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cocoon
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    The round cocoon larvae increase apparently when the light length exceed 14H, furthermore,longer the light time, more the diapause larvae, it elucidates that the sensitive light time to larvae diapause is 12H-14H.
    通过光照对幼虫滞育的影响研究表明,在12H-14H的光照条件下,圆比例与自然光照下的圆比例接近,光照时间超过14H后圆比例明显增大,而且光照时间越长,圆的个体数越多,说明麦红吸浆虫幼虫进入滞育的敏感光照时间在12H-14H。
短句来源
    When parasites have their eggs in the larva of cotton worm, which has been fed the transgenic cotton, cocooning rate of two parasites decline 26.5% and 18.5%, the average weight of the cocoon also declines 1.0mg and
    两种寄生蜂中红侧沟蜂和棉铃虫齿唇姬蜂在寄生取食过转基因棉的棉铃虫幼虫后,其出率比取食常规棉的分别下降26.5%、18.5%,平均重分别减少1.0mg和5.1 mg,且中红侧沟蜂的畸率上升23.2%。
短句来源
    While the rates of cocoon formation and adult emergence in control were 27.2%~33.5% and 99.2%~ 100% respectively.
    而对照组中菜蛾绒蜂结率和羽化率分别为27.2%-33.5%与99.2%-100%。
短句来源
    But the weight of cocoon bred in 3rd instar of the larvae was the heaviest comparing with those bred in 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars of the larvae.
    3龄粘虫幼虫育出的重于1龄、2龄幼虫育出的蜂,但寄生蜂对2龄幼虫的寄生率高于后者。
短句来源
    The white-teeth shrew Crocidura dracula Thomas is an effective cocoon predator preying on the overwintering prepupae reaching a predation rate of 50%-90%.
    长尾大麝鼩 Crocidura dracula Thomas 是害虫的有效捕食者,对蛹的捕食率在50%~90%之间。
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  蚕茧
    An Insecticide ICW - 98 for Silk and Cocoon Warehouse
    丝绸、蚕茧仓库杀虫剂ICW—98的研制
短句来源
    An insecticide ICW - 98 for the cocoon and silk warehouse was prepared.
    报道了适用于蚕茧、丝绸仓库的杀虫剂ICW-98的研制过程。
短句来源
    Field tests demonstrated that the treatment could increase the production of tussah cocoon about 4 times.
    大面积生产鉴定证明:蚕茧的产量可增产4倍。
短句来源
    The 5--yeas continued experiment proved that the cocoon yield inoreased by 16.43% in the protected field with low cost. The flash brand technology is simple, feasible and suitahle for spring as well as autumn tussah reasing.
    连续5年试验结果表明平均增产柞蚕茧16.43%,此技术适用于春蚕和秋蚕,方法简便,易行,成本低。
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  “cocoon”译为未确定词的双语例句
    PRELIMINARY REPORT OF RAISING COCOON PRODUCTION IN THE OAK SILKWORM BY IRRADIATION WITH ~(137)Cs γ-RAY
    应用铯~(137)-γ射线照射柞蚕卵增产试验初报
短句来源
    The results show that the 4 generations had the more high number than the contrast in the rate of parasitism,cocoon ,emergence and the number of adult.
    方差分析表明,每个低温培育世代的寄生率、结茧率、羽化率和蜂量平均都比对照极显著的提高,而且寄生率、结茧率和羽化率在不同世代间差异也极显著。
短句来源
    ABSTRACT Diaphania perspectalis(Walker)has three generations in Shanghai and overwin-ters as 3 or 4 instar larvae that cocoon on the leaves of box tree.
    摘要本文阐述了黄杨绢野螟[Diaphania perspectalis(Walker)]在上海地区年发生3代,并以3~4龄幼虫在黄杨木叶片上结苞越冬。
短句来源
    This indicated that insecticide resistance in the host had detrimental effects on the parasitoid. When fenvalerate was applied to the host parasitoid system, percentages of cocoon formation in the RC RP and SC RP combinations were 95 5% and 37 8%, respectively, significantly higher than those in the SC SP (22 5%) and RC SP (25 8%) combinations, suggesting that host insecticide resistance offered some protection to the parasitoid larvae inside the hosts.
    施用杀虫剂后 ,RC RP、SC RP组合中 ,蜂的结茧率分别为 95 5 %和 37 8% ,显著高于SC SP和RC SP组合中蜂的结茧率 (2 2 5 % ,2 5 8% ) ,表明寄主抗性能保护其体内的幼蜂少受杀虫剂的影响 ;
短句来源
    STUDIES ON INCREASING COCOON OUTPUT OF OAK SILKWORM BY TREATING EGGS WITH MAGNETIC FIELD AND MANETIC FIELD PLUS GAMA—RAY(1983—1984)
    磁场、磁场加γ射线处理柞蚕卵提高蚕茧产量的试验
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  cocoon
Also, they kill the hosts in a concealed but safe position after the hosts cocoon or build their pupal cells.
      
The mean weight gain was 84% of the baseline within 6 weeks, the rate of cocoon deposition was 0.8 per week, and the incubation duration was about 3 weeks, which provided for population doubling within 3 months.
      
A nonlinear negative correlation between the number of juveniles in a cocoon and their weight was found (correlation ratio R= 0.86).
      
The narrow-sense heritability, h2, for batch size was 0.35-0.40; for the number of juveniles in a cocoon, 0.35; for juvenile weight, 0.42.
      
The probability of correlated selection response in traits "number of juveniles in a cocoon" and "weight of juveniles" was estimated.
      
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The codling moth is widely distributed throughout Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, andis considered to be the most destructive fruit pest to the apple and the pear. In order to combatthis fruit borer effectively, investigations on the biology and chemical control of this insect pesthave been conducted in this region since 1956. The present paper gives only the resultsobtained in Ili, the major apple growing district in this region, in 1957 and 1958. 1. The moths have two full, and a partial third generations...

The codling moth is widely distributed throughout Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, andis considered to be the most destructive fruit pest to the apple and the pear. In order to combatthis fruit borer effectively, investigations on the biology and chemical control of this insect pesthave been conducted in this region since 1956. The present paper gives only the resultsobtained in Ili, the major apple growing district in this region, in 1957 and 1958. 1. The moths have two full, and a partial third generations a year. However, about 51.5%of the first brood larvae do not pupate but remain in their cocoons until the following spring.The seasonal lifecycle records together with the spraying schedule are presented in this paper. 2. The emergence climaxes of the overwintering and the first generation of the year 1957were in agreement with that of 1958, and were separated by 48 & 54 days for these years respec-tively. The oviposition climaxes of the first and the second generations in the year 1957 and1958 closely resembled each other, and separated by 46 & 49 days. Again, the hatching climaxesof the first and the second broods occurred almost at the same date in the two successive years,with intervals of 45 & 46 days. All these indicated that in completing one full generation, about45--54 days were required. 3. The preoviposition period of the overwintering generation and that of the first generationwere 3.6 & 4.5 days, and 3.4 & 6.1 days for the two years respectively. The maximum numberof the eggs deposited by a single female of different generations in 1957 and 1958 were 84-125-141,while the average number was 32.6-43 eggs. The longevity of the adult of the overwintering andthe first generation averaged 6.8--10.6 days and 7.6-9.1 days respectively. It is found that thelongevity of the adult could be lengthened by a nectar supply. The longevity of the female isalways longer than that of the male. The sex ratio is 1:1. 4. The first appearance of the egg and the total number of eggs deposited on different varietiesare different. Among the 564 eggs of the first generation found in 1957, 21.9% was found on theearly variety, 25.9% on the median variety, and 52.1% on the late variety. By examining thenumber of infested fruits on different varieties. It is also found that the accumulative percentageof the bored fruit differed with different varieties. In 1957, the first brood larvae infesting theearly, median, and the late varieties were 35%, 41.5% and 55% respectively. These facts reveal thatfor forecasting the first appearance of the egg and the number of infested fruits, proper selecting ofdifferent varieties are of importance. 5. The incubation period of the eggs averaged from 8--9 days in general, and from 5--6days in the hot weather. In the year 1957, the overwintering generations began to lay their eggs at the.begining of May, and these eggs hatched in from 10--21 days, with an average of 15 days;whereas in the year 1958, they started to deposit their eggs in late April, and hatched in from 13--24days, with an average of 19.2 days. So, the first brood larvae of both years hatched in late May.It is extremely important to bear this in mind when arranging the schedule of DDT spray. 6. It has been found that the threshold temperature for the development of the codling mothis 9℃ or 10℃, according to different authors and that approximately 230 day-degrees of effectivetemperature are required to bring about the hatching of the earlist larvae of the first generation.According to our observation and calculation, 9℃ is more suitable as a basists to start with 237.3day-degrees were reached on May 25th, 1957, and 232.9 day-degrees were reached on May 22nd,1958, the calculated dates for these two years coincided nicely with what are actually observed inorchards. This indicates that the method of "Thermal Sums" holds fairly well in forecasting thefirst appearance of the first hatching. 7. According to the date the newly hatched larvae bore into, and the mature larvae come outof the infested fruits, the larval period lasted 25.5--30.2

1.苹果蠹蛾普遍分布于新疆维吾尔自治区各地,历年来受害最重的为苹果、沙果及香梨等。伊犁则为自治区内苹果的主要产地,为此特于1957—1958年在该地作了较全面的观察,该虫一年可发生两个完整世代,和部分第三代,以老熟幼虫越冬。第一代幼虫有滞育现象,滞育率为51.5%。 2.两年来越冬世代及第一代成虫羽化的高峰,第一和第二代产卵的高峰,及第一和第二代幼虫蛀果的高峰,基本上都是一致的。两年中2代成虫羽化高峰相距48—54天,2代产卵高峰相距46—49天,2代幼虫蛀果高峰相距45—46天,三者说明完成一代,大致需时45—54天。 3.两年来观察越冬代及第一代成虫产卵前期之平均,分别为3.6—4.5天,及3.4—6.1天。各代最高产卵量是84—125—141粒,平均32.6—43粒。越冬代及第一代成虫寿命之平均,分别为6.8—10.6天。及7.6—9.1天。寿命之增长与其补充营养有关。雌虫寿命均较雄者为长。雌雄性比例为1:1。 4.成虫在不同品种上产卵的情况。表现有所不同。分析1957年在早、中、晚3品种上 所查得的第一代卵(564粒),各占21.9%、259.9%及52.1%。另外检查不同品种之蛀果率,亦发现同样现象...

1.苹果蠹蛾普遍分布于新疆维吾尔自治区各地,历年来受害最重的为苹果、沙果及香梨等。伊犁则为自治区内苹果的主要产地,为此特于1957—1958年在该地作了较全面的观察,该虫一年可发生两个完整世代,和部分第三代,以老熟幼虫越冬。第一代幼虫有滞育现象,滞育率为51.5%。 2.两年来越冬世代及第一代成虫羽化的高峰,第一和第二代产卵的高峰,及第一和第二代幼虫蛀果的高峰,基本上都是一致的。两年中2代成虫羽化高峰相距48—54天,2代产卵高峰相距46—49天,2代幼虫蛀果高峰相距45—46天,三者说明完成一代,大致需时45—54天。 3.两年来观察越冬代及第一代成虫产卵前期之平均,分别为3.6—4.5天,及3.4—6.1天。各代最高产卵量是84—125—141粒,平均32.6—43粒。越冬代及第一代成虫寿命之平均,分别为6.8—10.6天。及7.6—9.1天。寿命之增长与其补充营养有关。雌虫寿命均较雄者为长。雌雄性比例为1:1。 4.成虫在不同品种上产卵的情况。表现有所不同。分析1957年在早、中、晚3品种上 所查得的第一代卵(564粒),各占21.9%、259.9%及52.1%。另外检查不同品种之蛀果率,亦发现同样现象。1957年第一代幼虫对早、中、晚熟3品种(每一品种各200枚)的累进蛀果率分别为35%、41.5%及55%;至第二代时中熟及晚熟更发展至62.5%?

1. The percentage of diapause under field conditions. The peach fruit borer, Carposina niponensis Walsingham, has a complete firstgeneration and a partial second generation annually in Liaoning province, the majorapple-growing district in China. It passes the winter as full-grown larva encased in athick, elliptical cocoon under ground. A record of two years'(1956--1957) observation in Hsiung-yao (40°10′N) on theoccurrence of diapause is shown in table 1. The data show that the later the larvaeemerged from...

1. The percentage of diapause under field conditions. The peach fruit borer, Carposina niponensis Walsingham, has a complete firstgeneration and a partial second generation annually in Liaoning province, the majorapple-growing district in China. It passes the winter as full-grown larva encased in athick, elliptical cocoon under ground. A record of two years'(1956--1957) observation in Hsiung-yao (40°10′N) on theoccurrence of diapause is shown in table 1. The data show that the later the larvaeemerged from the fruits, the greater the proportion of the larvae entering diapause.Larvae that emerged before July 21 never entered diapause; of those that emerged fromJuly 26 to August 16 not over 20 per cent had gone into diapause; those that emergedfrom August 16 to August 20 had a diapause rate increasing sharply up to 80 per cent;and those that emerged in end of August all entered diapause. 2. Effect of the length of daily photoperiod on the induction of diapause. The influence of the photoperiod on the induction of diapause is dominant at me-dium temperatures. Almost 100 per cent of the larvae grown at medium temperatures(25°and 27℃.), with 13 hours illumination per day, entered diapause; but only a smallproportion of the larvae grown at the same temperature, with 15 hours illumination perday, entered diapause (usually not over 10 per cent). Table 2 shows that most of the larvae grown under complete darkness entered dia-pause. The only exception to this is the result concerning larvae of the first generationat 27℃. The same table shows that as the photoperiod increased from 15 hours up to 17 and24 hours per day, the percentage of the larvae entering diapause increased accordingly. From the results shown in table 2, it is apparent that the critical photoperiod liesbetween 13 and 15 hours of illumination per day. 3. The effect of temperature on diapause. For the larvae grown in complete darkness, the effect of temperature in inducingdiapause is shown in table 3. Experimental data show that when the larvae were heldat 15°, 18°, 21°, 23° and 25℃., almost 100 per cent of them entered diapause; whenthe temperature was over 25℃., the proportion entering diapause decreased sharply; andunder 34℃., the percentage of diapause dropped to 9 per cent. On the other hand,when the larvae were held at 12℃., about one third of them would not enter diapause.Experimental data again show that the effect of the duration of illumination per day on the induction of diapause of the larvae which were held at low temperatures (18°to 22℃.) were practically the same as at medium temperatures (25° and 27℃.). 4. The relationship between the length of photoperiod and diapause undernatural conditions. According to an analysis of the relationship between the change of day length whichoccurred in the larval growth season of the first-generation and the proportion of larvaeentering diapause at different dates, it is concluded that under natural conditions, thelength of day plays a dominant role in determining which individuals of the full fedlarvae will enter diapause. The average atmospheric temperature was 23℃. at thattime (Table 5); and it seemed to have no effect on the induction of diapause. Thecritical photoperiod for the induction of diapause in natural conditions will be 14:50 to14:13 hours of light per day (Table 6). Figure 3 shows the change of day length (hours) and date of critical photoperiodin the first-generation larval growth season at Hsiung-yao. Owing to the fact that theincidence of diapause in the first-generation was markedly influenced by the timing ofthe light-sensitive larval stage in relation to the critical date, figure 3 also illustratesa comparison between the first-generation oviposition periods of three different years.In the year 1956, nearly all the first-generation eggs were deposited before the criticalphotoperiod date, probably only a small proportion of the first-generation larvae enteringdiapause. Accordingly, a greater number of the second-generation eggs were laid whencompared with the first-generation (1:

桃小食心虫在辽南苹果产区为二化性兼性滞育害虫。据在熊岳的观察,第一代幼虫通常于7月下旬开始脱果,凡脱果日期愈晚的幼虫,进入滞育的百分率愈高。在中间温度下,滞育的发生决定于幼虫发育期间昼夜光照时数:在每日光照13小时下发育时,全部滞育,在15小时下发育的,基本不滞育。根据田间第一代幼虫发育期间温度和日照时数的变化与幼虫滞育百分率进度的关系推算结果,第一代幼虫发生期间的温度是在光周期反应的适温范围内,故温度不是引起滞育的主要因素。推算出来的临界光周期位于14小时50分—14小时13分之间(在熊岳出现该光周期的日期为7月21号左右)。最后,讨论了田间第一代幼虫发生期早晚与滞育百分率及第二代发生量的关系:在春季干旱的年份(如1955、1957),由于第一代幼虫发生期被推迟,滞育百分率提高,从而减少了当年第二代的发生量;相反,在第一代幼虫发生期较正常年份提前的1956年,该代的滞育百分率降低,从而相应增加了第二代的发生量。

The symptoms of mulberry dwarf in Kwangtung are similar to those reported from EastChina.The rate of the disease incidence in most places is generally below 10%,but in somelocalities may be as high as 50-80%.The yield of leaves of infected plants in weight wasestimated to be about 30% of that of healthy plants.The shape and size of the cocoons pro-duced by the silkworms feeding on infected leaves are not uniform,and the luster is inferior.The results of transmission tests by grafting show:(1) that the...

The symptoms of mulberry dwarf in Kwangtung are similar to those reported from EastChina.The rate of the disease incidence in most places is generally below 10%,but in somelocalities may be as high as 50-80%.The yield of leaves of infected plants in weight wasestimated to be about 30% of that of healthy plants.The shape and size of the cocoons pro-duced by the silkworms feeding on infected leaves are not uniform,and the luster is inferior.The results of transmission tests by grafting show:(1) that the disease is graft-trans-missible,confirming the virus nature of the disease and further suggesting its identity withthe mulberry dwarf in East China;(2) that not all the buds (including the portions of woodto which the buds were attached) of the infected twigs are infected with the virus in Springand even in Summer;(3) that the virus is present in only some of the roots and even only ina portion of a root,and that the small lateral roots (smaller than 2.2 mm in diameter) areall completely free from the virus.Two kinds of leaf-hoppers (one of which is Erythroneura mori Matsumura) and mulberrywhite-fly (Bemisia myricae Kuwama) so far tested fail to transmit the disease.All of the 2684 seedlings grown from seeds Collected from infected mulberry treesappeared to be healthy up to six months old.It is thus unlikely that the disease is seed trans-missible.

广东桑树萎缩病的症状与江浙黄化型桑树萎缩病基本相同。主要发病地区为顺德、南海、中山、新会和鹤山等县,发病率一般在10%以下,严重的达50—80%。病株减产达70%,用病叶饲蚕所生产的丝茧缺乏光泽,茧形不整。各种嫁接传病试验结果说明:(1)本病可借嫁接传染,进一步说明本病和江浙黄化型桑树萎缩病可能完全相同;(2)发病初期及中期的枝条,不是每一个芽都含有病毒;(3)病树的根,只部分含有病毒。用桑树上常见的两种浮尘子(其中一种为 Erythroneura mori Matsumura)及一种粉虱(Bemisia myricae Kuwama)分别进行传病试验,未获成功。种籽传病试验结果:病株种籽所长出的2684株桑苗全部没有发病,初步说明种籽传病的可能性不大。

 
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