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geographic    
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  地理
    2) The main geographical elements of the exotic weed genera were Cosmopolitan,Pantropic,North Temperate,Tropical Asia & Tropical America disjuncted,Old World Temperate,accounting for 39.47%,21.05%,18.42%,13.16% of the total respectively(excluding cosmopolitan). Compared with the flora geographic elements of Mount Bei in Jinhua,higher tropical proportion was found in alien weed,and special attention should be paid to species with Tropical Asia & Tropical America disjuncted distribution pattern;
    该区域外来杂草属的地理成分包括泛热带分布(39.47%)、热带亚洲-热带美洲间断分布(18.42%)、北温带分布(21.05%)、旧世界温带分布(13.16%)、热带亚洲与热带非洲间断分布(5.26%)、东亚和北美间断分布(2.63%).
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    The genetic diversity of three geographic populations of Phytophthora sojae from China and the United States was determined using technique of inter-simple sequence repeat(ISSR).
    为探究中国和美国大豆疫霉的遗传关系,采用简单序列重复区间扩增多态性(ISSR)技术,对来自中国黑龙江省、福建省和美国的3个大豆疫霉地理群体的遗传多样性进行了分析。
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    RAPD analysis could detect race 1 and 4,geographic origin of isolates,and pathogenicity;
    RAPD分析能区分1号4号生理小种,菌株的地理来源,致病力;
    Geographic spatial distribution attributes of wheat powdery mildew
    小麦白粉病地理空间分布特征
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    Designing and development of geographic information system for preventing forest fire in Zhejiang
    浙江省森林防火地理信息指挥系统的设计与开发
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  geographic
With geographic information system (GIS), the ecological water requirement for forests in the Jinghe watershed, western China was estimated.
      
Such tendency suggests that the allele frequency in these three loci may be correlated with the species' geographic distributions.
      
Variation in sexual reproduction may strongly affect plant's adaptation to local environments and the evolution of the geographic range.
      
Using the ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) platform, a case study was carried out by selecting the population of Pinus massoniana from a needle-and broad-leaved mixed forest community in the Heishiding Nature Reserve, Guangdong Province.
      
In this study, remotely sensed data and the geographic information system were applied to analyze the changes in land cover along topographic gradients from 1978 to 2001 in Beijing, a rapidly urbanized mega city in China.
      
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Considerable difficulties caused by unstable reactions of wheat varieties were encountered by the authors in the study of physiologic specialization of Puccinia glumarum. The fluctuation of varietal reactions was chiefly due to the variation of light and temperature in ordinary green house. It was found that strict control of temperature (constantly at 15℃) and a stable light source were necessary. Fluorescent lamps serves as a good source of cool light, and a daily supply of 16-hours illumination with an intensity...

Considerable difficulties caused by unstable reactions of wheat varieties were encountered by the authors in the study of physiologic specialization of Puccinia glumarum. The fluctuation of varietal reactions was chiefly due to the variation of light and temperature in ordinary green house. It was found that strict control of temperature (constantly at 15℃) and a stable light source were necessary. Fluorescent lamps serves as a good source of cool light, and a daily supply of 16-hours illumination with an intensity of 4,000 Lux is sufficient for normal development of infection-types. Temperature plays most important role among the environmental factors causing the variability of varietal reactions of wheat to stripe rust. In general, wheat varieties become more resistant to stripe rust as the temperature raises from 10℃ upward. The critical temperature at which host reactions changed from susceptible to resistant varied with different combinations of wheat varieties and races of P. glumarum. Eight variety-race combinations out of 60 had their infection types changed from susceptible to resistant at 15℃, 15 combinations changed at 20℃, 18 combinations at 25℃, while 16 combinations had their resistant infection types unchanged under different temperatures. Highly resistant wheat varieties such as Early Premium, Li-Yung 1, Naking 4179 remained resistant to all 4 races tested under a wide range of light intensities, while highly susceptible variety Ycnta 1885 remained susceptible throughout. Other susceptable varieties behaved rather specifically as light intensity and daily length of illumination varied. Infection type, amount of sporulation and range of cnvironmental conditions for sporulation should all be considered as criteria for the exact evaluation of varietal resistance of wheat and pathogenicity of rust races. Race Y6B isolated from wheat vareity Pima-1, has been proved to be a dangerous race, causing Pima strains severely diseased at 10°—20℃, with the capability to sporulate at 25℃. Race Y6, of which the pathogenicity resembled that of race Y6B on 6 differential hosts, had been(?)olated from Shantung and Shansi provinces during 1954—55. These findings correlated well with the breakdown of Pima 1 in resistance to stripe rust over a wide geographic area since 1955. Early Premium, Naking 4197, Liyung 1 and Nungta 6 are highly resistant varieties to race Y6B.

試驗証明温度和光对小麦品种抗条銹病性的影响极大。由于小麦品种对条銹菌不稳定反应所造成生理鑑定小种的困难,基本上可通过严格控制温度和光获得解决。条锈菌生理小种的鑑定最好在15℃恆温和恆光的設备下进行。用日光灯为光源,光強度保持4,000 Lux,每日照射16小时即已足够使小麦品种正常发病。当温度逐漸提高时小麦品种漸由感染变为抵抗。由感染型变为抵抗型的温度轉变点因品种和生理小种的不同組合而有差异,在60个品种小种組合中,自15℃起变为抵抗型的有8个組合,自20℃起变为抵抗型的有15个組合,在25℃下变为抵抗型的有18个組合,在10—25℃温度范围內均为抵抗型的有16个組合。高度抗病的品种如早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号等在所有光強度(日光40.000 Lux及鎢絲灯与日光灯組成人工光強度为8,000 Lux、6,500 Lux、5,000 Lux、2,500 Lux和1,200Lux.)及各种不同光照时間下(日光灯为光源,4,000 Lux,不同光照时間每日为8、12、16及24小时)均抗病。高度感病品种燕大1885則在所有光強度及各种不同光照时間下均为感染型。孢子产生的数量則随光強度和光照时間的增加而增多。其他...

試驗証明温度和光对小麦品种抗条銹病性的影响极大。由于小麦品种对条銹菌不稳定反应所造成生理鑑定小种的困难,基本上可通过严格控制温度和光获得解决。条锈菌生理小种的鑑定最好在15℃恆温和恆光的設备下进行。用日光灯为光源,光強度保持4,000 Lux,每日照射16小时即已足够使小麦品种正常发病。当温度逐漸提高时小麦品种漸由感染变为抵抗。由感染型变为抵抗型的温度轉变点因品种和生理小种的不同組合而有差异,在60个品种小种組合中,自15℃起变为抵抗型的有8个組合,自20℃起变为抵抗型的有15个組合,在25℃下变为抵抗型的有18个組合,在10—25℃温度范围內均为抵抗型的有16个組合。高度抗病的品种如早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号等在所有光強度(日光40.000 Lux及鎢絲灯与日光灯組成人工光強度为8,000 Lux、6,500 Lux、5,000 Lux、2,500 Lux和1,200Lux.)及各种不同光照时間下(日光灯为光源,4,000 Lux,不同光照时間每日为8、12、16及24小时)均抗病。高度感病品种燕大1885則在所有光強度及各种不同光照时間下均为感染型。孢子产生的数量則随光強度和光照时間的增加而增多。其他感病品种对光的变动反应較为复杂。衡量小麦品种抗病性和不同小种致病力应同时考虑反应型、孢子堆数量和产生孢子堆的环境条件范围。采自碧螞一号的小种Y_(δB)証明是极为危险的生理小种,由于它在較大温度变差的范围內(10℃—20℃)使碧螞系統的小麦严重感病,并在25℃下仍能产生孢子堆。类似Y_(δB)的生理小种Y_δ过去曾在山东和山西采集的条銹菌标样中发現过,这一事实和碧螞一号在愈来愈广泛的区域內丧失抗銹性的現象是符合的。早洋麦、金大4197、驪英一号及农大6号是对Y_(δB)小种高度抵抗的品种。

In southwest China,migration and occurrence of white-backed plan-thoppers (Sogatella furcifera Horvath) and brown planthoppers (Nilapar-vata lugene Stal)have different features from those in eastern part of Chinaas a result of the combined effect of different geographic location,to-pography,climate,cultural system,etc. Characteristics of migration,the planthoppers immigrated abundantlyinto the southeastern part of Guizhou province at an earlier season thewhite-backed planthoppers being the predominent...

In southwest China,migration and occurrence of white-backed plan-thoppers (Sogatella furcifera Horvath) and brown planthoppers (Nilapar-vata lugene Stal)have different features from those in eastern part of Chinaas a result of the combined effect of different geographic location,to-pography,climate,cultural system,etc. Characteristics of migration,the planthoppers immigrated abundantlyinto the southeastern part of Guizhou province at an earlier season thewhite-backed planthoppers being the predominent species. In Yunnan province,immigration appeared first in the southern partand then in the north,and the predominent species was first the brownplanthoppers and then the white-backed planthoppers.In Sichuan provin-ces,the immigration appeared first in the eastern part and then in thewest.The immigratory paths of that generation,which caused majordamage,were various,and the migrations of short and middle distanceoccurred frequently in summer.So that,there were two major damageperiods on middle rice in some years. Characteristics of occurrence.In normal years,planthoppers usuallydo more serious damage in eastern and southern parts of the abovethree provines,than in western and northern parts.The nearestplanthopper populations were the principle sources of emigration doingharm to middle and late rice.It has been found that the planthoppercould be checked by the various kinds of natural enemies.

由于西南稻区的地理位置、地势、地形、气候和水稻种植制度等因素的影响,白背飞虱和褐稻虱的迁飞和发生情况与我国东部稻区相比较,有其不同的特点: 迁飞特点有:贵州东南部迁入期较早,全区迁入虫量大,白背飞虱为春季迁入的优势种;云南境内,从南向北地势逐步抬升,迁入期和主要为害时期亦逐渐推迟,虫种由褐稻虱较多而变成白背飞虱为优势虫种;四川盆地迁入始期和主要迁入期由东向西推进;主害代的迁入虫源路径多;夏季短、中距离的迁飞频繁,有的年分在中稻上常造成两次主害时期等。发生特点有:常年三省的东、南部地区发生程度重,三省的西、北部地区发生程度轻;近期迁入虫量是中稻或晚稻上主害代的主要虫源;虫量相应集中,加重为害程度;另方面天敌种类多,数量较大,对飞虱种群数量有一定的抑制作用。上述迁飞和发生特点可作为拟定西南稻区对两种稻飞虱预测预报和防治策略的理论依据。

The bean yield was low and insrable because of damage caused by cyst nematode of soybean in Shanxi. In order to lay a foundation for scientific research and control, a cooperation group of investigation had established in 1984 . This disease was investigated in whole provincial region with township by the cooperation group from 1984 to 1986. We investigated totally 111 counties and 1681 townships, at the same time, collected 2602 soil samples. The geographic distribution, demage extent and host range of...

The bean yield was low and insrable because of damage caused by cyst nematode of soybean in Shanxi. In order to lay a foundation for scientific research and control, a cooperation group of investigation had established in 1984 . This disease was investigated in whole provincial region with township by the cooperation group from 1984 to 1986. We investigated totally 111 counties and 1681 townships, at the same time, collected 2602 soil samples. The geographic distribution, demage extent and host range of cyst nematode of soybean have been found out basically. The 111 counties and 1573 townships were discovered areas. There were 2303 soil samples which contained the cysts. The result Shows that soybean cyst nematodiasis has been occurring anywhere in Shanxi. Most of areas belong to the slight disease regions, but exist many serious disease fields. We found out 13 species host plants in Shanxi . It was obvious that bean crops were host of this nematode. The Shanxi name list for geographic distribution, damage extent and host range of cyst nematodiasis of soybean had been compiled according to the investigation result, and the scattering chart had been drawed up too. This not only afford a experience of organization and leadship for future, but also provide a referntial material for scientific research and control In whole provincial region investigating clearness with township is the first time at home .

由于大豆孢囊线虫病的危害,山西省大豆产量低而不稳.为了查清病情,由省农科院植保所和省农牧厅植保站主持,各地、市植保站参加,组成山西省大豆孢囊线虫病调查协作组,于1984—1986年先后调查了111个县、区的1681个乡、镇,共取土样2602个,基本查清了大豆孢囊线虫病的发生分布,为害程度和寄主范围.此病已在全省普遍发生,多数为轻病田,少数为重病田.寄主植物多达13种,其中以豆类为主.根据调查结果已编写出《山西省大豆孢囊线虫病发生分布,为害程度和寄主范围名录》,并绘制出《山西省大豆孢囊线虫病分布图》,为科研和防治工作提供了参考和依据.

 
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