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cocoon
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  卵袋
    44 produced 130 yonug average numnber 3 per cocoon (Daping Ⅱ worms). 4、The time earthworms took to reach sexual maturity from hatching came almost the same between the two varieties. Respective half the number of striped worms and Daping II took 30-35 days to mature when kept in food avialable at 19℃-21℃, 60—70% moisture.
    3、每个卵袋所含的幼蚓数不完全相同,间纹蚓平均每个卵袋有幼蚓2.97条,大平蚓平均每个卵袋有幼蚓3条 4、在料温为19℃—21℃,湿度为60—70%时,两个品种蚯蚓都有近半数的幼蚓在30—35天内发育成熟。
短句来源
    Each female can lay as many as 6 egg sacs. Each egg cocoon contains 64 eggs on the average. The average hatching rate of egge is 85%.
    雌蛛一生最多可产6个卵袋,单雌平均产卵量154粒,最多可产466粒,卵的平均孵化率在85%以上.
短句来源
    Methods The newly hatched juvenile from same cocoon were bred in 80 cm×60 cm×50 cm aquaria with natural water from rice paddy and weighted every ten days. Water temperature was recorded daily and water was exchanged monthly. Ten chemical elements of water from rice paddy were analyzed in the laboratory.
    方法 在同一个卵袋产下的幼蛭 ,放入盛有天然水的 80 cm× 6 0 cm× 5 0 cm的玻璃缸内饲养 ,每 10 d称牛蛭体重 1次 ,每天记录水温 ,每月换水一次 ,每次在野外采回的水要检测 10种化学成分。
短句来源
  “cocoon”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Studies on the Cocoon Structures and the Conformations and Tensile Properties of Spider Silk of Spider Nephila Clavata and Argiope Amoena
    悦目金蛛(Argiope amoena)和棒络新妇(Nephila clavata)卵囊结构及蛛丝结构与力学性能研究
短句来源
    BOMBYX MORI DNA INDUCED THE HOLELESS COCOON IN ATTACUS CYNTHIA RICINI
    家蚕DNA诱导蓖麻蚕产生无洞茧
短句来源
    EFFECTS OF FEEDING WITH F·CONTAMINATED MULBERRY LEAVES ON QUALITY OF DRY COCOON AND SILK
    用氟污染桑叶饲养蚕对干茧和丝质量影响的研究
短句来源
    Through Continuous Directive Breeding and Selection on the Improvement of Silkworm Cocoon Shell Ratio
    连续定向培育和连续定向选择对家蚕茧层率的改良效果
短句来源
    Preliminary Studies on the Breeding of Thin Cocoon Size Silkworm Trimolter 305
    细纤度三眠蚕品种305的选育研究初报
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  cocoon
Also, they kill the hosts in a concealed but safe position after the hosts cocoon or build their pupal cells.
      
The mean weight gain was 84% of the baseline within 6 weeks, the rate of cocoon deposition was 0.8 per week, and the incubation duration was about 3 weeks, which provided for population doubling within 3 months.
      
A nonlinear negative correlation between the number of juveniles in a cocoon and their weight was found (correlation ratio R= 0.86).
      
The narrow-sense heritability, h2, for batch size was 0.35-0.40; for the number of juveniles in a cocoon, 0.35; for juvenile weight, 0.42.
      
The probability of correlated selection response in traits "number of juveniles in a cocoon" and "weight of juveniles" was estimated.
      
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This paper discusses four problems about the life history and habitations of the pine-cater-pillar Dendrolimus punctatus Wk. 1. The life history as relations to the climate factor: The caterpillar occures 2--3 genera-tions per year, it means that one part overwintering with second and the others with third ofthe unmatured larvae. The break of each generation nearly coincides to each other in every year,but if the weather is faul in March and April, and the monthly rainfall is higher, the date ofcocoon-spinning...

This paper discusses four problems about the life history and habitations of the pine-cater-pillar Dendrolimus punctatus Wk. 1. The life history as relations to the climate factor: The caterpillar occures 2--3 genera-tions per year, it means that one part overwintering with second and the others with third ofthe unmatured larvae. The break of each generation nearly coincides to each other in every year,but if the weather is faul in March and April, and the monthly rainfall is higher, the date ofcocoon-spinning of the overwintered larvae will be delayed, thus the following generation willalso be delayed. Otherwise, if the weather is fine in March and April, the date of cocoon-spinning will take place quicker awhile. 2. The duration of starvation of the nearly matured larvae as relations to the percentageof emergence, egg-contains in female and to the sexual ratio: The experiment indicates, thatgiving the larvae nearly matured in starvation condition, most of them can oblige to cocoon-spinning. The percentage of the date of emergence of these cocoon is nearly inversely propo-tional with the date of enduring hunger, and the femal individuals will a little increase ascompared with in normal condition, but the egg-contains are decreased regularly as to the dateof enduring in starvation. This experiment indicates, that the nearly matured larvae when confront the lacking of foodplant will still enter to cocoon-spinning. They are also the source of the mass out-break, wemay continue to pay a great attention to them, control them in a proper time. 3. The percentage of emergence, sexual ratio as relations to the out-break of the pine-cater-pillar: According to our work, when the density of the pine-caterpillar increases, the percentageof emergence still contains in a rather larger degree (as in 70% or more), and the sexuel ratioapproaches to 1: 1, That the out-break of this caterpillar may be come sooner. This suppositionwill be confirmed by the further study, but it at least gives us an expectation to anticipate thedate of out-break in a rather simple way. 4. Migration and dispersion of the new-hatched larvae, the nearly matured larvae and thechanging of the larvae in a giving number in the pine tree: According to our observation thatthe method of dispersion of the new-hatched larvae is by the helpness of the wind, the directionof the dispersion is corresponding to the direction of wind, the dimension of the dispersionarea and the percentage of living individuals are relations to the velocity of wind and density oftrees. The migration of the nearly matured larvae is mainly by means of crawling. They havethe habitation of aphototropisism and negative geotropism. As to the changing of the larvae ina giving number in the pine tree. they are much concerned to the wind velocity in hatching,the egg deposition and the density of larvae in these trees.

这篇报告主要讨论了有关松毛虫发生规律的四个问题: 1.松毛虫年生活史和气候因子的关系:累积四年观察的资料,肯定了松毛虫在莲塘一年发生2—3代,即其一部分以第二代中小幼虫,一部分以第三代中小幼虫过冬,各代每个态别的盛发期,基本一致,但如3、4月间温度低,阴雨天长,降雨量多,则能延缓越冬代幼虫的结茧,这样,以后各代,也会顺次略为推延。3—4月温度高,结茧期也会相应略为提早。 越冬二、三代幼虫结茧的迟早问题,在这篇文章中,也讨论到了。由于第二代越冬幼虫在8月中下旬起,食量即大减少,停食期早,次春开始取食日期,又比较晚。第三代越冬幼虫没有这种现象。所以这二种世代在次春的结茧变蛾期,相差不大。在有些情况下,由于晚秋寒冷降临较迟,第三代越冬幼虫取食期延长,甚而还有可能比第二代提早几日结茧。 2.大幼虫耐饥与羽化率,含卵数和性比等的关系:这个项目,是因为看到松毛虫在大发生时,松针被完全吃光,有些幼虫,还能被迫结茧,为欲了解这些虫茧在今后的命运,试验共进行了二年,计二批,所得结果,证明大幼虫在接近结茧时耐饥,多数仍然能被迫结茧,这些虫茧的羽化率高低,与耐饥日期长短,大致上成反比,即结茧距耐饥日期短的,羽化率要高于日期长的。性...

这篇报告主要讨论了有关松毛虫发生规律的四个问题: 1.松毛虫年生活史和气候因子的关系:累积四年观察的资料,肯定了松毛虫在莲塘一年发生2—3代,即其一部分以第二代中小幼虫,一部分以第三代中小幼虫过冬,各代每个态别的盛发期,基本一致,但如3、4月间温度低,阴雨天长,降雨量多,则能延缓越冬代幼虫的结茧,这样,以后各代,也会顺次略为推延。3—4月温度高,结茧期也会相应略为提早。 越冬二、三代幼虫结茧的迟早问题,在这篇文章中,也讨论到了。由于第二代越冬幼虫在8月中下旬起,食量即大减少,停食期早,次春开始取食日期,又比较晚。第三代越冬幼虫没有这种现象。所以这二种世代在次春的结茧变蛾期,相差不大。在有些情况下,由于晚秋寒冷降临较迟,第三代越冬幼虫取食期延长,甚而还有可能比第二代提早几日结茧。 2.大幼虫耐饥与羽化率,含卵数和性比等的关系:这个项目,是因为看到松毛虫在大发生时,松针被完全吃光,有些幼虫,还能被迫结茧,为欲了解这些虫茧在今后的命运,试验共进行了二年,计二批,所得结果,证明大幼虫在接近结茧时耐饥,多数仍然能被迫结茧,这些虫茧的羽化率高低,与耐饥日期长短,大致上成反比,即结茧距耐饥日期短的,羽化率要高于日期长的。性比上,则经耐饥后结茧的,蛾数目似乎要比常态下结茧的多些。?

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly...

Dibrachys cavus (Walker) is an ectoparasite of the cotton pink bollworm. It pro-duces 11--12 generations annually at Hangchow, Chekiang Province. It overwintersmainly in the larval stage within the cocoon of the parasitized overwintering cotton pinkbollworm. A maximun of 21, a minimun of 1, and an average of 10.67 hosts is parasi-tized by a single female. The average number of the offspring is 100.47, but when theparasite could not find sufficient hosts for oviposition, the number of the offspringrapidly decreased. The sex ratio of D. cavus is usually 80--90%. This species can re-produce parthenogenically, and individuals developed from the unfertilized eggs are allmales. The longevity of an adult varies according to sex and temperature. Under labo-ratory conditions, it was found that those adult parasites supplied with honey or hosts sur-vived longer than those without such. The egg stage lasts 2--5 days, the larval stagegenerally lasts 5--14 days, while the overwintering larval stage lasts 141--145 days, andthe pupal stage generally 5--35 days. A list of 148 host species (including subspecies) in 36 families, representing 6 orders,reported by other authors is given. In the laboratory D. cavus also attacked and com-pleted its development on Anchonoma xeraula Meyrick, Pristomerus chinensis Ashm. andan undetermined species of Apanteles, the last two being primary parasites of the cottonpink bollworm. It is easy to rear the parasite. A simple and inexpensive method of large-scaleproduction is reported. In April of 1961, over 1.16 million parasites were released tomore than 200 cotton warehouses in the villages of Siaoshan district. The average per-centage of parasitism in the colonized warehouses was more than two times that of theuntreated warehouses (check). In the check warehouses the average percentage of livingcotton pink bollworm was 19.32%, while that in the colonized warehouses was 0.86%. The overwintering cotton pink bollworm may be induced to spin its cocoon in thesandy loam and cocoons so formed are also suitable for rearing the parasite. It may bea desirable method for overcoming the difficulty of collecting the host in large numbers.The writer has kept the larvae of the parasite in a refrigerator at 0--10℃ for a periodof 64 days, and found them pupating and emerging normally after removal from the re-frigerator. These adults were normal with respect to longevity, capacity of parasitismand reproduction. But when the larvae of the parasite were kept too long in the re-frigerator (e.g., 300 days), they were severely impaired in longevity, capacity of parasi-tism and reproduction of adults. The succeeding generation from such larvae appearedto be nearly normal in vitality. The result of a preliminary comparison test showedthat the race of the parasite collected from Kiukiang, Hangchow or Yungtzi is better thanthat from Yuncheng. It was found possible to increase vitality of this parasite bybybridization with different races from distant localities. D. cavus may be a beneficialparasite or undesirable one depending on whether the hosts present are harmful or useful,a fact to be kept in view before starting to make use of this parasite. In the writer'sopinion, this parasite seems to be harmless when used for combating the overwinteringcotton pink bollworm.

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各...

黑青小蜂系棉红铃虫的外寄生蜂。在杭州,年发生11代,少数12代。主要以幼虫在越冬红铃虫的茧内越冬。每雌平均寄生红铃虫10.67头,产子蜂100.47头。若寄主供应不充分,则子蜂数量显著减少。性比高,通常为80-90%。成虫寿命与温度关系密切,雌蜂一般长于雄蜂。喂以蜂蜜或给以寄主供其寄生,寿命均能显著延长。卵期2—5天;非越冬幼虫历期5—14天,越冬幼虫历期141—145天;非越冬蛹历期5—35天。 综合文献记载,已知寄主6目36科148种(包括亚种)。经室内试验,能顺利地寄生并育出子蜂的,尚有米淡墨虫、中国齿腿瘦姬蜂以及一种绒茧蜂。后二者均为红铃虫的寄生蜂。 此蜂易于饲养,采取一系列简易的办法,能顺利地进行大量繁殖。在二百余棉仓放蜂116万余头的结果,对活红铃虫的寄生率自33.61%提高至95.93%,增高1.85倍,红铃虫活虫率则自19.32%降至0.86%,抑低95.55%。 越冬红铃虫能在沙土中作茧;所结之茧,此蜂同样寄生、发育并羽化,可望通过这一途径,改进繁殖用寄主的采集方法,以节约劳力。幼虫于5℃上下、0—10℃范围内冷藏64天后表现仍正常,但长期冷藏则生活力大受影响,而繁殖一代后又显然有所恢复。各地蜂种比较结果,以运城的为最差,九江、杭州、永济表现良好,三者之间差异尚不显著。种内杂交有可能提高生活力,“杭?

The present paper deals with the results from studies on the application of insect juvenile hormone analogues (JHA) and phytoecdysones (phyto-ECD) in se-ricultural practice in the autumnal season 1973. Bivoltine races of Bombyx mori L. were used and several synthetic JHA and two phyto-ECD were employed. The results may be stated as follows.1. Influences of JHA treatment on the rate of food/silk transformation, the spinning of silk threads and the enzymic activities of the digestive fluid: The spray of JHA emulsified...

The present paper deals with the results from studies on the application of insect juvenile hormone analogues (JHA) and phytoecdysones (phyto-ECD) in se-ricultural practice in the autumnal season 1973. Bivoltine races of Bombyx mori L. were used and several synthetic JHA and two phyto-ECD were employed. The results may be stated as follows.1. Influences of JHA treatment on the rate of food/silk transformation, the spinning of silk threads and the enzymic activities of the digestive fluid: The spray of JHA emulsified with Tween 80 (Polysorbate 80) at closes 2-3 μg per larva either directly on the fifth instar larvae 72 hours after moult or on the mulberry leaves with the feeding larvae of the same age caused no great changes in the amount of silk spun per hour and in the rate of food/silk transformation as compared with the larvae in the control set. Owing to the lengthening of the larval stage, however, the total amount of food taken in the whole fifth instar excelled that of the control. It was found that as a physiological response to JHA treatment the amount of food taken in the first three days after the spraying was less than that of the control during the same period. As the larvae in the control set had reached maturity and stopped feeding the JHA-treated larvae would continue to feed so that the total amount of food taken in the instar became greater. Thus in sericultural practice the amount of mulberry leaves given in the first three days after JHA spraying could be appropriately spared. In accordance with the decrease of food intake during the first three days after spraying with JHA it was observed that the rate of silk protein synthesis and the increase in body weight and in amylaseand proteinase activities of digestive juice of the treated larvae were retarded. But these parameters of the treated larvae tended to increase after the larvae in the control set had reached maturity.2. Influences of JHA treatment on the quality of the cocoons as judged with technologically practical standards: Treatment with JHA may improve qualitative characteristics some of which are very important in the industry of silk manufacturing, provided that the dosage of JHA be kept in the appropriate range.3. Influences of phyto-ECD treatment: Phytoecdysone from Achyranthes bi-dentata and ponasterone A were found capable to shorten the last larval instar and to diminish silk production when added to the food of feeding larvae before maturity. But when they were applied after 10% of the larvae had reached maturity and in doses 2-5 μg per larva by spraying, the instar was shortened about 12 hours without any decrease in silk production and diminution in the practical quality of the cocoons. When combined with the application of JHA at different time the sprays of phto-ECD could shorten the instar and save human labour in sericultural practice without affecting the increase of silk production adversely.

1973年在春季试验的基础上,秋期继续进行了昆虫保幼激素类似物增加桑蚕产丝量的研究,并初步研究了植物性昆虫蜕皮激素与保幼激素的配合使用,结果如下: (1)喷布保幼激素类似物3号后,蚕体叶丝转化率与对照差异不大,这和春季结果相符。五龄每小时的产茧层量和食下量的成丝率,激素处理区与对照区均无明显差异。食下干物的总量则前老明显超过后者。但喷布激素后的三天左右时间内处理区的食下量却低于对照区;当对照区见熟后,处理区食下量继续增加。故在激素处理后的三天左右时间内,适当控制用桑是增产和减少桑叶消耗的主要关键之一。 激素处理后三天左右时间内,绢丝物质的生成和体重增加速度均低于对照区,淀粉酶活性也低于对照区。这与食下量变化的规律一致。蛋白水解酶活性的变化与淀粉酶基本相似,但亦具有自己的特点。 (2)保幼激素类似物3号喷布于五龄蚕体后,茧丝长、茧丝量、解舒丝长及有绪率等均明显增高,拉力和抱合显著改善,切断次数减少,匀度、净度、清洁、茸毛等均与对照区相仿,纤度略有偏租的倾向。以上结果与春季试验一致。多次试验结果亦证明在喷布时间和喷布剂量适当的情况下,对蚕丝解舒并无不良影响,但剂量过高,则有导致解舒率下降的危险。 (3)牛膝蜕皮激...

1973年在春季试验的基础上,秋期继续进行了昆虫保幼激素类似物增加桑蚕产丝量的研究,并初步研究了植物性昆虫蜕皮激素与保幼激素的配合使用,结果如下: (1)喷布保幼激素类似物3号后,蚕体叶丝转化率与对照差异不大,这和春季结果相符。五龄每小时的产茧层量和食下量的成丝率,激素处理区与对照区均无明显差异。食下干物的总量则前老明显超过后者。但喷布激素后的三天左右时间内处理区的食下量却低于对照区;当对照区见熟后,处理区食下量继续增加。故在激素处理后的三天左右时间内,适当控制用桑是增产和减少桑叶消耗的主要关键之一。 激素处理后三天左右时间内,绢丝物质的生成和体重增加速度均低于对照区,淀粉酶活性也低于对照区。这与食下量变化的规律一致。蛋白水解酶活性的变化与淀粉酶基本相似,但亦具有自己的特点。 (2)保幼激素类似物3号喷布于五龄蚕体后,茧丝长、茧丝量、解舒丝长及有绪率等均明显增高,拉力和抱合显著改善,切断次数减少,匀度、净度、清洁、茸毛等均与对照区相仿,纤度略有偏租的倾向。以上结果与春季试验一致。多次试验结果亦证明在喷布时间和喷布剂量适当的情况下,对蚕丝解舒并无不良影响,但剂量过高,则有导致解舒率下降的危险。 (3)牛膝蜕皮激素和百日青甾酮都具有缩短龄期的生理活性?

 
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