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depression     
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  凹陷
    Origin and Exploration of Hydrocarbons in Baiyinchagan Depression
    白音查干凹陷油气成因与勘探方向
短句来源
    The Methodolocal Research and Its Application to the Burial Hill Fracture Distributing Law in the Middle Part of Damintun Depression of Liaohe Basin
    辽河盆地大民屯凹陷中部地区潜山裂缝分布规律方法研究及应用
短句来源
    The Structure Characteristics of Chagandelesu Fault Depression and Its Petroleum Accumulation Condition
    查干德勒苏凹陷构造特征及油气成藏条件
短句来源
    Study on Relationships between Salt-Mud Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation in Dongying Depression
    东营凹陷盐—泥构造与油气运移和聚集的关系研究
短句来源
    The Structural Characteristics of Beier Depression and It is Controlling of Reservoir
    贝尔凹陷构造特征及其对油气藏的控制作用
短句来源
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  坳陷
    Study on the Sequence Stratigraphy and Its Forming Mechanism of Paleogene in Jiyang Depression
    济阳坳陷古近系层序地层及其成因机制研究
短句来源
    The Research of Seismic Identification Technique of Heterogeneous and Fracture Tight Gas Reservoir of Xujiahe Formation, in Chuanxi Depression
    川西坳陷深层致密非均质裂缝性气藏地震识别技术研究
短句来源
    Study on the Structural Characteristics and Reservoir Forming Model of Neogene Guantao Formation in Jiyang Depression
    济阳坳陷馆陶组构造特征及成藏模式研究
短句来源
    Sequence Stratigraphy Study and Exploration Target Forecast in the Suibin Depression of Sanjiang Basin in Mesozoic
    三江盆地绥滨坳陷中生界层序地层与有利目标预测
短句来源
    The Study of the CO_2 Forming Mechanism and Mode in Jiyang Depression
    济阳坳陷CO_2气成藏机理与成藏模式研究
短句来源
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  拗陷
    Characteristics of Different Type of Gas in Huanghua Depression
    黄骅拗陷天然气类型特征
短句来源
    Field seismic method for Yuke area in mid Hebei depression
    冀中拗陷榆科地区的野外地震方法
短句来源
    STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CONDITIONS FOR PETROLEUM GENESIS OF THE CENTRAL TARIM DEPRESSION
    塔里木中央拗陷的构造特征及生油条件
短句来源
    DEPRESSION SYSTEMS OF ERLIAN BASIN AND ITS OIL SOURCE
    二连盆地的拗陷体系与油源
短句来源
    A Discussion on the Geological Charactcristics and Formation Conditionsof the Condensate Reservoirs in Huanghua Depression
    黄骅拗陷凝析油气藏地质特征及形成条件探讨
短句来源
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  洼地
    GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLCANO—INTRUSIVE COMPLEX IN SHANMEN VOLCANO—TECTONIC DEPRESSION
    山门火山构造洼地火山—侵入杂岩的地球化学特征
短句来源
    Atmospheric CO2 Dynamics in the Guilin Karst Depression Ecosystem and Environmental Significance
    桂林岩溶洼地生态系统中大气CO_2动态及环境意义
短句来源
    The study shows that both stable elements Al2O3, Fe2O3+FeO, TiO2 and unstable elements CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O can all gather in the warm and humid climate , which is related to its special low-lying depression.
    研究表明,该地暖湿气候作用下稳定性元素Al_2O_3、Fe_2O_3+FeO、TiO_2和非稳定性元素CaO、MgO、Na_2O、K_2O都能相对富集,这反映出该地所处的特殊的洼地地貌位置的决定性因素。
短句来源
    but in depression, CO2 greater than that in slope.
    洼地、垭口土壤CO2释放量高于坡地土壤CO2释放量;
短句来源
    AMS 14 C dating results for the three depths of 240cm, 160cm and 80cm in a sedimentary sequence from an inter channel depression in Quzhou area, the southern Hebei Plain are 10 210±80aB.P.
    河北平原南部曲周地区一河间洼地剖面中 2 4 0cm ,1 6 0cm和 80cm深度处的AMS1 4C测年结果分别为1 0 2 1 0± 80aB . P .
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      depression
    However, the midday depression of photosynthesis at noon (12:00-14:00) and the decrease in photosynthesis in the afternoon (16:00-18:00) were the results of nonstomatal limitation, such as low carboxylation capacity of the leaf mesophyll.
          
    For instance, chemotherapy usually leads to depression of bone marrow and hair loss.
          
    This effect of oxytocin may be mediated through the vagus and sympathetic nerve, and then lead to the reduction of gastric juice output and the depression of gastric acidity.
          
    The weld pool surface profile was predicted while considering the effect of droplet impingement on the depression of the weld pool.
          
    Because the Cangxi reef flat is in the very vicinity of the hydrocarbon kitchen and the depression is much bigger than that of the Puguang gas fields, we predict that there may be a gigascopic gas field in Cangxi County.
          
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    Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

    Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all th

    ~~

    The tectonic movements of the compound platform in Eastern China have deep effects upon the coal formations.Due to tectonic control, the distribution of coal basins in the Mesozoic Era, the limitation of rock facies in the coal formations and the magmatic activity effecting the quality of coal, all appear to follow certain laws of regularity.Types of formations in this era, present more varieties than those of the Paleozoic, in general, faulted depressions are most common. The whole history of coalification...

    The tectonic movements of the compound platform in Eastern China have deep effects upon the coal formations.Due to tectonic control, the distribution of coal basins in the Mesozoic Era, the limitation of rock facies in the coal formations and the magmatic activity effecting the quality of coal, all appear to follow certain laws of regularity.Types of formations in this era, present more varieties than those of the Paleozoic, in general, faulted depressions are most common. The whole history of coalification showed that the crustal movement was not regular and the difference in the degree of subsidence also effect the depositional environments. All the above facts are believed to be the direct causes for the frequent change of space in the process of coalification; while the effect of climate seems to be of minor importance.The general occurrence of folding and block-movement in the Mesozoic constantly helps in promoting the topographic changes of the continetal area. Landforms are becoming more complicated. Different paleogeographic environments present different coal formations, thus resulting great many types of paleogeography regarding coalification.Types of coal-bearing rock series are not only of alternating marine and continental origin, but also include all kinds of typical continental sediments. The rock nature and facies as well as the coal-bearing condition of each type, all have their special characteristics.

    中国东部地台的构造运动对含煤建造具有深刻的影响. 由于构造的控造,中生代聚煤盆地的分布,含煤建造的岩相控制、岩浆活动对煤质的影响均有显著的规律性.建造类型较古生代多样化,一般以断裂凹陷型为最普遍.整个聚煤历史表明由于地壳运动不均一、沉降幅度不同等因素影响了沉积环境,从而使聚煤作用发生空间方面迁移的现象,而气候影响则为次要的因素. 中生代广泛的折皱和块断运动不断加深了大陆地形的变化,地貌景观益加复杂,不同的古地理环境形成不同的含煤建造,因而聚煤古地理类型繁多.中生代含煤岩系既具有海陆交替相沉积也有各式各样的陆相沉积,每一类型的岩性、岩相及含煤性均有各自的特点.

    The Hsuehfeng cycle of the region under discussion is taken as a stage of eugeosynclinal development. The eugeosytnclinal formational sequences are rich in volcanic rocks which have been folded into tight linear folds by the Hsuehfeng movement. The Hsuehfeng folded belt is responsible for the formation of the Kiangnan geanticline of the Caledonian cycle. The South Anhui geosyncline extends along the northern side of the Kiangnan geanticline and is filled with the miogeosynclinal formational sequences which have...

    The Hsuehfeng cycle of the region under discussion is taken as a stage of eugeosynclinal development. The eugeosytnclinal formational sequences are rich in volcanic rocks which have been folded into tight linear folds by the Hsuehfeng movement. The Hsuehfeng folded belt is responsible for the formation of the Kiangnan geanticline of the Caledonian cycle. The South Anhui geosyncline extends along the northern side of the Kiangnan geanticline and is filled with the miogeosynclinal formational sequences which have vast thickness of more than ten thousand meters and consist of typical geosynclinal formations (flysch formation, graywacke formation, siliceous shale formation, etc.) with zonal arrangement. The geometric styles of folding in the South Anhui geosyncline are of linear complex folds the individual fold of which is either tight or open in form, which indicates the varied origin of the folded structure. On the basis of the above mentioned structural characteristics it is to be compared with the West Chekiang Caledonian geosyncline, Through comparative research and analysis of the South Anhui, Northwest Kiangsi and West Hunan Caledonian geosynclines bondering the northern side of the Kiangnan geanticline, the present writer has found that their similarities are rather obvious. Thus they form as a whole the belt of the marginal geosynclinal depressions. The South Anhui Caledonian geosyncline could be distinguished from the South Kiangsi Caledonian inner geosyncline by the following diagnostic features: (1) it has more abundant carbonate rocks in the sedimentary sequences; (2) it possesses comparatively open style of folding; (3) the trough of sedimentation migrates from the Kiangnan geanticline towards the platform throughout the early palaeozoic period; and (4) it displays weak regional metamorphism and igneous activity. Judging from the above-stated reasons, it is less mobile and displays the character of a residual geosyncline. The Shitai-Guogongtzang deep fault marks the boundary between the South Anhui Caledonian geosyncline in the south and the Lower Yangtze Pericratonic Subsidence zone, having the carbonate formation of platform type, in the north. During the Caledonian cycle the Nantian trough is superimposed upon the eastern part of the Kiangnan geanticline and distinguished from the South Anhui geosyncline by the incompleteuess of the sedimentary cycle, its paramolasse formation and the basin-shaped syncline. The Kiangnan geanticline broadly controls the formational and structural development of the South Anhui geosyncline and the West Chekiang geosyncline on both sides. Thus the South Anhui geosyncline together with the West Chekiang geosyncline and the Kiangnan geanticline constitutes a geosynclinal system which forms the northeastern section of the South China Caledonian geosynclinal region.

    皖南南部构造性质及构造单元的归属的争论,在最近一次全国性编图会议,意见仍未统一。作者在实际调查材料的基础上,运用构造——建造分析和比较大地构造的方法研究了本区前寒武纪及早期古生代各时代建造成分,确定了各建造的名称、性质和空间分布特征,进一步划分出几个不同性质的建造序列;描述了不同时代地层和不同空间的构造形态,划分了构造层及构造形态的级别,並分析了构造形态形成的原因;论证了本区加里东运动的存在及其性质。在上述资料基础上,阐明了本区是华南加里东地槽区皖南浙西加里东地槽系的重要组成部分,並对皖南加里东地槽与其北隣的下扬子台缘沉陷带的界限予以确定,进一步说明了本区在加里东旋迴是冒地槽,具有残余地槽和边缘地槽拗陷的特性。

     
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