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jaw
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    Methods The models of an edentulous jaw were measured with reverse engineering, and the 3D models were reconstructed with a computer.
    方法 利用逆向工程技术开发出激光线扫描测量仪 ,对牙列缺失患者的无牙模型进行扫描 ,通过计算机模拟出无牙的三维模型。
短句来源
    The jaw teeth and pharyngeal teeth are derived from the ectoderm and mesoderm.
    南方鲶的齿均由外胚层及中胚层分化而成.
短句来源
    Based on systematical observation of Nile Tiopa (Oreochromis niloticus ) 8. 5 ~199mm in length in cross-section, longitudinal-section and horizontal-section, this article discribes the histological characteristics of feeding organs including the wall of oral cavity, the jaw teeth, the gill raker, the top wall of anterior pharynx and the upper and lower pharyngeal teeth,etc.
    对全长8.5~199mm的尼罗非鲫的横、纵、水平向石蜡连续切片进行了系统观察,描述了口腔壁、齿、鳃耙、前咽顶壁和上下咽齿等摄食器官胚后发育的组织结构特征。
短句来源
    Clinical applications include replacements for hips,knees,teeth,tendons and ligaments,repair for periodental disease,maxillofacial reconstruction,augmentation and stabilization of the jaw bone,spinal fusion and bone fillers after tumor surgery,carbon coatings for prosthetic heart valves.
    临床应用于髋、膝、牙、腱和韧带,治疗牙周病和面重建,牙嵴增高与加固骨,脊柱融合及肿瘤切除后骨的填充,碳涂层用作心脏瓣膜。
短句来源
    Methods The maxillary and mandible of 40 fetuses (different ages) were cut horizontally with toothwithjaw continual tissue slices technique, observation and statistics.
    方法应用牙连同组织连续切片技术,对40例不同胎龄胎儿的上下骨作水平方向切片,观测并统计。
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  “jaw”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Reduction of Shh Gene Expression and Development of the Lower Jaw in Zebrafish Embryos Exposed to TCDD
    TCDD诱发斑马鱼胚胎shh基因表达降低及其对下颌发育的影响
短句来源
    Results were as follows: a) Before the blockage, exciting all fibres of Groups Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ, andⅣ with electro--acupuncture was shown to cause the amplitude of the refle-xive jaw movement to reduce by 91.7% in five minutes after the starting ofelectro--acupuncture.
    二、在奴佛卡因阻滞前,电针兴奋腓神经中全部ⅠⅡⅢⅣ类纤维,可使反射性下颌运动的幅度抑制91.7%;
短句来源
    In this study, we found the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced low jaw of zebrafish embryos as dependent.
    本实验使用其中毒性最强的环境污染物质2,3,7,8-四氯-二苯基-对-二英(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,以下略为TCDD)作为标准对斑马鱼胚胎进行了染毒.
短句来源
    2, 3. 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants. The goal of this study is to understand the cause of the short lower jaw induced by TCDD in the zebrafish embryos.
    2,3,7,8-四氯-二苯基-对-二恶英(2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin,TCDD)为毒性 很强的环境污染物质。
短句来源
    THE INHIBITION OF CORTICALLY INDUCED JAW MOVEMENTS BY STIMULATION OF THE VAGUS NERVE
    刺激迷走神经对皮层诱发性下颔运动的抑制作用
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  jaw
The Jaw Apparatus of the Heteromorphic Ammonite Australiceras whitehouse, 1926 (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the Aptian of the Vo
      
In the cortex, expression of transgene 6A-99 began on day 3 of postnatal development (P3) and embraced only the area of primary somatosensory cortex: zones of representation of the snout, vibrissae, and lower jaw.
      
These signals are processed using cluster analysis, which makes it possible to separate the signals emitted by a propagating fatigue crack in the stringer region from the signals arriving from the region of the fracturing gripping jaw.
      
These signals are processed using cluster analysis, which makes it possible to separate the signals emitted by a propagating fatigue crack in the stringer region from the signals arriving from the region of the fracturing gripping jaw.
      
It differs by a wide suborbital space, the upper jaw is fully covered with suborbitalia, and there is a weak dentition of the roof of the mouth cavity.
      
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Removal of the cerebral hemispheres or transection behind them does not interfere with the motor activities of the toad. Even after transection of the brain between the optic cbiasma and the pituitary body, the toad shows no other abnormalities than the retardation of the righting reflexes. The electroencephalograms of these toads do not differ very much from the normals, which show mainly lower voltage and faster rate (12—32 c.p.s.) superimposed on higher voltage and slower rate (7—9 c.p.s.) waves. Forced abduction...

Removal of the cerebral hemispheres or transection behind them does not interfere with the motor activities of the toad. Even after transection of the brain between the optic cbiasma and the pituitary body, the toad shows no other abnormalities than the retardation of the righting reflexes. The electroencephalograms of these toads do not differ very much from the normals, which show mainly lower voltage and faster rate (12—32 c.p.s.) superimposed on higher voltage and slower rate (7—9 c.p.s.) waves. Forced abduction of the jaws produces inhibition of the brain waves as described previously. After transection of the brain at the level of obex, the toad shows immediately an exaggeration of the embracing reflex and a disappearance of the righting reflex. The electroencephalogram also changes immediately to a new pattern with waves of moderately fast rate (12—20 c.p.s.) and still higher amplitude. Surgical removal of the lower jaw can also produce considerable inhibition of the brain waves, as much as does the forced opening of the jaws. But when the medulla is totally destroyed, all the brain waves disappear. By the destruction of the upper spinal cord, the toad is entirely paralyzed except the preservation of the flexor reflex of the hind limbs. The electroencephalogram of such a toad is somewhat depressed, due probably to reduction of afferent impulses. On the basis of the above observations the conclusion is drawn that the process of the inhibition of the brain waves and of the motor activities in toads resulting from forcing the mouth open or from the removal of the lower jaw, is to be localized somewhere in the medulla.

根据中枢神經系統不同部位的破坏对于蟾蜍运动和脑电图的影响,可以看出来机械地支开口腔或剪去下頜都能使蟾蜍的延髓发生抑制过程。

Having examined the sectioned and stained brain material of the representatives ofthe main orders of the mammalian class, I recognize three routes by which the mesen-cephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve in the broad sense is connected to the cerebellum. Through the anterior medullary velum, these sensory ganglionic cells attain to thecerebellar basis, the roof plate of the fourth ventricle, the fastigial nucleus and the cortexof the nodulus. Rostrally the cells of this nucleus are deeply stationed in the...

Having examined the sectioned and stained brain material of the representatives ofthe main orders of the mammalian class, I recognize three routes by which the mesen-cephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve in the broad sense is connected to the cerebellum. Through the anterior medullary velum, these sensory ganglionic cells attain to thecerebellar basis, the roof plate of the fourth ventricle, the fastigial nucleus and the cortexof the nodulus. Rostrally the cells of this nucleus are deeply stationed in the side-wall of the fourthventricle; their central processes course posteriorly along the outer margin of the centralgray matter. The fibers from the main nucleus sweep dorsally around into the fastigialnucleus and the cerebellar medulla; and a few sensory cells strewn along this route. Suchsensory cells may also migrate into the cerebellum in company with the nucleus coeruleusand possibly also with the brachium conjunctivum. Through the medial, lateral and possibly superior vestibular nuclei the cells of themesencephalic nucleus are scattered along to the cerebellum, its dentate nucleus in parti-cular. Besides the trigeminal nerve, the mesencephalic nucleus is also related to the oculo-motor, trochlear, abducent, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves, their motor nucleiand the reticular formation of the medulla oblongata. It is neither affiliated specifically tothe trigeminus nor confined to the midbrain. The "mesencephalic nucleus of the trige-minus" is thus a long misnomer. Collectively it is a rarefied group of primary sensorycells oddly inclosed in the central nervous system. These centrally situated sensory cells conduct proprioceptive and exteroceptive impu-lses chiefly from the jaw muscles and the associated skin and mucous membrane. Theirconnections with the cerebellum afford the latter with the necessary afferent data for itscoordination of the feeding activity in progress. Besides, these sensory cells are appar-ently concerned also with the regulation of the movements of the eye, ear, nose, mouth,pharynx and larynx and possibly of the neck. There exist on the cerebellar cortex proprioceptive and exteroceptive projection fieldsfor the head region; this physiological finding gains some morphological support fromwhat has been elucidated in the present study.

我观察了哺乳纲主要各目的代表动物的脑切片,认定广义的三叉神经中脑核由三个路线连接小脑。这群感觉细胞通过前髓帆到达小脑基部、第四脑室的顶板,顶核以及蚓小结的皮貭。在上端,中脑核细胞深在第四脑室的旁壁;它们的中枢突起靠中央灰貭外缘纵行向后伸展。有些细胞可随着蓝斑、也可能连同结合臂进入小脑。中脑核主部的纤维经脑室旁壁向背侧弯行,直入顶核和小脑的髓貭;也有少数细胞沿此路綫散在。中脑核细胞可经前庭内侧、外侧和(可能)上核散入小脑,特是齿状核。除三叉神经外,中脑核细胞也连接动眼、滑车、外展、面、舌咽和迷走神经,它们的运动(和感觉)核团,以及延髓的网状结构。据此,“三叉神经中脑核”是一个误称。它不专属三叉神经,也不局于中脑地区。它实是散处脑干内部的一群一级的感觉细胞。这一系感觉细胞传导自受的和外受的神经冲动,这起于咀咬肌和连属的皮肤和粘膜。它们连接小脑,供给它必要的求心资料,以便它协调正在执行的进食动作。此外,它们似也调节眼肌、面肌、咽喉肌、甚至颈肌的运动。小脑皮质上有头颈部的自受和外受系的投射地区;本文阐述的事实给这个生理的发现若干形态的根据。

From May to August, 1961, a herpetological survey was carried out to Hua-ngo Shan in Wanyuan Hsien and Kuang-wu Shan in Nankiang Hsien of the Ta-pa Shan range of Szechwan. From April to July, 1962, another survey was carried out to the Tsinling Mountains in Yang Hsien and Chouchih Hsien region of southern Shensi. Twenty three species of amphibians and twenty one species of reptiles were collected. Five new species of amphibians and a new scincoid lizard were discovered.The herpetological fauna of the Tsinling...

From May to August, 1961, a herpetological survey was carried out to Hua-ngo Shan in Wanyuan Hsien and Kuang-wu Shan in Nankiang Hsien of the Ta-pa Shan range of Szechwan. From April to July, 1962, another survey was carried out to the Tsinling Mountains in Yang Hsien and Chouchih Hsien region of southern Shensi. Twenty three species of amphibians and twenty one species of reptiles were collected. Five new species of amphibians and a new scincoid lizard were discovered.The herpetological fauna of the Tsinling Mountains and the Ta-pa Shan range clearly indicates that the Tsinling Mountains is a "barrier" especially to Oriental forms. There are only eight species of amphibia on the northern slope of the Tsinling Mountains in Chouchih Hsien region, but no common Oriental forms, such as Rana limnocharis, Rhaco-phorus or Microhyla. On the southern slope of the Tsinling Mountains and the Ta-pa Shan range, twenty three species of amphibians were collected. As regards reptiles, the North China forms, such as Gekko swmhoms, Eremias argus and Coluber spinalis are found only near the city of Chouchih Hsien.The Tsinling Mountains may be considered as a border zone between Palaearctic and Oriental realms in China. This border zone including the Ta-pa Shan range has its own characteristic amphibian fauna. At present, it is known that Rana quadranus is the most widely distributed and abundant frog along this eastwcst mountain chain. Ranodon tsinpaensis, Hyla tsinlingensis and Microhyla mixtura are the other dominant species found in this region.The diagnoses of six new species are given below. All the type specimens are kept in the Southwest Institute of Biology, Academia Sinica, Chengtu.Ranodon tsinpaensis Liu et Hu, sp. nov.TYPE: No. 623293, adult male; type locality: Hou-tseng-tze, Chouchih Hsien, Shensi, alt. 1,830m.; June 23, 1962; collected by Djao Er-mie and Wu Kuan-fu.DIAGNOSIS: This new species is distinguished from Ranodon wushanensis by the absence of labial fold and cornified palms and soles and from R. sibiricus by its much smaller size and much fewer eggs in each egg-case. The body from snout to vent measuring 66 mm in length, and the egg-case containing 6-11 eggs in this new Ranodon, whereas in R. sibiricus the body attains 101 mm in length, and there are 25 eggs in each egg-case. Megophrys nankiangensis Liu et Hu, sp. nov.TYPE: No. 610588, adult female; type locality: Kuang-wu Shan, Nankiang Hsien, Szcchwan, alt. 1,750m; July 25, 1961; collected by Wu Kuan-fu and Ych Chang-yuan.DIAGNOSIS: This new Megophrys is closely related to M. omeimontis but differs from the latter by the hidden tympanum and the absence of vomerine ridge and tecth.Hyla tsinlingensis Liu et Hu, sp. nov.TYPE: No. 623149, adult male; type locality: Hou-tscng-tzc, Chouchih Hsien, Shensi, alt. 1,341 m; June 3, 1962; collected by Wu Kuan-fu and Djao Er-mie.DIAGNOSIS: This new Hyla is similar to H. annectans in having a granular fold in the temporal region, but differs from the latter by its color pattern. It has fine black lines on the snout, upper jaw and tympanic region, especially a loop in the jaw region.Rana kuangwuensis Liu et Hu, sp. nov.TYPE: No. 610551, adult female; type locality: Kuang-wu Shan, Nankiang Hsien, Szcchwan, alt. 1,650m; July 23, 1961; collected by Wu Kuan-fu and Liu Te-yang.DIAGNOSIS: This new Rana is similar to R, margaratae in the male having no vocal sac, but distinguished from the latter by its smaller size, by coarsely marbled webs, belly and ventral part of the thigh, and by the larger tympanum and interorbital space.Microhyla mixtura Liu et Hu, sp. nov.TYPE: No. 610174, adult male; type locality: Hua-ngo Shan, Wanyuan Hsien, Szcchwan, alt. 1,280 m; May 24, 1961; collected by Yeh Chang-yuan and Liu Te-yang.DIAGNOSIS: This new Microhyla is distinguished from other forms as follows: 1. the absence of discs on fingers distinguishing it from M. butleri and M. heymonsi; 2. digital discs on toes with dorsal longitudinal furrows distinguishing it from M. pulchra and M. ornata; 3. the feebly developed webs distinguishing it from M.

1.1961—1962年在秦巴地区共获两栖纲动物23种,隶11属、8科、2目;爬行纲21种,隶15属、6科、2目。 2.发现五个两栖纲新种:秦巴北鲵Ranodon tsinpaensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,南江角蟾Megophrys nankiangensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,秦岭雨蛙Hyla tsinlingensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,光雾臭蛙Rana kuangwuensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,合征姬蛙Microhyla mixturaLiu et Hu,sp.nov.;一个爬行纲新种:秦岭滑蜥Leiolopisma tsinlingensis Hu et Djao,sp.nov.。增加陕西省新纪录两栖纲5种,爬行纲11种。修订原纪录分布于秦岭的中国雨蛙为新种秦岭雨蛙,棘腹蛙为隆肛蛙。在秦岭采到中国林蛙的地模标本。 3.秦岭作为古北界与东洋界的区系分界线,在两栖纲方面表现为在秦岭北坡种类少(8种),缺少东洋界的代表类型,如泽蛙、树蛙等;秦岭南坡至大巴山种类逐渐增加(共23种);东洋界的代表类型逐渐繁多;但树蛙种类少,数量亦少。在爬...

1.1961—1962年在秦巴地区共获两栖纲动物23种,隶11属、8科、2目;爬行纲21种,隶15属、6科、2目。 2.发现五个两栖纲新种:秦巴北鲵Ranodon tsinpaensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,南江角蟾Megophrys nankiangensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,秦岭雨蛙Hyla tsinlingensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,光雾臭蛙Rana kuangwuensis Liu et Hu,sp.nov.,合征姬蛙Microhyla mixturaLiu et Hu,sp.nov.;一个爬行纲新种:秦岭滑蜥Leiolopisma tsinlingensis Hu et Djao,sp.nov.。增加陕西省新纪录两栖纲5种,爬行纲11种。修订原纪录分布于秦岭的中国雨蛙为新种秦岭雨蛙,棘腹蛙为隆肛蛙。在秦岭采到中国林蛙的地模标本。 3.秦岭作为古北界与东洋界的区系分界线,在两栖纲方面表现为在秦岭北坡种类少(8种),缺少东洋界的代表类型,如泽蛙、树蛙等;秦岭南坡至大巴山种类逐渐增加(共23种);东洋界的代表类型逐渐繁多;但树蛙种类少,数量亦少。在爬行纲方面北坡周至附近获无蹼壁虎,丽斑麻蜥及黄脊游蛇古北界代表动物。白眉蝮不同垂直分布区有明显的差异。 4.秦巴区的四种两栖纲优势种(隆肛蛙、秦巴北鲵、秦岭雨蛙及合征姬蛙)的分布特征,可初步说明秦巴区具有独特的区系组成。

 
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