupled OPF approach using Fletcher's QP method is proposed. A decoupled model with active and reactive optimization is derived. In P-model, a very sparse scheme is used as the equality constraints. In Q-model, transmission losses are expressed as deviation of swing generation. The active power at generator buses (except swing generator) is chosen as independent variables in P-6ptimization. The voltage amplitude of PV nodes arid Vθ node, and the ratio of transformation of all tap-changing transformers are chosen as independent variables in Q-optimization. The optimization procedure is carried out only in the subspace determined by independent variables. The equality constraints are eliminated, the relationship between dependent and independent variables are established by solution of fast decoupled load flow method. Consequeantly both the memory requirement and computation time can be significantly reduced.The mathmatical model of decoupled OPF is developed. During P-optimization, all bus-voltages and reactive injections are assumed to be constants. The objective function is to minimize the total fuel consumption in the system (see eqs.(17),(18)&(22)). The inequality constraints are given by eqs. (23)-(29). During Q-optimization, all active generations (except swing generator) and all voltage phase angles are assumed to be constants. The objective function is to minimize total transmission losses in the net work (see eqs.(30),(31) &(34))-The inequality constraints are given by eqs.(35)-(49).This approach has been programmed in FORTRAN language and tested on a CLASSIC 7835 computer. The sparse matrix programming technique was used, so the memory re- quirement of a network with 150 buses is only 100kB.For comparison purposes, the computation time and results of the same IEEE 30 bus test system using different method (NLP correspond to Shoults and Sun's method (1982), QP correspond to the method proposed by this paper) are summarized in table 1.A Chinese 133 bus system with 164 lines was simulated Using this method. There were 2 lines overloaded and 3 bus voltages out of limit in the initial state. An OPF result is shown in table 2. All line overloads are relieved and all bus voltages are within limit(see table 3 & 4).

本文提出了一种采用P—Q分解技术和Fletcher的二次规划解法的电力系统最佳潮流的计算方法。在数学模型中,考虑了联络线过负荷和节点电压越限的安全约束,由于采用了P-Q分解技术,区分控制变量和状态变量,减少不等式约束数目等措施,使优化问题的变量和约束数目大为减少。对IEEE30节点实验系统及我国133节点实际电力系统进行了计算,结果表明,本方法比文献[3]的方法更为优越,在同样计算精度的情况下,内存少,计算速度快,能满足在线实时应用的要求。

A new algorithm for load flow problem is presented in this paper. The new algorithm based on a linear model of load flow becomes realizable due to employing nonlinear programming to revise the voltage on PV type nodes. The Concentric Relaxation technique is used so that the burden for solving the nonlinear progrmming problem is greatly reduced. The results of the solution of the different size power systems using the new algorithm and the fast decoupled method are given in this paper.

本文提出了一个计算电力系统潮流的新算法。新算法利用线性模型解算潮流,并且借助于非线性规划修正PV节点电压,使得这一思想得以实现。在非线性规划中,利用同心松弛原理,大大减少了非线性规划的计算量。为检验和比较,本文还同时列举了新算法和快速分解法对十个大小不同的电力系统(包括IEEE算例)的计算情况。

 
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