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weed
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  杂草
    Quantitative analysis of weed communities of summer crops in Huoqiu County of Anhui Province
    安徽省霍邱县夏收作物田杂草群落的数量分析
短句来源
    Studies on the Rapeseed-field Weed Control byEthametsulfuron and its Safety to after Crops
    胺苯黄隆对油菜田杂草防效及后茬作物安全性探讨
短句来源
    Research Progresses in Weed Ecology and Biology
    杂草生态学和生物学研究进展
短句来源
    Experiments on the Summer Maize Field Weed Control by 40% Yiyou SC
    40%乙莠水悬浮剂防除夏玉米田杂草试验
短句来源
    The results showed that excellent weed control performance was achieved when thifensulfuron-methyl 75% WG was applied at the 3~5 leaf stage of corn and within the application dosage of 20~40 g/ha.
    结果表明,75%噻吩磺隆WG对春玉米田间阔叶杂草具有良好的防除效果,安全适宜的用法是在杂草3 ̄5叶期进行茎叶喷雾,用药量以20 ̄40g/hm2为宜。
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  除草
    Study of Chemical Weed Control Technic on Rice Moist Cultivation in Cold and Soaked Fields
    冷浸田水稻湿润栽培化学除草技术研究
短句来源
    STUDIES ON CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL IN RICE LIGHT CULTIVATION──DEVELOPMENT OF APPLICATION TECHNIQUE FOR BUTACHLOR-OXADIAZON MIXTURE
    水稻轻型栽培化学除草技术研究─—丁恶复配剂应用技术开发
短句来源
    Study on weed control efficacy and wheat injuries of 2,4-D butylate
    2,4-D丁酯麦田除草效果及其对小麦安全性的研究
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    The Experimental Study on the Benefits of Common Weed Killers in Weeding Tending of Young Forests
    常用除草剂在幼林除草抚育中的效益试验研究
短句来源
    Chemical Weed Control in No-tillage Cotton Using CN Integrated Irrigation Technology
    新疆CN综合灌溉配套技术免耕棉田的化学除草
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  “weed”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Diagnosis of Crop Disease,Insect Pest and Weed Based on Image Recognition
    基于图像识别的作物病虫草害诊断研究
短句来源
    Study on the Biology, Ecology of Alligator Weed [Alternanthera Philoxeroides(Mart.)Griseb.] and Synergism and Mechanism of Herbicides
    空心莲子草[Alternanthera philoxeroides(Mart.)Griseb.]的生物学、生态学与复配除草剂的增效作用及作用机理研究
短句来源
    Study on Weed Control Technique for Cane Field with Application of Glyphosate
    草甘膦应用于蔗田除草的技术研究
短句来源
    Inquiry to Application of 41% Nongda Weed Killer in Phyllostachys Pubescens Forest
    41%农达除草剂在毛竹山上试用初探
短句来源
    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE CONTROL EFFECT WEED BY LEMA SCUTELLARIS
    盾负泥虫控草效果的初步研究
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  weed
canadensis has become an invasive weed in eastern China, and has caused serious damages to agricultural production and ecosystems in several provinces in China.
      
(cheatgrass) is a dominant weed that has increased the frequency of wildfire in western North America since being introduced about 120 years ago from Central Asia.
      
In this work, SPAD-502 meter readings and TCHL concentration were compared for the leaves of Amaranthus vlitus L., a common weed.
      
Research on segmentation of weed images based on computer vision
      
The algorithm separates the weed area from soil background according to the color eigenvalue, which is obtained by analyzing the color difference between the weeds and background in three color spaces RGB, rgb and HSI.
      
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In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf...

In recent years,a new disease of the foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.)has been reported to occur in epiphytotic scale in most of the millet growning areasof North China.On account of the brilliant red pigmentation of the infected plant,the disease is generally referred to by the farmers as the red-leaf disease.However,the symptoms on the millet plants varied with different varieties.In general,thecharacteristic symptom exhibited on the "purple-stem" varieties was the the redden-ing of the leaf blade,leaf sheath and spike,particularly the bristle,while that onthe "green-stem" varieties was the yellowing of the leaf blade.In all instances,thediscoloration was usually accompanied by shortening of internode,stunting of thewhole plant.wrinkling of leaf surface,slight waviness of leaf margin,deformationof spike and underdevelopment of root systems.Plants infected at an early stagewere severely stunted and on heads were produced. It has been demonstrated that the red-leaf disease of the foxtail millet was causedby a virus readily transmitted by at least three different species of grain-infestingaphids:corn aphid,Rhopalostiphum maidis Fitch;grain aphid,Macrosiphum granari-um Kirby;and green-bug,Toxoptera graminum Rond.Tests with non-viruliferouscorn aphid eliminated the possibility of direct aphid injury as the cause of the disease. ??The virus was not transmissible by mechanical inoculation,by seeds nor through thesoil. Studies on the mode of transmission of red-leaf virus by corn aphid indicatedthat the virus was persistent in its insect vector and could infect in succession aseries of at least 27 tested millet seedlings.The aphid was unable to acquire thevirus in a 5-minute feedling period on the virus source but was able to pick up thevirus in 10-minute period.The 8-hour acquisition feeding period was optimum forthis aphid.The testing feeding period was found to be not more than 5 minutesand a 4-hour period of confinement on the diseased plant was ample for the aphidto cause maximum infection.Attempts to transmit the virus with cotton aphid.Aphisgossypii Gloner peach aphid,Aphis persicae Sehult and soybean aphid,Aphis glycinesMats,have given negative results.The incubation period for symptoms of the red-leaf virus in foxtail millet ranged from 10 to 32 days with the model period beingbetween 14 to 20 days. Under natural conditions,certain cultivated cereals and grass weeds showed thesymptoms resembling the red-leaf disease of foxtail millet.Among them,were ZeaMays L.,Panicum miliaceum L.,Setaria lutescens (Weigel) Hubb.,S.viridis (L.)Beauv.,Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Roem.,Eragrostiscilianensis (All.) Link,E.pilosa (L.) Beauv.,Arundinella anomala Steud,Spodiopogonsibiricus (Steud.) Trin.,Bothruochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng.,Capillipedium parviflor-um (R.Br.) Stapf and Poa practensis L..Artificial inoculation with the corn aphidproved that the first six named plant species,including the two cereals,were susce-ptible to the red-leaf virus and they produced,in all cases,the typical symptoms.Tests with the rest sexen grass weeds are in progress. The results of disease control experiments by timely spraying with an insecticide,E605,under field conditions were inconsistent.Among the 349 foxtail millet varie-ties of foxtail millet examined in the experimental field,nine of them were foundto be highly torelant to and suffered only very slightly from the attack of the red-leaf virus.These varieties were,however,succeptible in aphid transmission experiments. Available evidences point to the conclusion that the red-leaf virus of the foxtail millet herin reported is quite different from all the previously described cereal viruses.Among the cereal virus that closely resembles the red-leaf virus is the yellow-dwarfvirus reported by Oswald tnd Hauston.These two viruses are similar in the follow-ing respects:both are transmissible by the same species of aphids (Rhopalosiphummaidis,Microsiphum graminium andToxoptera granarium) and neither virus can betransferred mechanically.But they differ strikingly from each other in their hostranges.According to Oswald and Hauston,there were 19 of 55 grasses tested thatappeared to be immune from the yellow-dwarf virus.Digitaria sanguinalis,Echino-chloa crus-galli Setaria viridis and Zea Mays were among the immune hosts.On thecontary,all these four gramineous plants were found to be extremely susceptible tothe red-leaf virus both under natural condition and in artificial inoculation experi-ments.Accordingly,the red-leaf,a persistent aphid borne virus affecting the foxtailmillet,is herein reported as a new virus of the cereals.

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油...

小米红叶病是在我国华北分布普遍和为害严重的一种小米病害。病害的症状,在紫杆的小米品种上面,主要的是叶片、叶鞘和穗变紅;在青杆品种上面是叶片黄化。無論如何,紫杆和青杆品种病株除变色外,都可随伴各种畸形,包括植株矮化、叶面绉折、叶綠波状、穗变形和根系發育不良。紅叶病是一个借蚜虫傳播的病毒病害衩籽痢⒙蟪す苎梁吐蠖硌辆軅鞑ゲ『?其中以玉米蚜为最重要。曾經测定玉米蚜在病株上面吸食获得病毒和在健株上面吸食所需最短的时間;带毒玉米蚜的数目和傳病效能的关系谐嵫梁腿舫婢軅鞑 S锰已痢⒋蠖寡梁兔扪羵鞑∥椿竦谜慕Y果。紫杆品种感病后,仅表皮細胞、叶毛細胞和泡状細胞变成紅化,其下层的組織不紅化。叶綠素逐漸消失,但消失过程相当的慢。在病害最末期,維管束內的靱皮細胞少数的坏死,导水管內可能充塞有棕色胶質物,其它細胞無显著的变化。檢查病叶未發現有細胞內含体。用带毒蚜虫作人工接种,証知小米紅叶病病毒能侵染玉米和黍。这两种作物在自然环境下均發生紅叶病。在自然环境下,有以下的禾谷类杂草紅化:金狗尾、青狗尾、馬唐、大画眉草、画眉草、稗、野牯草、大油芒、白羊草、細柄草和六月禾。用玉米蚜作人工接种証明稗、青狗尾、金狗尾、馬唐、六月禾和大油芒均感染小米紅叶病病毒。其它紅化杂草和接种試驗,正在进行中。紅叶病病毒对小米植株所产生的影响,因植株發育的阶段不同而輕重有所差异,植株感病愈早病害愈剧烈。用杀虫剂E605在田間噴射小米防治紅叶病,未能表現药剂有防病的效能,在田間观察349个品种,选得9个高度耐病和农艺性状优良的品种。抗病选种可能是当前防治小米紅叶病最有效的防治措施。根据病原的傳染方法,寄主范围和所表現的症状,小米紅叶病病毒和以往所报道的禾本科植物的病毒病害的病毒均不相同,因此它是禾谷类作物的一个新的病毒。

Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks...

Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks may not come out or are shortened, deformed and twisted. Flowers appeared pale yellow and become abortive, or forming only small and twisted seed pod, which are sometimes spotted with black necrosis, and bearing small and deformed seeds. When the winter temperature is low, diseased plants may succumb first, forming missing hills. Late infections may result only in vein-banding of the upper leaves and partial abortion of the seeds. On several varieties of radish, mostly of the green type, which apparently are more resistant, only fine mottling appears on the leaves while infected. On varieties of B. napella, another oil-bearing group, the symptoms are entirely different (plate 1, fig. 5), appearing as systemic bright yellow spots on the leaves. Necrotic flecking can eventually be found at the center of these spots. Necrotic streaks and spots develop on the flower stalks and seed pods. Dwarfing and distortion occur on leaves, stalks and pods, and death may even be resulted from severe infections. However, this species showed certain degree of resistance to the disease in the form of late infection and the lower incidence of the disease. The viruses from different host plants are cross-inoculable, although some strains do not infect B. napella. None of them can infect the cabbage group by sap inoculation. 3 viruses were identified: differentiated by their physical properties and the host reactions they induced (Tables 1 and 2 for the viruses 1 and 2): 1. Thermal inactivation below 70℃. 2. Producing necrotic local lesions only on N. tabacum var, "Nungling 400" …… virus 1 2. Producing necrotic local lesions and systemic mottling on the same host……virus 2 1. Thermal inactivation above 90℃., necrotic local lesions on N. glutinosa…… virus 3 The first two viruses can be subdivided into 2 strains each by their ability to infect B. napella. Virus 1 is considered to be a strain of Brassica virus 2 or the Turnip mosaic virus; from the type, it differs in not infecting the cabbage group. Virus 2 is identified as a strain of Cucumis virus 1 or the Cucumber mosaic; virus; from the type, it differs in having lower thermal inactivation point (55℃.), lower dilution end point (1: 1,000—3,000); and shorter longevity invitro (2 days), in producing local lesions on tobacco, and in that the typical strain of Cacumis virus 1 gives only a partial protection to this strain on tobacco. The 3rd virus was less studied. It shows affinity to Nicotiana virus 1 or the tobacco mosaic virus. A limited test showed that the first virus was the only virus found present in the field in 1957. An analysis of 17 isolates of virus from the Chinese rape, exhibiting various syndromes of symptoms in the field, gave an Unanimous result in host reactions, indicating that these isolates belong to a single virus. Virus 1 was found to be easily transmitted by sap, by aphids, including peach aphid (Myzus pcrsicae), false cabbage aphid (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae), and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). In insect relationship, the virus belongs to the nonpersistent group, a single feeding will enable an active transmission of about 20 minutes. Peach aphid seems to be an effective vector that 2 or more viruliferous aphids per plant are capable of 100% transmission. The virus is not seed-transmitted. Fresh residue of diseased plant in the soil may cause occasional infection of the replanted plants. The virus can infect several cruciferous weeds, but, among them, only Rorippa montana (wall.) Small grows all the year round and possesses a perennial crown. It is also foundto be commonly infected in the nature. Rubbing with infected sap or using aphid as vector, the virus from this weed can easily be transmitted to the Chinese rape, producing the typical mosaic symptoms. This weed, therefore, seems to be capable of beoming a source of inoculum for the primary infection of the Chinese rape.

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子...

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子不传病。殘留在土壤內的新鮮病根,可以传病。蔊菜在自然情况下可以感染病害。病株上病毒可由蚜虫传至油菜而誘发典型的花叶病,且具有終年生长及終年发病的特性,可能成为初期发病的病毒来源。

The severity of red-leaf disease of millet, as measured by the height as well as the yielding capacity, is directly correlated to the stage of development of the plants at which infestation takes place. As a rule, plants infested at seedling stage are much more damaged than those infested at the later stages of development. Date of sowing effects the percentages of diseased plants. In general, earlier sowing produces more diseased plants than later sowings. Nevertheless, it is largely determined by the prevalence...

The severity of red-leaf disease of millet, as measured by the height as well as the yielding capacity, is directly correlated to the stage of development of the plants at which infestation takes place. As a rule, plants infested at seedling stage are much more damaged than those infested at the later stages of development. Date of sowing effects the percentages of diseased plants. In general, earlier sowing produces more diseased plants than later sowings. Nevertheless, it is largely determined by the prevalence of the migrating aphids. Introducing corn aphids, in the previous autumn, on host plants of red-leaf virus, including 11 species of perannual gramineous weeds, under screen cages in open field, did not reveal the presence of either survival insects or egg mass during the next spring. It indicates that the corn aphids don't overwinter on these weeds under the present experimental conditions. Two species of perannual weeds, viz. (Panicum virgatum L. & Boutelona curitipendula (Michx.) Torr.),are found to carry the virus over the winter under natural conditions. Attempts for controlling the disease with organic phosphorus insectides have been so far? unsuccessful. Among 200 or more varieties and strains of millets, 4 of them have been proved to be highly tolerant to the disease and possessing desirable agronomic characters.

在田間隔离昆虫传染的条件,于小米不同生长期所进行的人工分期接种試驗,証明接种期愈早对植株的生长和产量的影响愈大,并发現根系受紅叶病毒的影响最为显著。在田间条件下不同播种期对小米感染红叶病的百分率的影响不大一致,但根据两年的結果,早播一般均较正常播种期的发病率为高。人工飼育蚜虫的試驗,未发現玉米蚜能在鵝冠草等11种多年生禾本科杂草上越冬。在所測定的11种植物中,小米紅叶病病毒能在黍草(Panicum virgatum L.)和垂穗草(Bouteloua curitipendula(Michx.)Torr.)上越冬。三年的試驗証明,田间不同时期噴射內吸杀虫药剂虽可減少蚜虫数量,但对小米产量和紅叶病发病率均无显著影响。对二百多个小米品系連續四年进行紅叶病抗病性的鑑定,发現大多数品种都是高度感病的,沒有抗病和免疫的品种,但有許多高度耐病的品系。选出耐病而且农艺性状良好的P14A、NP—157、P354和摩里等四个品系。

 
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