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geographical
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  地理
    Historical Geographical Study of Buddhist Culture in Northwest China
    西北佛教历史文化地理研究
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    THIRTY YEARS' GEOGRAPHICAL EDUCATION IN CHINA
    我国地理教育三十年
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    A HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY ON THE VIOLET BAMBOO SHOOT TEA OF GUZHU, CHANGXIN COUNTY, ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
    紫笋茶的历史地理研究
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    ON A FEW MATTERS OF LOCAL GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY AND ITS EDUCATION
    关于乡土地理研究与教育的几个问题
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    THE STUDY CATEGORY AND THE DEVELOPMENT TREND OF THE MODERN GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCE
    现代地理科学的研究范围和发展趋势
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  地理的
    Synthesizing the plenty of historic literature, the existing research achievement and the data from the field survey, this thesis roundly analyzes the forming and the developing of the belief of Mazu, and all kinds of factors which promotes the development, with the one-thousand-year history (from the Song dynasty to now) as the longitude, and the geographical space (from Meizhou, Fujian to the whole country even the world) as the woof.
    论文综合大量历史文献、前人研究成果和本人的实地田野调查资料,以宋代以来的千年历史过程为经,从湄洲、福建到全国乃至世界的地理空间过程为纬,从历史文化地理的视角全面分析评价妈祖信仰的形成和发展的时空过程及推动这一过程的各种因素;
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    While basing itself firmly on historical documents , historical geography draws much on modern geographical science.
    另一方面,它要自觉地进入现代科学体系,掌握和运用现代科学原理. 历史地理学是历史和地理的“两栖”学科,也是社会科学和自然科学的“两栖”学科
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    William Muirhead's Universal Geography was published by London Missionary Society Mission Press in 1853 - 1854. As a first Western geographical encyclopaedia of Chinese edition, it systematically introduced geology, physical and human geography, regional geography, and also provided some basic knowledge of climatology, hydrology and ethnology to the Chinese.
    作为第一部中文版的西方地理学百科全书,该书较为系统地向中国人介绍地质、自然地理、人文地理、区域地理的知识,也介绍了气候学、水文学和人种学的一些基本知识,其中“地史论”较早详细地介绍了荷马、希罗多德、马可·波罗、洪堡等一些西方著名的地理学家。
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    Correspondingly,the range of world geographical study should also improve toward being more open and more compatible.
    与之相应 ,世界地理的研究范式 ,也应该向着更为开放、更为兼容化的方向改进。
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  “geographical”译为未确定词的双语例句
    GEOGRAPHICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PLACE NAMES EAST OF FANGONG DIKE
    江苏省范公堤以东地名在地理学上的意义
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    Innovation of Human Geographical Theory and Basic Principles of Human Activities
    人文地理学理论的革新和人类活动的基本原则
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    Poverty and Way-out of Geography (Ⅰ) ——Philosophical Reflections on the Geographical Crisis
    地理学的贫困与出路(Ⅰ)——地理学危机的哲学思考
短句来源
    Poverty and Way-out of Geography(Ⅱ) ——The Fractal Direction of Geographical Development
    地理学的贫困与出路(Ⅱ)——地理学发展的分形方向
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    Fractal Theory and the Transformation of Geographical Theory
    分形理论与地理学的理论变革
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  geographical
We develop a method to estimate the power spectrum of a stochastic process on the sphere from data of limited geographical coverage.
      
On the basis of classification of geographical properties a rolling development goal programming model is formulated in correspondence with the ecopattern group in Four-Lake Area.
      
Results showed that topographic characteristics and disturbance pattern have much more impacts on the distribution of landscape elements than do horizontal geographical position in the study area.
      
Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was applied on the research data of five geographical-climatic factors and 18 phenotypic characters of 729 trees of 24 populations of Melia azedarach distributed in China.
      
The isogram of the PCGA was drawn out with 0.2 contours, which showed a geographical model with a northeast-southwest variation trend of the phenotypic characters of M.
      
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Guo Shou-jing, the famous scientist in the Yuan Dynasty, took charge of a large-scale latitude surveying in 1279 A.D. which is well-known as Si Hai Ce Yan( Surveying at four-sea areas ) in the history of Chinese geodetic ast(?)surveying. 27 observation stations were established at that time over a vast range of 11.000 Li long from north to south and 6,000 Li wide frow east to west. Nanhai(the South China Sea) station played a very important role in surveying since it was the southernmost amony 27 stations and...

Guo Shou-jing, the famous scientist in the Yuan Dynasty, took charge of a large-scale latitude surveying in 1279 A.D. which is well-known as Si Hai Ce Yan( Surveying at four-sea areas ) in the history of Chinese geodetic ast(?)surveying. 27 observation stations were established at that time over a vast range of 11.000 Li long from north to south and 6,000 Li wide frow east to west. Nanhai(the South China Sea) station played a very important role in surveying since it was the southernmost amony 27 stations and held by Guo himself. This srticle discusses the problem of latitude surveying at Nanhai Sea from the aspects of historical geography and geodetic astronomical surveying. It consists of three perts. In the first part, the author expounded from the view of the geographical concept of the ancient name Nanhai that the surveying was carried out at the sea of Nanhai instead of in Guang Zhou which was also called Nanhai in the past. Secondly, the observation station at Nanhai was situated on the Xi Sha islands. T (?) the possibility of surveying there was further proved by the facts that the Chinese people exploited and managed the Xi Sha Islands before the Yuan Dyaasty. Thirdly, it discussed the instruments which were used in astronomical surveying by Guo and the reason of the difference of latitude values obtained at present and at that time on Nanhai. In the end, the author pointed out the historical fact that the Yuan government sent Guo himself to survey the latitude on the Xi Sha Islands is an undisputed evidence which shows that the islands in the south China Sea era the sacred territory of China since ancient times.

公元1279年,元代著名科学家郭守敬主持了大规模的纬度测量,即历史上著名的“四海测验”。这次测量共设有27个观测站,“南海”观测站是其中占有重要地位的一个。本文对郭守敬在“南海”测量纬度的问题进行了探讨。论证了南海测量的观测站应在西沙群岛;并从元代以前对西沙群岛的开发经营来进一步论述在该处进行测量的可能性。本文还从元朝“四海测验”的测量仪器和测量误差等方面讨论了“南海”观测站的测量误差。

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis...

1.Regional Geography had an important position for a long period in the history of geography. But since the 1950s regional geography has seldom been studied. The writer considers that its causes are as follows; first, science has splitted up increasingly, systematic geography has developed fast, yet synthetic research work is relatively weak; secondly, there are weakness and difficulties in studying regional geography,2.Geography has two most prominent characteristics, regionalism and synthesis. The high synthesis of the interaction between man and land on the basis of regions is unique to geography,In this sense, the main characteristic of geography is shown mostly in regional geography.Regional geography synthetically deals with the interrelated geographical elements which give certain commonness and uniqueness to the region. There are a lot of synthetic problems concerning regional geography in practice.Re-gional geography should play the role it should do. In order to develop geo-. graphy completely, it is necessary to rejuvenate regional geography.3.The old regional geography can't meet the needs of today's situation, we should reform regional geography on the basis of modern science.(1) Persistng in the Regional and Synthetic View.The important facts and characteristics of geography within a region should be comprehensively explored with an synthetic eye.Every element and part of a region should be understood thoroughly .On this basis the synthesis on a higher level can be made.(2) Taking Man and Land Relationship as the Research CoreThe theory of man and land relationship of today has been further devel-oped than before. How to coordinate the relationship between man and nature has become the important aim of geography. Geography studies the areal systems of man and land relationship.According to certain indexes,the areal systems on the earth surface can be divided into regions with different sizes, and the man and land relationship within these regions is the research core of regional geography.( 3 ) Taking Topical Study as the Main FormOn the basis of a comprehensive study of a region,some prominent aspects within a region which belong to man and land relationship and reflect the characteristic of the region would be selected and studied thoroughly. The geographical background and the associated elements that caused some problems would be focused and stated. How to impel and turn these problems to benefit human society -would be discussed.(4) Applying Quantitative Method, Constructing Various Models and Making System AnalysisWe should make full use of the modern techniques and means and scientific methods in regional geography, thus promoting the modernization of the research work of regional geography.

区域地理学在地理学史上长期居重要地位,但是五十年代以后一度衰落。区域性和综合性是地理学的两个特点。区域地理学综合研究赋予区域某种同一性和独特性的相互联系的地理要素。实践中有大量综合性课题涉及区域地理问题,区域地理学应该重新得到重视。 旧的区域地理学已不适应当前形势的要求,应当在现代科学的基础上改造区域地理学。必须(1)坚持区域观点和综合观点;(2)以人地关系作为研究核心;(3)以论题研究为主要形式;(4)应用计量方法,建立多种模式,进行系统分析。充分利用先进的技术手段和科学的方法,以促进区域地理研究工作的现代化。

The middle of the nineteenth century is the great turning point in the development of geography, marking the end of the classic and the beginning of the scientific geography. All these happened in Germany. The geography in this period synthesized all kind of concepts from the great discoveries, the rich facts of geographical knowledge, the great advances of natural science and philosophy. Geography at that time was based on the conception of integrity. The division of geography into the physical and the...

The middle of the nineteenth century is the great turning point in the development of geography, marking the end of the classic and the beginning of the scientific geography. All these happened in Germany. The geography in this period synthesized all kind of concepts from the great discoveries, the rich facts of geographical knowledge, the great advances of natural science and philosophy. Geography at that time was based on the conception of integrity. The division of geography into the physical and the human was a phenomenon of later development. The establishment of the 19th century's unifying cencept in Germany had a profound influence upon the modern and contemporary geography.This paper aims at analysing the development of philosophy and matural science of that time in the relation with integrity conception.The geographical idea is synthetically influenced by philosophy ideas of kant, Hegel and Feuerbach, Marx and Engels etc., while the development of natural sciences provided the basis for establishing conception of unity for the contents of geography reguired in the connection of phenomena. Later, the authors discuss the conception of unity from the angle of the geography itself. The pioneers of the scientific geography were Humboldt and Ritter, followed by Richthofen and Ratzel. They played an active role in the development of scientific contents of geography both in theory and practice.The authors emphasize that both the regional and unifying conceptions are still the core of modern geography in spite of the tendency of branching off in the field of geography itself.

“地理学要免被瓜分,就要坚持它的中心原则,这个原则就是各种自然现象和形态同人类的相关。”

 
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