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scab     
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  赤霉病
    VIRULENCE OF A PREDOMINANT PATHOGEN FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SCHWABE CAUSING WHEAT SCAB IN JIANGSU PROVINCE
    江苏省小麦赤霉病菌优势种——禾谷镰刀菌Fusarium graminearum Schwabe的致病力
短句来源
    APPLICATION OF THE DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TO THE WHEAT SCAB RESEARCH
    小麦赤霉病数据管理系统的应用
短句来源
    A PATH ANALYSIS ON WHEAT SCAB DISEASE FORECASTING
    通径分析在小麦赤霉病回归测报中的应用
短句来源
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON YIELD LOSS OF WHEAT SCAB
    小麦赤霉病产量损失研究初报
短句来源
    A STUDY ON STAGE PREDICTION MODELS FOR WHEAT SCAB DISEASE
    小麦赤霉病分段预测模型的研究
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  黑星病
    Preliminary Study on the Control of Pear Scab with Lukangning
    10%绿康宁胶悬剂防治梨黑星病研究初报
短句来源
    Advances in Research on Pear Scab
    梨黑星病研究进展
短句来源
    Study on Resistance of Cucumber Variety Resources to Scab
    黄瓜种质资源对黑星病的抗病性研究
短句来源
    Study on methodology for Identification of Multiple-resistance to Cucumber Downy Mildew and Scab
    黄瓜霜霉病、黑星病复合抗性鉴定方法研究
短句来源
    The study on the forecasting system for Dangshansu pear scab based on CBR
    基于案例推理的砀山酥梨黑星病预测系统研究
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  疮痂病
    Studies on the Groundnut Scab A New Groundunt Disease in Guangdong Province
    广东花生新病害──疮痂病的调查研究
短句来源
    Pathogen Identification of Tomato Bacterial Scab in Xinjiang
    新疆番茄细菌性疮痂病的病原鉴定
短句来源
    Development of Study on Peanut Scab
    花生疮痂病的研究进展
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    The Application Experiment of Controlling Citrus Scab Disease and Anthracnose with Potassium Permanganate
    高锰酸钾防治柑桔疮痂病、炭疽病的应用试验
短句来源
    Establishment and Validation of the Forecast Models for Citrus Scab in Spring
    柑桔春梢疮痂病预报模型的建立及应用验证
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  疮痂
    Identification of the Pathogens of Potato Scab in China and Cloning and Expression of the Pathogenicity-related Gene nec1
    中国马铃薯疮痂病菌的鉴定及其致病相关基因nec1的克隆和表达
短句来源
    A Study on Biological Characteristics of Pathogenic Fungus Causing Papaya Scab
    番木瓜疮痂病原菌鉴定及生物学特性的研究
短句来源
    Characterization and Identification on the Pathogen of Potato Scab in China
    中国马铃薯疮痂病菌的鉴定
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      scab
    VKM Ac-2534, the causative agent of common scab in potato tubers, which does not synthesize thaxtomin and is phylogenetically close to phytopathogen Streptomyces setonii sp.
          
    The results of the apple breeding for digenic resistance to scab (1979-2000), which is more long-term than the monogenic breeding, have been reviewed.
          
    Influence of alloplasm on resistance to wheat scab
          
    Resistance of hybrid F1 plants of reciprocal cross between alloplasmic line and disease-sensitive wheat variety to wheat scab was of clear difference.
          
    ventricosa cytoplasm have a strong and stable resistance to scab.
          
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    The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host development.In...

    The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host development.In 1952,varieties with earlier date ofheading were generally less susceptible than those which headed late. Varietal tests for the headblight resistance were made in Nanking in 1952and 1954.In 1952,235 varieties and hybrids were studied for their resistance toscab under natural conditions in the field.Great differences were found in theirdegree of infection,although none of them was immune.The percentages of in-fected heads ranged from 0.9 to 89.1 with most of them having 10 to 40% infec-tion.No definite correlation was seen between the percentage of infection andthe date of heading or of maturing.In 1954,tests on varietal resistance to scabwere again made with 40 varieties and hybrids including those being relatively lesssusceptible in the previous test.Attempts were made to induce epidemics in thefield by means of artificial inoculation.Results indicated that both mycelial andconidial suspensions were similarly effective for artificial inoculation.The averagepercentages of infected heads in the inoculated plots ranged from 4.2 to 77.7 incontrast to the uninoculated plots where the average percentages of infected headsbeing only trace to 7.1 with one variety not infected. From the experimental results obtained in 1952 and 1954,it was found thatrelative stability in resistance to headblight existed among different wheat varie-ties,although there was great variation in varietal resistance due to the effect ofenvironmental factors.Two hybrids,"5201" and "5204",were found to be muchmore resistant than all other varieties tested in both years.Hybrid "5204" gave ??0.9% of infected heads in 1952 and 3.4% in 1954,and hybrid "5201" gave5.5 and 9.0% of infected heads in the respective years.Both hybrids also possessother desirable characteristics such as early maturity,relative high yield,stiffystems,and high resistance to the stripe rust. Greenhouse studies were made in 1954 with two susceptible varieties ofwheat for testing their susceptibility to headblight at six different stages of deve-lopment from shooting to hard dough.Results indicated that the plant was sus-ceptible at all these stages of development with a tendency of being more heavilyinfected toward maturity.It was also observed that temperature had obvious effecton the degree of infection.Plants inoculated at flowering stage were more heavilyinfected when kept at 25℃ after inoculation than when kept at 15℃.However,the inoculated plants kept at 25℃ during the day and at 15℃ at night resultedin a degree of infection similar to those kept at 25℃ all the time.

    (一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后...

    (一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后者高。日间25℃和夜间15℃交替的变温处理,发病情形与始终置於25℃的相近。(六)不同小麦品种对于赤微病具有相对稳定的抵抗性或感染性。“5201”及“5204”等杂交系,在自然感染和人工接种情形下,发病都很轻微,并且具有早熟、丰产、秆硬和高度抵抗条锈等优良特性。

    The wheat scab which prevails in Heilongjiang Province overwinters by mycelium and perithecium on residues of diseased plants. It is found that the overwintered mycelium serves as the most important source of primary infection. The seed-born organism usually causes seedling infection. The host range so far studied in this province covers wheat, barley, oat, rye, and some species of Agropyrum and Lolium. The perithecia are found cnly to be produced on wheat but not on any other hosts. The incubation of...

    The wheat scab which prevails in Heilongjiang Province overwinters by mycelium and perithecium on residues of diseased plants. It is found that the overwintered mycelium serves as the most important source of primary infection. The seed-born organism usually causes seedling infection. The host range so far studied in this province covers wheat, barley, oat, rye, and some species of Agropyrum and Lolium. The perithecia are found cnly to be produced on wheat but not on any other hosts. The incubation of the disease is 2 1/2—7 days and 5—6 days in average. The duration and amount of rainfall are decisive to the development of the disease. Cropping systems as well as the location of fields are among other important factors of epiphytotics. Thus continuous cropping of wheat or with a previous crop of corn are likely to induce an epiphytotics of the disease especially on low and poorly drained land. From 1959 to 1963, a total of 200 varieties have been observed in field and none of them is immune, however, they vary in degree of susceptibility. The varieties with long awns such as Jashun No. 2, Ho-Shao-Mai and Hozo No. 7 are considered to be more resistant. When the period of havesting, threshing and piling are postponed, the later spreading of the disease in wheat straws and heads increases. For instance, a postponement of threshing for 40 days in 1960, results an increase of head blight from 13% to 84%. To improve the style of piling so to offer better ventilation and avoid more moisture is lesirable for controlling the disease after harvesting.

    黑龙江省小麦赤霉病主要以菌絲、子囊壳在被害残株、麦壳上越冬,是次年穗枯的主要初次侵染源。种子带病是苗枯的主要原因。本地区发現主要寄主为小麦、大麦、黑麦、燕麦、王米、鵝冠草、意大利黑麦草。除麦类外,至今尚未在其他寄主上找到子囊壳。病原菌的潛育期为2.5—7天,一般发病5—6天,最快4天就会产生大量的分生孢子。孢子借雨水冲濺、风力、麦穗互相接触等方式进行传播。收获后垜內的侵染,以分生孢子为主,借接触及水流蔓延。流行的主导因素是降水量与湿度。小麦重槎地、玉米槎地、地势低洼排水不良地,发病严重。观察了200余个品种,結果无一个免疫品种。但发病程度,有显著的差异;并有长芒比短芒抗病的趋势,如佳选二号、火小麦等比較抗病。后期的侵染和发病率,随收割期、脫谷期、堆垜时間增加而剧增。通过几种垜式对比,認为收割初期湿度大,以放射形垜为佳。种子处理用0.2%赛力散、0.5%赛力散加石灰有一定的效果。

    In accordance with the actual condition of wheat—early rice—laterice system in Shanghai,three experiments on the vitality of Gibberellazeae were carried out in soil pots with an imitation of the paddy fieldconditions in open during 1974-1978.The results of spore germination experiments obtained in 1974 and1975 inducated that both macro-conidia and ascospores with their subs-trata although were immersed in the water layer of the soil pots,theycould maintain their vitality up to 18-20 days.Results of trans-planting...

    In accordance with the actual condition of wheat—early rice—laterice system in Shanghai,three experiments on the vitality of Gibberellazeae were carried out in soil pots with an imitation of the paddy fieldconditions in open during 1974-1978.The results of spore germination experiments obtained in 1974 and1975 inducated that both macro-conidia and ascospores with their subs-trata although were immersed in the water layer of the soil pots,theycould maintain their vitality up to 18-20 days.Results of trans-planting the early-and late-rice seedlings into theinoculated water layer of the soil pots throughout the rice growing sea-son showed that the scab fungus could neither oversummer nor over-winter in such water layer of soil pots.Furthermore no viable hiber-nating mycelia were detected from the over wintered rice stubbles fromthe above pots.During the years 1974-1978,observations made on the source of theprimary infection revealed that the perithecia were only to be producedon the overwintered rice stubbles which were collected from the fieldwafter the sowing of wheat,but not on any other rice stubbles whichwere collected from the same field before the sowing of wheat.It is con-sidered that the primary source of infection of the scab disease wascheifly the diseased wheat seeds.

    通过1974~1978年的试验证明:麦类赤霉病菌[Gibberella zeae(Schw.)Perch.)的两种孢子,随病残体置于淹水条件下,经18—20天全部失去其发芽力。病菌在以三麦—早稻—后季稻三熟制为主的上海地区,不能在早稻、后季稻水田中越夏越冬,或麦收后侵入水稻,稻收后以菌丝体在稻桩内潜伏越冬。引起稻桩上春季产生麦赤霉病菌子囊壳的初次菌源,不是传自腐生在稻田土表的病菌菌丝体,而主要是来自混在播种材料中的带病麦粒。

     
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