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flume
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  水槽
    Irregular wave flume model tests of wave forces on a vertical wall are conducted on a flat-bottom and under different slopes: 1:5,1:10,1:15,1:20,1:25, respectively.
    在水槽中进行了平底、1:5、1:10、1:15、1:20、1:25几种不同坡度的斜坡平台上不规则波作用下直墙波浪力试验。
    Making Waves in 2-D Numerical Flume and Feature Analysis of the Numerical Waves
    二维数值水槽波浪生成过程及波浪形态分析
短句来源
    Propagation characteristics and numerical simulation of long non-linear shallow-water waves in wave flume
    波浪水槽中非线性浅水波传播特性与模拟
短句来源
    Analysis on Turbulence Characteristics of Flow in Rectangle Flume
    矩形水槽水流紊动特性分析
短句来源
    The numerical wave flume of the viscous fluid based on the momentum source method
    基于动量源方法的黏性流数值波浪水槽
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  量水槽
    Application of Boundary layer Theory in Triangle Section Long Throat Flow-measuring Flume
    边界层理论在三角形长喉道量水槽流量计算中的应用
短句来源
    Cylinder flow measuring flume for U-shape channel
    U形渠道圆柱体量水槽研究
短句来源
    Based on the boundary layer theory, a theory method and formulae has been put forward which calculate the flowing in U-shaped channel long throat flow-measuring flume and the validity of those formulae has been proved by test.
    利用边界层理论研究了U形渠道直壁式量水槽流量的计算方法,提出了理论计算公式,通过试验,检验了理论公式的正确性,该理论公式为长喉道测流槽的理论计算奠定了基础。
短句来源
    Those formulae established the foundation that the theory to calculate the long throat flow-measuring flume. This paper also studied the effect of the throat length, the channel obliquity and channel slope rate and the result shown that the effect of the channel obliquity and channel slope rate small.
    研究了U形渠道直壁式量水槽的喉道长度、渠道倾角、坡降对流量的影响,得出了渠道倾角和坡度对测量计算结果影响不大的结论,得出了较优的喉道长度计算公式。
短句来源
    The optimized formulae of channel length has been gained and presented the standard design of U-shaped channel long throat flow-measuring flume.
    提出了U形渠道直壁式量水槽的标准设计。
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  测流槽
    Application of boundary layer method to hydraulic design of flomeasuring flume in open channel
    边界层方法在明渠测流槽水力设计中的应用
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    Based on the boundary layer theory and critical depth theory,this paper suggests the hydraulic design method for the flow measuring flume in the parabola shape canal with a long throat as well as the discharge calculation formula,with the concrete calculation examples to illustrate the design procedures.
    根据边界层理论和临界水深理论 ,提出了抛物线形长喉道测流槽的水力设计方法及流量计算公式 ,并用具体算例说明了设计步骤。
短句来源
    This design method can flexibly change the shape parameters of the flow measuring flume in the parabola shape canal with a long throat without the rated experiments so that the calculation is simple and highly accurate.
    该设计方法可以灵活地改变抛物线形测流槽的形状参数 ,不需要试验率定 ,且计算简单、精度高
短句来源
    The Hydraulic Design Method for the Flow-Measuring Flume in Parabola-Shape Canal with a Long Throat
    抛物线形渠道长喉道测流槽的水力设计方法
短句来源
    Based on the boundary layer theory, a theory method and formulae has been put forward which calculate the flowing in U-shaped channel long throat flow-measuring flume and the validity of those formulae has been proved by test.
    利用边界层理论研究了U形渠道直壁式量水槽流量的计算方法,提出了理论计算公式,通过试验,检验了理论公式的正确性,该理论公式为长喉道测流槽的理论计算奠定了基础。
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  “flume”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Some problems of wave simulation in a flume
    试验室波浪模拟的若干问题
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    The Experiments and Research on Ice Jam Thickness and Water Level in Curve Flume
    弯道冰塞厚度和水位试验及预测研究
短句来源
    PTV presents a new efficient technique in hydraulic measurement. A series of experiments were conducted in a water flume under uniform flow conditions using two kinds of particles: light plastic particles( s= 1.056 , D=0.1~1.5mm) and heavy glass particles ( s=2.65, D=0.1-0.3 mm).
    应用所开发的PTV系统,对6种粒径的轻质颗粒(γs=1.056,D=0. 1~1.5mm)和4种粒径的重颗粒(γs=2.65,D=0. 1~0. 3 mm)在恒定均匀流条件下的运动进行了量测。
短句来源
    Experimental Research on Diversion from Trapezoidal Flume in Supercritical Flow
    梯形槽中急流分水的试验研究
短句来源
    Sidewall Effects and Its Correction Method in Flume Experiments
    关于边壁校正方法的进一步研究
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  flume
In this study, the experiments were performed in a combined flume with a 30° angle between the main and tributary flume located at Sichuan University.
      
A numerical solution is compared with analytical solutions for a flow over a bottom step and with data of laboratory experiments in a flume with a sloped bed or a bed with an obstacle.
      
Comparison of calculated results with the flume experimental results shows a rough agreement.
      
The experiments were performed in a 2-D wave flume.
      
A new drag force transducer was designed and used to measure the water drag on Schlegel's black rockfish in a vertical recirculating flume tank.
      
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After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted...

After the construction of reservior in an alluvial stream, the equilibrium condition of the downstream channel will be upsetted due to the reduction of sediment supply. This will result in a change in the form and gradient of the channel. The direction of the displacement will lead to a reduction of the sediment carrying capacity of the channel, through which the river regains its equilibrium. The whole process is accomplished by the flattening of the bed slope, as suggested by the theories generally accepted at the present. From a study of the fluvial processes of Colorado River and some other streams, it appears that a decrease in channel gradient is one of the three possibilities only, and should not be regraded as an universal rule. In fact, the change in bed slope below an impounding reservoir depends essentially on the geologic and geographic conditions of that area. It is first considered that the channel width does not change materially in the downstream direction. In many of the sandy rivers, there exists, a layer of gravel or pebble below the finer surface material. The inclination of this layer is generally steeper than the present bed slope. After the releasing of clear water from the reservoir, the surface material is carried away and thereby exposing the coarse layer, first near the dam and gradually extended to the downstream. This will result in an uneven erosion along the direction of the flow, and the steepening of the channel gradient is the consequence of such a process. The Colorado Eiver below the Hoover Dam belongs to this case. If the distribution of the bed material in the downstream, direction is more or less uniform, and if there exists no coarse layer within a finite depth below the bed surface, the bed will be degraded as a whole and the channel gradient remains essentially at its initial value. Results of flume study seem to indicate that such is the case. The Colorado Eiver below both the Parker and the Imperial Dam also belongs to this group. Only when there is a base level within a short distance from the dam which controls the depth of scour at that neighborhood, or if ther is a tributary which brings coarser material into the lower part of the reach, will the channel slope below the dam become flatter. On the other hand, if the river is impounded in a gorge and enters a plain not far away from the dam site, the width of the channel on the alluvial fan becomes progressively wider downstream. It is then possible that the depth of degradation decreases in the downstream direction and the slope becomes flatter. This case is well illustrated by one of the rivers in U. S. S. R. It must be realized that no matter how the channel gradient below an impounding reservoir changes, it is mainly through the coarsening of the bed material which makes the channel regains its equilibrium. Two different types of the coarsening of the bed material can be distinguished from the field data available. One of which is the exposing of a gravel or pebble layer below the present alluvium. As soon as this layer is exposed, there will be a sudden jump in the bed material size, and the stream channel becomes stable again. The othertype of coarsening of bed material takes place continuously and at a much slower rate. One often fails to notice the occurence of such a phenomenon, as the size of the bed material only increases in a relatively small amount. Yet, such a small increase in bed material size results in a much significantly rise of the roughness coefficient, by remolding the sand bars on the bed surface. Both the velocity of the flow and the sediment carrying capacity of the channel will be reduced, and the river gradually re-establishes its equilibrium. It is now possible to calculate such a proeess according to the theories on sediment transport and river roughness. Following the coarsening of the bed material, the down-cutting rate of the stream channel decreases with time. Both the flume studies and field measurements indicate that the relationship between the down-cutting rate and the cumulative time of erosion is an exponential one. This study demonstrates that the fluvial processes of an alluvial channel depend very much on the hydrographic conditions of the basin, of which the stream forms a part. One can't visualize the whole aspect of the problem (?)y studying the fluvial proteases through hydraulics, view-point only.

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也...

冲积河流上修建水库以后,下游河道将失去平衡。河流为了重新建立平衡,必将发生一系列的变化。本文对这—变化的过程,提出了一些新的概念。根据枢纽下游所在地区的地质地理条件,河流的坡降可以有各种不同的变化。坡降的渐趋和缓只是三种可能性中的一种,不能当做普遍规律来看待。河槽的重新建立平衡,主要是通过河床质的粗化作用。河床质的粗化现象具有两种不同的类型。一种是河床表层复盖物因清水冲刷而外移,露出了底下属于另一地质时代的较粗的卵石层,这时河床质的粒径会发生突变。另一种是由于水流的分迭作用,河床质的变化是连续的,徐缓的。在第二种情况下,河床质的粒径虽然变化不多,但是,通过河底沙垅的加多,却可以使曼宁糙率系数有很快的增加,这就使水流的流速降低,挟沙能力减小,河流逐渐建立起新的平衡。随着河床质的渐次粗化,河床的冲刷下切率与时俱減。野外实测结果及水槽试验成果都指出冲刷率与冲刷历时之间成一指数关系。河床质中不能为水流所挟运的颗粒所占百分比愈大,冲刷率下降得愈快,河道重新恢复平衡所需要的时间也愈短。从黄河下游的具体情况来判断,将来修建枢纽以后,下游河道在承受清水冲刷时可能作整体下降,坡降的变化不会很大。黄河下游的河床质虽然很细,同样也存在着粗化的可能。通过粗化作用,可以使河床下切的深度大大减低。

Hased uPon flome test investigating the Physical phenomena of bed-load movement and forces acting upon particles on channel bed before their starting of movement, the following conclusions are reached:1. In general cases, movements of bed-load anal sand waves are closely accompanied with each other. Ivestigations on movements of bed-load, without taking into account the movements of sand waves, as done by Einstein, are unjustifiable. The main drawback of the Point of view of Einstein lies in the fact that, the...

Hased uPon flome test investigating the Physical phenomena of bed-load movement and forces acting upon particles on channel bed before their starting of movement, the following conclusions are reached:1. In general cases, movements of bed-load anal sand waves are closely accompanied with each other. Ivestigations on movements of bed-load, without taking into account the movements of sand waves, as done by Einstein, are unjustifiable. The main drawback of the Point of view of Einstein lies in the fact that, the periodical moving-and-standing process of bed-load particles is entirely over-looked while the statistical moving-and-standing Process of the same is over-emphasized.2. As well proved by the flume tests made by tbe authors, the tractive force of the water flow Plays at least the same, if not the more imPortant, part in making the ded-load particle to start its movement as the lifting force of the water flow. But, in the theory of bed-load movement of Einstein, the action of the tractive force of the water flow is not taken into-consideration at all.However, it is Pointed out in this article that Einstein was the first to introduce the statistical method into the investigation of bed-load move ment; and, thus, showed a,different way to consider the Problem.

本文在重點評述爱因斯坦关于推移质运动的理論的同时,結合着介紹了作者进行推移貭試驗的部分成果——推移质运动的物理過程和促使推移貭投入运动的力。本文指出:在冲积平原河流的一股情况下,推移质运动以沙波运动——特別是顺行沙波运动的主要形式。沙波的連续性运动是由組成沙波的沙粒(即推移质)的間歇性运动构成的。沙粒間歇性运动分为两种:必然性的間歇性运动与机迂性的間歇性运动。前者佔主要位置?俪赏茤刎犕度朐硕乃髯饔昧ξ埔屏吧暇倭?二者均不可忽略。在推移质投入运动以后,前者的作用可能更加重要。爱因斯坦脫离沙波运动建立关于描栘貭运动的理論,有见树不見林的傾向。在分析沙粒运动過程时,无视佔主要位置的必然性的間歇运动,片面强調只佔次要位置的机迂性的間歇运动。在考查促使推栘貭投入這动的水流作用力的时候,无视推栘力的作用,片面强调上举力的作用。这就不能使人对爱因斯坦关于推移质运动的理論基础的坚實性持保留态度。爱因斯坦首先引用統計理論于推移貭运动,可以认为是一个貢献。

The results of three sets of flume studies given in reference [1] were reanalyzed, indicating that the existence of sediment concentration gradient manifests its effects on the following respects: (1) Within the zone near the bed where a distinct sediment concentration gradient exists, the velocity distribution can be described by the following formula: in which both α' and β are functions of The parameter E is nothing else but an average Richardson number along the vertical. (2) In the main flow zone...

The results of three sets of flume studies given in reference [1] were reanalyzed, indicating that the existence of sediment concentration gradient manifests its effects on the following respects: (1) Within the zone near the bed where a distinct sediment concentration gradient exists, the velocity distribution can be described by the following formula: in which both α' and β are functions of The parameter E is nothing else but an average Richardson number along the vertical. (2) In the main flow zone where the sediment concentration gradient is small or ceases to exist, the velocity distribution still follows the logarithmic formula, only the von Karman's constant is less than 0.4, the corresponding value of the clear water flow. (3) As a first approximation, the velocity distribution of the whole flow field can be reduced to the following form where η_0=k_s/30.2h and m is a function of E. (4) As part of the turbulent energy is dissipated by overcoming the density gradient, the turbulence level is reduced. In a sediment-laden flow, the distribution of the various aspects of the energy along the vertical is also different from that of the clear water flow. (5) After taking into consideration the effect of density gradient on the flow field and the effect of sediment concentration on the settling velocity of the sedimentary particles, the suspended load distribution along the vertical assumes the following form: logG(S_v, a)=-1/ζF(β',η)+const., the functions G and F are given in graphical forms in Figs. 14 and 15 respectively.

本文根据三组水槽试验资料,初步探讨了近底高含沙量流层对流速分布、紊动特性等的影响,以及在此条件下的含沙量分布规律.近底高含沙量流层的存在,改变了时均流速的分布.在主流区实测范围內,流速分布继续遵循对数定律,但公式中的卡门常数减小,亦即流速分布趋于不均匀.在近底流区內具有明显的密度梯度,其流速分布可用式(13)来描述.挟沙水流中的含沙量梯度有使紊动減弱的作用.在高含沙量条件下,含沙量沿垂线分布具有公式(29)的形式.

 
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