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century    
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  世纪
    The Image of China and Its Influences in Europe(17th-18th Century)
    并非神话 简论17、18世纪中国在法国的形象及其影响
短句来源
    Voice of the National Spirit: The Cultural Conflict between Germany and France in the 18th Century
    民族精神的呐喊——论18世纪德意志和法国的文化冲突
短句来源
    The paper investigates the history of the 20th century Chinese histological studies both in general and in ethnic research,points out the limitations that exit in the discipline and emphasizes the importance of establishing an ethnic histological discipline.
    通过梳理20世纪中国史学史和少数民族史学及史学史的研究现状,揭示了中国史学史和少数民族史学的辉煌成就而少数民族史学史研究极其薄弱的历史与现状,探讨加强少数民族史学史研究、建立全民族的中国史学史的重大意义,并就建构中国少数民族史学史提出了一些初步设想。
短句来源
    Chinese Historians' Methodology of Historical Critique in the 18~(th) Century
    18世纪中国史家的史学批评方法论
短句来源
    A Survey of the Western Philosophy of History in the 20th century
    20世纪西方历史哲学概观
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  世纪的
    Historical Linguistics in the Twentieth Century
    20世纪的历史语言学
短句来源
    The Chinese Historical Science Facing the 21st Century
    面向21世纪的中国历史学
短句来源
    Studies of the Reasons for the Constructing of Qian ha School's Textual Criticism in the 20~(th) Century and Problems Concerned
    20世纪的乾嘉考据学成因研究及存在的问题
短句来源
    Legend, History and Historical Memory ——From the New Historical Studies in the 20~(th) Century to Postmodern Historical Studies
    传说·历史·历史记忆——从20世纪的新史学到后现代史学
短句来源
    Evolutionism and the Chinese Ethnohistory in the 20th Century
    进化论与20世纪的中国民族史学——治史学路的世纪回识
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  百年
    It is must attach importance to scholars which the new book writed by Tian Xudong named The Conspectus of Main Theory about Chinese Ancient History Study in 20 Century because it is the exiguity study of this theme.
    田旭东女士的博士论文、中华书局《中华文史新刊》之一《二十世纪中国古史研究主要思潮概论》一书,为近年少有的从疑古与新证一线观察近百年中国学术界古史研究的专论,在20世纪学术思潮研究中具有无可回避的参考价值是可以肯定的。
短句来源
    A Retrospection and Introspection on the Studies of China History Theories in the 20th Century
    中国百年间史学理论研究的回顾与反思
短句来源
    The Century Prosperity of the Han Dynasty and Sima Qian's Study of the Current History
    汉兴百年与司马迁对当代史的研究
短句来源
    On looking back the hundred years of Chinese history, this paper thinks that Chinese history of 20th century has three campus,in which Marxism is the main stream of the time.
    本文对百年来的中国史学进行了宏观的回顾 ,排列了 2 0世纪的中国史学三个阵营 ,指出马克思主义史学是时代的主潮。
短句来源
    Several problems,such as an positive summary for the 20th century,healthy historiographical critics and rigorous construction of style of study,will act on the development of Chinese historiography in the 21st century,which deserve serious reflection and discussion.
    积极的百年总结,健康的学术批评,严谨的学风建设,是影响21世纪中国史学发展面貌的几个重要问题,需要史学工作者认真思考和探讨。
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  century
Calderón-Zygmund singular integral operators have been extensively studied for almost half a century.
      
Drug Development in the 21st Century: Medicines, Man and Receptors
      
THE SHAPE OF MEDICINES TO COME: PHARMACEUTICALS IN THE 21ST CENTURY
      
The pharmaceutical sciences are advancing rapidly in the post-genomic era of the 21st century with the completion of the human genome, as well as those of many other organisms including bacteria and parasites, and the rapid advances in proteomics.
      
Pancreatic cancer is not only common, but also extremely difficult to treat, for which it has been called "the challenge of the twenty-first century".
      
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Montesquieu(Jan. 18,1689-Feb.10,1755),an ideologist of the Enlightenment in France in 18 century, published his final and the best work De l'Esprit des Lois in 1748. The work's Chinese version was published in 1961. In the work, the relationships between laws and geographical factors uch as climate and soil are so discussed in a lengthy words from chapter 14 to chapter 18 in volume 3 that Montesquieu was taken wrongly as an environmentalist.It is difficulty to date the time since and to point who expanded...

Montesquieu(Jan. 18,1689-Feb.10,1755),an ideologist of the Enlightenment in France in 18 century, published his final and the best work De l'Esprit des Lois in 1748. The work's Chinese version was published in 1961. In the work, the relationships between laws and geographical factors uch as climate and soil are so discussed in a lengthy words from chapter 14 to chapter 18 in volume 3 that Montesquieu was taken wrongly as an environmentalist.It is difficulty to date the time since and to point who expanded the influence of single geographical factor upon the law, which is related by Montesquieu in his work,to the determinant of synthetic geographical environment upon the human. But it is easy to understand, after reading the concerned chapters of his work carefully,that Montesquieu only emphasized the influence of climatic and soil factors upon human and human activities rather than determinative. Furthermore,when discussing the factors influence upon human,Montesquieu considered climate in the same way as other factors. Therefore,Montesquieu is really not an environmentalist.Although some scholars, both the Western and Chinese, had pointed out and corrected the mistake, some people still keep the previous ideas in mind.It is wished that the mistake is no longer continued.

孟德斯鸠是18世纪法国启蒙时期的思想家,他的《论法的精神》是他一生研究的最后结晶,于1748年出版,中译本于1961年分上下两册出版。由于孟德斯鸠在上册第3卷的第14至18章长篇大论地讨论了自然地理环境中气候、土壤要素与法律的关系,从而被后人误认为地理环境决定论者。中外学者对此误识都曾明确地指出和纠正过,愿此错误不再延续下去。

In the 18th century,French culture spread widely in Germany and became predominant in the life of German people.In front of the conquest of French culture,the intellectuals saw danger for the German people in the adoption of foreign customs,languages and ideas.They desired to awaken the people to oppose the domination of French culture,and they believed that the Germany is a natural organism and has peculiar character,culture and spirit.Therefore,the Germany wasn't in a state of subjection to the French...

In the 18th century,French culture spread widely in Germany and became predominant in the life of German people.In front of the conquest of French culture,the intellectuals saw danger for the German people in the adoption of foreign customs,languages and ideas.They desired to awaken the people to oppose the domination of French culture,and they believed that the Germany is a natural organism and has peculiar character,culture and spirit.Therefore,the Germany wasn't in a state of subjection to the French culture,and German people must cease imitating the culture of other nationality,purge the German life of foreign style and develop national culture and national spirit.In guide of the national spirit,the German people would creat excellent national culture and became glorious and great nation.

民族精神的呐喊——论18世纪德意志和法国的文化冲突李宏图在世界文化史上,不同文化间的撞击与冲突总是时常发生,特别是当先进文明向落后国家传播时,这种冲突便会更为激烈。长期以来,由于研究视野的局限,我们只关注于近代以来东西方文化间的冲突,而忽略了近代西方...

“Where is China heading for?” Throughout the 20th century three answers to this question have been suggested. The first one is a liberal view of complete Westernization. The second is a conservative view for the revival of Confucianism.And the third one is Marxist view of synthetic innovation. The Chinese Communists have always been adhering to the third view. It started with Mao Zedong's idea of eclectic method and new democracy in 1940s.In 1980s Deng put forward his policy of opening up to the outside...

“Where is China heading for?” Throughout the 20th century three answers to this question have been suggested. The first one is a liberal view of complete Westernization. The second is a conservative view for the revival of Confucianism.And the third one is Marxist view of synthetic innovation. The Chinese Communists have always been adhering to the third view. It started with Mao Zedong's idea of eclectic method and new democracy in 1940s.In 1980s Deng put forward his policy of opening up to the outside world and setting up socialism characteristic of the Chinese style,which represents the mainstream thought as well as the right direction of modernization of culture. The Chinese culture in the 21st century will aim at constructing a new socialist civilization characteristic of the Chinese style with ten important historic innovations. The 21st century will find a powerful,affluent,democratic,civilized and socialist modern China,with novel systems of values and methodolgy,“Great vessels will be long in completion”. But the modern renaissance of a new form of Chinese civilization will make great contribution to formation of a new civilization in the world.

本文认为,纵观整个20世纪,在“中国文化向何处去”的问题上,始终存在着三种主张,即自由主义的全盘西化论、保守主义的儒学复归论和马克思主义的综合创新论;从40年代毛泽东提出古今中外法和新民主主义论,到80年代邓小平提出改革开放论和建设有中国特色社会主义理论,中国共产党人一直高举着马克思主义综合创新论的文化大旗,代表着中国文化现代化的正确方向和思想主潮;中国文化在21世纪,将以建设有中国特色社会主义新型文明为主题,做出具有历史意义的十大创新,从而创造一个富强、民主、文明的社会主义现代化中国,创造有中国特色社会主义的新型的价值观体系和方法论体系,创造大器晚成、现代复兴的中华文明新形态,以熔铸21世纪的新型世界文明。

 
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