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niche
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  生态位
    Study on Niche of Representative Harmful Algal Bloom Species in the Coastal Waters of China
    中国沿海典型赤潮藻的生态位研究
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    The Application of Niche Theory to Agriclture
    生态位理论在农业中的应用
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    A Discussion on Some Aspects of Niche Theory
    生态位理论若干问题探讨
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    STUDY ON THE MEASURMENT METHOD OF THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF KOREAN PINE AND LARCH POPULATION IN ARTIFICIAL FOREST COMMUNITY
    人工森林群落中红松、落叶松种群生态位计测方法的研究
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    Mathematical methods in niche theory study
    生态位理论研究中的数学方法
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  壁龛
    The progress in studies on the functions of stem cell niche
    干细胞壁龛功能的研究进展
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  “niche”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Study on Influence Upon Agriophyllum squarrosum Population by the Niche Island of Nude Sandy Patches
    裸沙斑块生境岛对沙米Agriophyllum squarrosum种群影响的研究
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    Nanogold-silver enhancement technique for location of Nkx2-5~+ cell in bone marrow niche
    纳米金-银加强法对骨髓微环境中Nkx2-5~+细胞定位的实验研究
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    Differentiation and Development of Spermatogonia and Embryonic Stem Cells in Testicular Niche after Tansplantation
    精原及胚胎干细胞在睾丸微环境中的增殖与分化
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    The distributing region is between 43°53' 94"~46°43' 15" N in latitude, 83°07' 53"~87°33' 37"E in longitude and 430~748m in altitude. It was found to be endemic to a small area, to occupy a very narrow habitat, to need a strict niche and to appear highly dispersed small populations.
    原生单叶蔷薇的空间分布范围是北纬43°53′94″~46°43′15″,东经83°07′53″~87°33′37″;
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    We investigated distribution pattern of AAPB along environmental gradients in the China Seas and North Pacific, studied temporal-spatial variations and correlations with environmental variables, and summed up the niche of AAPB in marine ecosystem. The main outcomes include:1) Established an accurate quantitative technique—Time-series observation based cyanobacteria-calibrated Infrared Epifluorescence Microscopy (TIREM).
    以基于时间序列观察的蓝细菌校正的红外落式荧光显微镜技术(Time-series observation based cyanobacteria-calibrated Infrared Epifluorescence Microscopy,TIREM)调查了中国东海和南海的河口、陆架海及外海的AAPB空间分布、季节变化及与环境因子之间的关系;
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  niche
Root Ecological Niche Index and Root Distribution Characteristics of Artificial Phytocommunities in Rehabilitated Fields
      
The ecological niche that roots occupy, their abundance and distribution, and the factors that affect them must be acknowledged.
      
In the first instance therefore, a new method to calculate the root ecological niche index (RENI) is proposed, embracing the entire phytocommunity of plantations.
      
Niche of insect borers within Pinus massoniana infected by pine wood nematode
      
The niche width, proportional similarity of niche and the niche overlap of dominant species of dying trees were computed.
      
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The materials described in the present paper, associated with Hipparion gyizhongensis, Chilotherium xizangensis, Metacervulus capr(?)olinus, Palaeotragus microdon, Gazclla gaudryi and Ochotona gyizhongensis were collected from the lower part of O-Ma Formation (Pontain) of Chilong (Gyi-rong) basin by one of the authors (Chi et al. 1980) in 1975. The locality is situated about 15 km south of the Chilong county town, at E. 85°11', and N. 28°52' and 4,300m above the sea level.Description Family Cricetidae Rochebrune...

The materials described in the present paper, associated with Hipparion gyizhongensis, Chilotherium xizangensis, Metacervulus capr(?)olinus, Palaeotragus microdon, Gazclla gaudryi and Ochotona gyizhongensis were collected from the lower part of O-Ma Formation (Pontain) of Chilong (Gyi-rong) basin by one of the authors (Chi et al. 1980) in 1975. The locality is situated about 15 km south of the Chilong county town, at E. 85°11', and N. 28°52' and 4,300m above the sea level.Description Family Cricetidae Rochebrune 1883Subfamily Cricetodontinae Stehlin et Schaub, 1951Genus Plesiodipus Young, 1927Genotype: Plesiodipus leei Young, 1927Plesiodipus leei Young, 1927, Pal. Sin., C, 5(3): 23.Plesiocricetodon leei, Schaub, 1934: Abh. Schw. Pal. Ges., LIV: 24.?Prosiphneus lupinus Wood, 1936, Amer. Mus. Novit., 1012: 5.Plesiodipus leei Young, Qiu, Li and Wang, 1981, Vert. PaIAsiat., Plesiodipus thibetensis sp. nov. (P(?). 1, figs. 1—2; Text-fig. 1—2)Cricetidae gen. et sp. indet., Ji Hsu and Huang, 1980, Palaeontology of Xizang, p. 29. P(?). 5, fig. 2.Holotype: a left lower cheek tooth row (M_1—M_3) (IVPP no. V 5205.1).Hypodigm: a right M~1 (V 5205.2), a right M_2—M_3 (V 5205.3).Diagnosis: subhypsodont and rather lophodont (sigmoid). Anteroconid of M_1 large, midst situated, anterolophulid distinct, the valleys of the lower cheek teeth wide and sinusid placed posteriorly. Anterocone of M~1 bifide, paracone and metacone triangle in shape, anterosinus and mesosinus extending far posteriorly, without ectoloph.Remark: The new species differs from the genotype in that 1. cheek teeth more narrower and lophed, 2. external cusps of M~1 bifide, with para- and mesosinus extending far posteriorly, 3. anteroconid of M_1 larger and midst situated, metalophid connected with a distinct anterolophulid and 4. the last two lower molars, especially in M_3 reduced etc.The new form shows some primitive arvicolid structures on cheek teeth, similar also to some later cricetids, such as Microtodon. As to the origin of the arvicolids, a suggestion that the European Vallensian cricetid, Rotundomys bressanus might be a candi- date of the related aucestoral form has been tentatively proposed by Mein (1975). It is interesting that the appearence of Plesiodipus thib(?)t(?)nsis possessing similar characters to the European one (as more hypsodont, sigmoid lophs) seems to be considered as an another original clue of the evolution of arvicolids, especially for some Asian voles and triangle-cusped cricetids. A figure shown the comparison of the teeth pattern of those animals which may be related to the primative voles and triangle-cusped teeth cricetids is given on page in the Chinese text.Family Dipodidae Waterhouse, 1842Himalayactaga liui gen. et sp. nov. (P(?). 1, fig. 3; Text-fig. 3)Hetrsminthus sp., Ji, Hsu and Huang, 1980, Palaeontology of Xizang, P. 29. textfig. 1.Type: a right M_2 and M_3 (V5204) (type only)Diagnosis: a rather small genus in size of Alactaginae, subbrachyodont. M_2 rectangular, "W"-in shape, external cusps selenodont and internal cusps (?entoconid and hypoconulid) very large, cylindrical, located in the anterior and posterior valley respectively, anterior singulum developed. M_3 very reduced, quadrated, enclosed with the lophs into a basin, but opened at inner side, a large cylindrical cusp occupied the most part of the basin.Remark: After a more expantive comparison, this specimen is refered tentatively to the Dipodidae (?Alactaginae). But the new genus differs distinctly from the other known genera of the family. Only two fossil genera of Alaetaginae, Protalactaga and Paratactaga, were discovered in the Chinese Neogene, but both of them have a distinct bifided inner-middle cusps (consists of metaeonid and mesolophid) on M_2, instead of only one large conical cusp in the new genus. The Late Miocene zapodid, Heterosminthus ori(?)ntalis Schaub, 1930 from Hsienshuiho. Kansu, has a similar structure on M_3 to the Tibetian specimen, except that the direction of valley opened in a oppsite side. And the M_2 of the two genera are quite different each other in structure.Conclusion1. As the large mammalian remains of Chilong, the mi(?)romammalian fossils, containing Ochotona gyizhongensis, Plesiodipus thibetensis and Himalayataga liui also indicate that the features of Chilong Hipparion fauna is close to that of North China rather than that of Siwalik fauna of South Asia. The table 2, on page 252 of the Chinese text shows that the comparison of the forms among the Chilong fauna with those of North China and Siwalik respectively. Three of the nine species from chilong ar(?) identifical in the species level with those of North chinese Hipparion fauna, five in the genus level and all in the family of the fauna are of common occurrence in the North China. In contrast, four families in Chilong fauna have never been discovered in South Asia, and only four genera can be comparable each other between the two areas. The differences between the Chilong and Siwallk faunas clearly indicate that the Himalaya range had rised to a height which become a natural bar for the animal exchange during the age of Pontain.2. The appearence of those three micromammals show that a local stepped niche with slightly dry climate might exist during some time-interval.

本文记述了西藏吉隆命地的两种上新世(Middle Turolian)的啮齿类化石:西藏更新仓鼠(Plesiodipus thibetensis sp.nov.)和刘氏喜马拉雅跳鼠(Himalayataga liui gen.et sp.nov.)。Plesiodipus thibetesis可能和(鼠平)类(Arvicolinae)的起源有关。吉隆的小动物化石表明:1.它与当时华北动物群密切相关,而不同于南亚西瓦里克动物群者;2.当时盆地内可能也有草原或灌丛环境存在。

Among the earliest domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), known in any quantity or completeness are those from the early Neolithic of China and North America. The comparatively small size of these animals, when compared with the more modern wolves, (Canis lupus)of the areas in which they are found, suggests that a smaller, older progenitor must be sought. The small wolf Canis lupus variabilis, associated with hominids from the Lower Paleolithic sites of Zhoukoudian and Lantian in North China, appears to be a likely...

Among the earliest domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), known in any quantity or completeness are those from the early Neolithic of China and North America. The comparatively small size of these animals, when compared with the more modern wolves, (Canis lupus)of the areas in which they are found, suggests that a smaller, older progenitor must be sought. The small wolf Canis lupus variabilis, associated with hominids from the Lower Paleolithic sites of Zhoukoudian and Lantian in North China, appears to be a likely candidate to occupy this niche in the ascending line of canid domestication from wolf to dog. These small Pleistocene wolves, as well as the more modern subspecies found in China and North America, are figured and compared with Chinese Neolithic domestic dogs.

本文作者对周口店第一、第三及第十三地点的一种化石犬类——变异狼(Canis lupus uariadilis)进行了观察和测量。根据其头骨大小、形态特征以及与中国早期人类共生的情况来看,认为它有可能是从驯化的野生狼导致家畜狗出现的一种祖先类型。

Chenhai is one of the freshwater lakes in Yunnan Plateau with an elevation of 1500 meters above sea level and an area of 78 square kilometers. It is located in the eastern margin of Hengduan Mountains, i. e. 100.38'-100.49' E, 26.27'-26.38' N. Altogether there are 15 kinds of indigenous fishes in it. The fish fauna is radically different from that of other lakes but shares characteristics with fish fauna of the China Plain, showing that the fish fauna of Chenhai had derived from a common origin with Yangtze...

Chenhai is one of the freshwater lakes in Yunnan Plateau with an elevation of 1500 meters above sea level and an area of 78 square kilometers. It is located in the eastern margin of Hengduan Mountains, i. e. 100.38'-100.49' E, 26.27'-26.38' N. Altogether there are 15 kinds of indigenous fishes in it. The fish fauna is radically different from that of other lakes but shares characteristics with fish fauna of the China Plain, showing that the fish fauna of Chenhai had derived from a common origin with Yangtze River. Having isolated from Chinsha River, Chenhai provided unoccupied niches for fishes, It is an important factor leading to species differentiation. Cyprinus carpio L. sets an excellent example in this respect showing a series of adaptative morphological modifications. These modifications occurred within recent 300 years. Such a span of time is much shorter than the formation of Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihoensis Zhu et Wu from its ancestral stock but is longer than the formation of the domastic golden crucian carp from its wild ancestor Carassius auratus (L.). It is clear, therefore, that the process of differentiation varies depending on different kinds of animals as well as ecological conditions.

程海共有土著鱼类15种,它位于青藏高原横断山区的东缘,云南高原的西北,鱼类区系却独具一格,表现出江河平原鱼类区系的特点,显示程海鱼类区系来自长江的事实。程海自与金沙江隔离之后,湖内存在空白生态灶(niche)是产生物种分化的重要因素,尤以鲤鱼Cyprinus carpio L.的形态,表现出一系列的适应性变异,这些变异发生在近300年内,与处于海拔和纬度较高的甘子河裸鲤Gymnocypris przewalskii ganzihoensis Zhu et Wu形成的时间相比,相对而言是比较快的,然而却慢于金鲫鱼Carassius auratus(L.)通过人工选择而形成金鱼的时间。可见在不同类群和不同条件下,物种分化的进程是有极大的差异。

 
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