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metabolism
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  代谢
    The Metabolism of Daidzein (7,4'-dihydroxy-isoflavone) and It Effects on Cytochrome P450
    大豆苷元(7,4'-二羟基异黄酮)代谢机制及对细胞色素P450的影响
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    Experimental Study of Effects of PAP on Metabolism of Chondrocytes Cultured in Vitro
    鹿茸多肽增强体外培养兔关节软骨细胞代谢的实验研究
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    Study on Genistein's Pharmacokinetics and Its Mechanism of Transport and Metabolism
    染料木黄酮的药代动力学及其转运代谢机制
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    Preparation of Shaoqiduogan and Its Effects and Mechanisms in Promoting Collagen Metabolism of Liver in Rats with Chemical Hepatic Fibrosis
    芍芪多苷的研制及其对大鼠化学性肝纤维化的作用和促进胶原代谢的分子机制
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    Synthesis, Metabolism, Structure Modification of Perlolyrine and Pharmacological Study of Perlolyrine Analogues
    川芎哚的合成、代谢转化、结构改造及其类似物的药理研究
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  “metabolism”译为未确定词的双语例句
    COMPARATIVE PHARMACOLOGY OF CHEESE RED GINSENG AND KOREAN RED GINSENG——2. On sugar metabolism
    中国红参与朝鲜红参药理作用的比较——2.对糖代谢的影响
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    The initial observation on effect of tetrandrine on carbohydrate metabolism in normal rats
    汉防己甲素对正常大鼠糖代谢作用的初步观察
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    A Study on Observation of Bone Metabolism in Middle-aged and Senile Female Graves' Disease
    补肾活血中药治疗中老年女性甲亢患者骨代谢紊乱的临床研究
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    (1) Studies on the abnormal lipid metabolism model of rat showed that EOB-f decreased enormously triglyceride level (TG) and increased High Density Lipoprotein level (HDL-c) in serum.
    1)动物模型研究表明,EOB-f能显著降低血清中甘油三酯(TG)的含量,显著升高血清中高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-c)的含量,降低动脉硬化危险;
    The Influence of Allitridi on the Metabolism of Rats with Diabetes
    大蒜素对糖尿病大鼠糖代谢影响
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  metabolism
But there appeared to be species difference in arteether metabolism, highest conversion being recorded with humans followed by rats and monkeys.
      
The fibrate class drugs effect on lipid metabolism through PPARα receptor.
      
Effects of soil drought on seedling growth and water metabolism of three common shrubs in Loess Plateau, Northwest China
      
The growth and water metabolism of three common shrubs on the Loess Plateau were studied under soil with different water contents.
      
Few data are available on the effects of being exposed to this pollutant on the molecular mechanism, although some biochemical changes in lipid metabolism, intermediary metabolism and oxidative stress have been detected.
      
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Oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid by means of periodic acid gave glyoxylic acid quantitatively, the latter was then condensed with p-nitrophenylhydrazine. The p-nitro-phenylhydrazone thus formed was purified by some extraction procedures and determined colorimetrically after treatment with sodium hydroxide. Quantities as small as 5 μg could be estimated by means of an electrophotometer. The average relative mean deviation was 4± 3%. Recoveries were 106±15% for urine and 74±6% for serum. The absorption spectrum...

Oxidative cleavage of tartaric acid by means of periodic acid gave glyoxylic acid quantitatively, the latter was then condensed with p-nitrophenylhydrazine. The p-nitro-phenylhydrazone thus formed was purified by some extraction procedures and determined colorimetrically after treatment with sodium hydroxide. Quantities as small as 5 μg could be estimated by means of an electrophotometer. The average relative mean deviation was 4± 3%. Recoveries were 106±15% for urine and 74±6% for serum. The absorption spectrum of glyoxylic acid p-nitrophenylhydrazone after treatment with sodium hydroxide was determined. As the spectrum did not change even in the presence of antimony in quantities as much as 20 times the molar concentration of tartaric acid, this method would be suitable especially for the studies on the metabolism of the tartaric acid portion of potassium antimony tartrate.

用过碘酸使酒石酸氧化断裂为乙醛酸,然后与对硝基苯肼縮合.生成的乙醛酸对硝基苯腙經提取純化后,用氫氧化鈉显色,建立了生物样品中酒石酸的新比色测定法.应用光电比色計时,检出限度可达5微克.光密度讀数的平均相对偏差为4±3%.生物样品测定的回收率兔尿为106±15%,狗血浆为74±6%。大量銻的存在对测定可无干扰,因此本法适用于酒石酸銻鉀分子中酒石酸部分的代謝研究.

Farrerol is one of the expectorant principles isolated from the aqueous extract of the leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. The expectorant action and some other pharmacological activities of farrerol were reported in a previous paper. In the present article, some results on the metabolism of farrerol are reported.Farrerol in biological materials was extracted with ether at pH 6 and assayed spectrophotometrically in alkaline solution at 335 nm. This method was shown to be simple, sensitive and specific for...

Farrerol is one of the expectorant principles isolated from the aqueous extract of the leaves of Rhododendron dauricum L. The expectorant action and some other pharmacological activities of farrerol were reported in a previous paper. In the present article, some results on the metabolism of farrerol are reported.Farrerol in biological materials was extracted with ether at pH 6 and assayed spectrophotometrically in alkaline solution at 335 nm. This method was shown to be simple, sensitive and specific for the quantitative determination of farrerol in biological materials.Seventy to eighty per cent of the dose disappeared from the gastrointestinal tract 6~12 hours after oral administration of farrerol to rats. About thirty per cent of the dose was recoyered in the feces collected for four days. Low drug level (9.2μg/gm tissue) was found in the liver and only trace amounts of the drug were detected in the brain, blood and fat one hour after an oral dose of 200 mg/kg. After intravenous administration the highest drug level was found in the lungs, and the levels decreased in the order of brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, heart and fat, with the lowest level in the blood. Only 1.6 per cent of the drug was recovered in the five-day urine sample after a single oral dose. A great part of the drug was metabolized rapidly in the body, and the liver was shown to be the chief organ for the metabolism of farrerol.In addition to unchanged drug, four metabolic products of farrerol were isolated from the urine of drug-treated rats, one of them was considered to be the glucuronic acid conjugate of farrerol.

本文报告一项从生物样品中测定杜鹃素含量的简便、灵敏的分光光度法,并利用这个方法进行了一些杜鹃素体内代谢的研究。 大鼠口服杜鹃素后约有30%的药物随粪排出,其余的药物在6~12小时内被吸收。口服后,药物在胃内有少量破坏。口服杜鹃素200mg/kg后1小时,能从肝脏测得少量药物,脂肪、脑、血液仅含痕迹量。静脉注射后药物在各组织中的分布以肺最高,然后脑、肝、肾、脾、心、脂肪等依次递降,血液最少。口服后5天尿中排出的未变药物仅占剂量的1.6%,大部分药物在体内被迅速转化,肝脏是转化杜鹃素的主要器官。从给药大鼠尿中分离到结晶杜鹃素及另外4个代谢产物,其中之一可能是杜鹃素的葡萄糖醛酸结合物。

The antifertility effect of gossypol was discovered and confirmed by Chinese Scientific workers during therecent years through experiments onanimals and clinical studies.However,It's toxicity to animals and the develop-ment of side effects in some of thesubjects following gossypol administra-tion have also been reported.In orderto analyze the cause and effect rela-tionship between the toxicity and thenature of metabolism of gossypol,wehave conducted experiments designedto obtain information concerning...

The antifertility effect of gossypol was discovered and confirmed by Chinese Scientific workers during therecent years through experiments onanimals and clinical studies.However,It's toxicity to animals and the develop-ment of side effects in some of thesubjects following gossypol administra-tion have also been reported.In orderto analyze the cause and effect rela-tionship between the toxicity and thenature of metabolism of gossypol,wehave conducted experiments designedto obtain information concerning themetabolic fate of gossypol in rats fol-lowing the oral administration of ~(14)C-gossypol acetic acid.Wistar male rats selected for uniformity of weight (105—200g body weight) were placed in individual metaboliccages that were designed to controlexperimental conditions.A single oraldose (94μci/35mg) of radioactive gos-sypol (sp.act.2.665μci/mg) was givento each rat in one group of experi-ments,and in another group the ratswere given labeled gossypol at thedosage of 4.5μci/5mg/day for 2—3 weeksconsecutively.The rats were anesthetized and frozen in acetone cooled to-78℃ with dry ice after varying intervals of time.Whole body andmicro-autoradiography of various or-gan tissues were performed according tothe methods described elsewhere.Ob-servations on the absorption,distribu-tion,accumulation and elimination of~(14)C-gossypol in the rat body as wellas cytopathological examination on theH.E.stained histological sections werecarried out.(1) The whole-body autoradio-graphs demonstrated that the radioac-tivity was located mainly over thegastro-intestinal tract and liver,andthe contents of different parts of the alimentary canal had the highest acti-vity 1-2 days following a single oraldose of ~(14)C-labeled gossypol.At thefourth day,there was a general increasein the activity in all tissues,and theradioactivity in the main visceral organswere rapidly reached to their highestlevel by the 9th day.Strong accumu-lation could be observed in the liver,spleen,kidney,adrenal,pancreas,mu-scle,lymph node,thymus,pitutary,testis and salivary gland in the 9th day autoradiograph.14 days after the administration,the radioactivity in alltissues and organs were markedly de-creased,Only in bones and lymphnodes still contained high activities.Most of the tissues had no detectableor having very low activity 19 daysafter the oral dosing,indicated that nolong term accumulation of gossypolretained in the visceras.(2) The pattern of absorption anddistribution of radioactivity in the bodyof rats that on continuous administra-tion of ~(14)C-gossypol (4.5μci/5mg/day)was basically similar to the rats thatreceived a single oral dose.In both dosage cases,the alimentary canaland liver had the highest activity,followed by the spleen,lymph nodes,heart,kidney,adrenal,bone marrow,salivary gland,thymus,muscle,testis,epididymis,accessory sex glands,pan-creas,lung and urinary bladder inwhich decreased their radioactivitiesin order.Gossypol was usually unde-tectable in the brain and spinal cordor having the lowest activity only,evidently there was blood-brain barrier that protected the brain against passage of gossypol.(3) The organs concerned withelimination of gossypol,spleen,lymphnode,thymus,bone marrow as well asthe reticulo-endothelial cells of variousvisceral organs (i.e.Kupffer cells ofliver,dust and septal cells of lung,lymphocytes,plasma cells and macro-phages in different tissues) showed highconcentrations of radioactivity,sugges-ted that the reticulo-endothelial systemmight play a part in the detoxicationof gossypol in the body.(4) Cytological examination reve-aled that,with the exception of thetestis,no pathological changes weredetectable in the organs and tissuessuch as liver,spleen,heart,kidney,lung,pancreas and bone marrow.Thefact that the testis is the only organthat is damaged at low dosage of gos-sypol and that the radioactivity in thetestis is lower than that in the aboveorgans indicates that the selective orhigher susceptibility of the testis togossypol is not due to concentration ofgossypol in the testis,but to a highervulnerabilit sensitivity of the testis to the drug. (5) The results revealed that there was rather high radioactivity in the endocrine organs concerned with re- production and water and salts metabo- lism (i.e.adrenal gland,pituitary andthe Leydig cells of interstitial tissuesof testis),and a significant but lowamounts of radioactivity in the nucleiof hypothalamus as well as the medianeminence,suggests the possibility thatgossypol might effect in some degreeon the above endocrine hormone secre-tions and on the autonomic nervouscenter as well.(6) The possible cause and effectcorrelation between the clinical sym-ptoms (i.e.The transient weakness,SGPT and ECG changes,hypokalemicand thirsty etc.) and gossypol adminis-tration in connection with the distribu-tion of ~(14)C-gossypol in high amountsin the corresponding tissues and organssuch as skeletal muscle,liver,heart,kidney and salivary gland in this reportwas discussed.

以~(14)C 标记的醋酸棉酚喂饲成年雄性大鼠,一次口服组的剂量为94微居里/35毫克;累加服药组为4.5微居里/日。分别于服药后不同时期取材制成整体或组织放射自显片。追踪标记棉酚在体内各脏器和组织中的吸收,分布和累积的定位变化动态。相应的组织切片用H、E 染色,作细胞病理学观察。结果摘述如下:1.一次口服标记棉酚后1—2天,标记物主要分布于胃、肠道和肝脏中。4—9天后,心、脾、肺、肾、胰、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、肾上腺、垂体、胸腺、唾腺、骨髓、淋巴结和肌肉等脏器组织中的活性均迅速达到各自的高峰水平。以后标记物逐渐扩布至全身。14天后,活性明显下降。19天后,活性已不易追踪。未见有长期定位的累积现象。累加服药组的吸收和分布状态与一次服药组基本相同。2.定位于各脏器组织中的标记物活性强度以消化道为最高,其次为肝脏。以下的大体顺序为:脾、淋巴结>心、肾、垂体、肾上腺、骨髓>唾腺、胸腺、肌肉、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、胰、肺>血液> 膀胱>脑及骨髓。骨质在后期活性略有升高。脑和脊髓的活性反应微弱,可能与血脑屏障的保护性作用有关。3.脾脏、淋巴结、胸腺、骨髓和各脏器中的网状内皮系细胞(枯否氏细胞、尘细胞、淋巴细胞、浆细胞、...

以~(14)C 标记的醋酸棉酚喂饲成年雄性大鼠,一次口服组的剂量为94微居里/35毫克;累加服药组为4.5微居里/日。分别于服药后不同时期取材制成整体或组织放射自显片。追踪标记棉酚在体内各脏器和组织中的吸收,分布和累积的定位变化动态。相应的组织切片用H、E 染色,作细胞病理学观察。结果摘述如下:1.一次口服标记棉酚后1—2天,标记物主要分布于胃、肠道和肝脏中。4—9天后,心、脾、肺、肾、胰、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、肾上腺、垂体、胸腺、唾腺、骨髓、淋巴结和肌肉等脏器组织中的活性均迅速达到各自的高峰水平。以后标记物逐渐扩布至全身。14天后,活性明显下降。19天后,活性已不易追踪。未见有长期定位的累积现象。累加服药组的吸收和分布状态与一次服药组基本相同。2.定位于各脏器组织中的标记物活性强度以消化道为最高,其次为肝脏。以下的大体顺序为:脾、淋巴结>心、肾、垂体、肾上腺、骨髓>唾腺、胸腺、肌肉、睾丸、附睾、附属性腺、胰、肺>血液> 膀胱>脑及骨髓。骨质在后期活性略有升高。脑和脊髓的活性反应微弱,可能与血脑屏障的保护性作用有关。3.脾脏、淋巴结、胸腺、骨髓和各脏器中的网状内皮系细胞(枯否氏细胞、尘细胞、淋巴细胞、浆细胞、巨噬细胞等)均呈现高强度的放射活性。表明网状内皮系统可能参与清除棉酚的解毒过程。4.实验中出现较高活性分布的心、肝、脾、肾、肺、胰、骨髓等主要脏器组织均未见有细胞病理改变,而处于中等活性水平的睾丸曲细精管则出现明显的细胞损伤。表明生精上皮细胞对棉酚的敏感性较其他脏器组织为高。毒性反应与剂量水平在一定范围内似无正比相关,而与细胞的敏感性和耐受性的高低则有密切关系。5.与生殖及水盐代谢有关的内分泌腺:肾上腺、垂体和睾丸间质细胞均有较高的放射活性。丘脑下部有关核团及正中隆突亦有微弱的活性定位。提示了棉酚在某种条件下对上述内分泌激素分泌及植物性神经中枢产生影响的可能性。6.本报导联系临床上出现的口干、乏力及过渡性肝功能和心电图异常等毒性症状与相应脏器(唾腺、肌肉、肝及心脏)中标记棉酚活性分布的状态及其间的可能相关予以讨论。

 
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