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functional
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  functional
The proof involves showing that a nonsymmetric version of the relevant integral is annihilated by a suitable ideal of the affine Hecke algebra, and that any such annihilated functional satisfies the desired vanishing property.
      
In this paper we analyze solutions of the n-scale functional equation Ф(x) = Σk∈?Pk Ф(nx-k), where n≥2 is an integer, the coefficients {Pk} are nonnegative and Σpk = 1.
      
Our main tool is a pointwise equality, relating a function f, and the associated functional g*(f), which has the form f2=h(f)+g*2(f), where h(f) is an explicit function.
      
The Fourier transform is related to a specific system of functional equations whose analytic solution is unique except for a multiplicative constant.
      
In Kolwankar and Lévy Véhel, new functional spaces, denoted $K^{s,s'}_{x_0}$, were
      
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The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which the...

The purpose of this study was to find the response of the teleost's brain toward chemical stimuli.In carrying out the series of experiments, four species of teleost fishes were selected as working materials. They were Carassius auratus, Ophiocephalus argus, Monopterus javanensis and Hypophthalmichthys nobilis.The chemical agents for the experiments were selected as follows: Janus green, methylene blue, neutral red and crystal violet for staining purpose, i. e. for primary oxidation (Child' 47), in which the specimens were examined with the results recorded before reduction process set in; and in addition potassuim permanganate was used for complete oxidation-reduction purpose. The concentrations of the former agents in Ringer's solution and the latter in distilled water were experimentally determined, and are given in Table 1-4.In all cases of the stain experiments, the metabolic rates of the nosebrain (including only the olfactory bulbs and primitive endbrain in the present case) are higher than any other division, and that of the cerebellum, the balancing brain, comes out to be the next, being higher than all the other parts of the organ (with the exception of Carassius). The midbrain (part of the eyebrain) is less responsive than the cerebellum; and the medulla oblongata, without the facial and vagal lobes (brain centers for taste buds) and with its anterior regions (the earbrain) overshadowed largely by the cerebellum or only with little parts visible from above; i. e., the skinbrain, is, on the average, least responsive of allIn Carassius, the vagal lobes showed somewhat greater sensitivity than the cerebellum, and in Hypophthalmichthys they were less so than the facial lobes, which in turn almost matched up with the cerebellum. As a whole, it may be said that the olfactory lobes and primitive endbrain are most responsive and the midbrain and medulla oblongata least so, the cerebellum somewhat between them, while the facial and vagal lobes vary in their responses to these stains, but they fall between the endbrain and the medulla. If the records of both these lobes were removed from the curves on Carassius and Hypophthalmichthys, (Chart V (A)-(D)), these four curves would have a much closer resemblance in the general tendency of responses among themselves; i. e., the centers of greatest activities are located in the nosebrain, there is a considerable dropping in the eyebrain, while the cerebellum, the balancing brain, shows a great deal of rise in responsiveness, though it does not go so high as either the olfactory lobes or the primitive endbrain, and finally the medulla oblongata, the skinbrain, shows least responsiveness to the stains.The results of the oxidation-reduction process (Chart VI (A)-(D)) show more or less a general resemblance to those o?the stain experiments, but there are some differences, which should be noted. In the case of Carassius the primitive endbrain falls in its functional features a great deal below the olfactory lobes and is now even lower than the cerebellum, and the vagal lobes are about on the same level with the midbrain, while in the case of Monoptenis the cerebellum is the most active division of the brain and the medulla oblongata is similar to the midbrain. In general, it is reasonable to assume that the physiological gradients in the brains of Carassius and Hypophthalmichlhys are similar to each other, as they are of the same family, and those of Ophiocephalus and Monopterus are likewise, though they are of different families. In spite of some deviations these brains in both stain and oxidation-reduction experimentes show a general trend of similarity in their responses.It is concluded that the sensitivities of the brain surface to these chemicals are in direct proportion to its functional activities and in reverse proportion to their histogenetic age. Besides these factors, the polarity of the organ and the size of its division also have a significant bearings on the physiological gradient, but the latter should be considered together with the organization and developmental st

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,...

(一)此研究限于鱼脑的背面(因由腹面观察,不能看到全脑各部)。所用四种硬骨鱼是鲫鱼、乌鱼、黄鳝与黑鲢。 (二)鱼脑背面,分为五部分:嗅球、原始端脑、中脑、小脑与延脑。鲫鱼延脑背面前部有迷叶长出,鲢鱼延脑背面前部有面叶与迷叶长出。为研究便利计,将迷叶与面叶划为另外部分,分别观察其代谢现象。 (三)染剂用以刺激鱼脑者,为简氏绿、次甲基蓝、中性红与晶紫。此外,又用过锰酸钾作完全氧化—还原实验。 (四)对于以上各剂,鱼脑反应程度最高处是嗅球,大约与嗅球相等者,是原始端脑,稍次是小脑,再次是中脑,最次是延脑。黑鲢面叶与迷叶低于小脑,高于中脑,而面叶高于迷叶(曲线图Ⅴ(D)与Ⅵ(D))。鲫鱼的迷叶,对染剂的反应,高于小脑,对氧化—还原剂的反应,低于小脑(图Ⅴ(A)与Ⅵ(A))。 整个结论是鱼脑表面,对于化学药剂的感性与其生理功用成正比例,与其组织之年龄成反比例。除此二因素外,脑的极性(polarity)、脑各部分之体积,都与生理量度有密切的关系。唯体积关系,须与以后数点共同考虑:(1)组织的构成;(2)组织发达的程度;(3)在演化过程中该组织对于脑部继续发达,及其功用所有关系的重要性(不能单看体积的大小)。鼻脑在脑前端,屡次实验,表现为最高生理量度之所在;此处之势力,支配全脑各部分。高等脊椎动物的大脑,

In the present paper three species of Lamproglena are reported with two nauplius larvae belonging to Lamproglena chinensis and L. carassii.1. Nauplius larva of Lamproglena chinensis (fig. 11)The larva is pyriform or ovoid in outline, with a sharp process at its posterior end. The body is slightly transparent, measuring 0.209 mm in its total length and 0.125 mm in the greatest width. The yolk spherules are small and numerous. There are three pair of appendages. First antenna has two joints and bears three setae....

In the present paper three species of Lamproglena are reported with two nauplius larvae belonging to Lamproglena chinensis and L. carassii.1. Nauplius larva of Lamproglena chinensis (fig. 11)The larva is pyriform or ovoid in outline, with a sharp process at its posterior end. The body is slightly transparent, measuring 0.209 mm in its total length and 0.125 mm in the greatest width. The yolk spherules are small and numerous. There are three pair of appendages. First antenna has two joints and bears three setae. Second antenna is biramus: exopod singlejointed and with three setae at terminal end; endopod possessing three joints and bearing four setae. Mandible is also biramus; exopod possessing three joints and endopod only one joint. The posterior end has a pair of setae functional as balancers.2. Lamproglena orientalis Markewitsch, 1936 (figs. 1-10)The female specimen is parasitic on the gills of Erythroculter erythropterus (Nanking, Wushin), E. recurviceps (Nanking), E. dabryi (Shanghai, Soochow), Culter albernus (Shanghai, Wushi) and C. brevicauda (Shanghai, Soochow and Wushi).The body is cylindrical, somewhat depressed, being 1.71 to 2.60 mm in total length. The abdomen is without segmentation, the length of the abdomen varying from 0.27 to 0.34 mm in length. The caudal ramusis finger-shaped and without any processes.Antennae are present. Mandible (formerly called first maxilla)is "S"-shaped, with small teeth at its terminal end. A hook-like spine present at the terminal end of first maxilla (formerly called second maxilla). The maxillipeds are not far away from the mouth parts, and possess three hook-like spines at the terminal end. Fives pairs of swimming legs are present. The basipodites of the 1-4 legs each bears a seta. For seta formula of this species see figures 6 to 10.3. Lamproglena carassii Sproston et al., 1950.The female specimen is found on the gills of Carassius auratus taken from Nanking, Wushi. This species differs from the type specimen in the following particulars:(1) The terminal end of the abdomen is not pointed.(2) A seta present on the basipodite of the first to fourth legs.(3) A seta on the second joint of the exopod of the fourth leg.Nauplius larva of Lamproglena carassii (fig. 24).Body is ovoid in shape, measuring 0.327 mm in length by 0.137 mm in width. The yolk spherules are less numerous than those found in the nauplius larva of L. chinensis. There are three pairs of appendages, as found in the nauplius larva of L. chinensis. The exopod of its mandible possesses four joints instead of only 3, as in L. chinensis.

(1)这次在南京至上海一带从淡水魚的鳃上共获得了3种狹腹鳋(中华狹腹鳋、东方 狹腹鳋和鯽狹腹鳋),并对中华狹腹鳋和鯽狹腹鳋的无节幼体也加以補充描述。 (2)从这次所得的东方狹腹鳋來看,腹部的长度存在着明显的变异,又增添五种新宿主鱼。 (3)本文对鯽狹腹鳋的特徴,有新的補充和修正。

In dogs under pentothal anaesthesia it was found that the submaxillary gland usually showed spontaneous secretion and that pressure stimulation of the carotid sinus by the inverted venous sac method augmented such secretion. The augmenting response persisted after sectioning either the chorda tympani or the vagosympathetic nerves. After sectioning of both nerves the response disappeared in some animals, but still persisted, though to a lesser extent, in other animals. In the latter animals the response could...

In dogs under pentothal anaesthesia it was found that the submaxillary gland usually showed spontaneous secretion and that pressure stimulation of the carotid sinus by the inverted venous sac method augmented such secretion. The augmenting response persisted after sectioning either the chorda tympani or the vagosympathetic nerves. After sectioning of both nerves the response disappeared in some animals, but still persisted, though to a lesser extent, in other animals. In the latter animals the response could finally be abolished by dividing the soft tissue on the medial aspect of the gland. The mechanism of this phenomenon is still not clear. Pressure stimulation of the carotid sinus has been found to augment the motility of the urinary bladder, when the anaesthesia used was very light. Only in a very few instances, inhibition of motility was observed. The efferent pathway of the augmenting response seems to be located in the sacral parasympathetic, for it was abolished by either administration of atropine or low level transection of the spinal cord. Intestinal motility has been found to be stimulated in the carotid sinus reflex, when the intestinal tone was initially low. With a high initial motility, however, the response might be an inhibition. In still other experiments no response from the intestine could be observed. Our results indicate that, under light anaesthesia pressoreceptive impulses from the carotid sinus may irradiate widely in the vegetative nerve centers so as to affect salivary secretion and intestinal and urinary bladder motility, the end result depending on the functional state of the nerve centers and also of the effectors themselves at the time of stimulation.

(一)在硫贲妥钠浅麻醉下犬的颌下腺多半有自动性分泌。颈动脉窦内加压一般都可以反射地刺激颌下腺的这种分泌。这一反射的传出途径除由腺门进入腺体的鼓索神经和交感神经外,可能尚有新的通路,文中曾予讨论。 (二)在浅麻醉或清醒状态下,颈动脉窦内压力增加可以反射地刺激膀胱运动,或是发动膀胱收缩,或是增加膀胱的收缩强度、收缩频率与收缩持续的时间。这一反射的传出途径通过盆神经。在个别情况下,也看到有抑制膀胱节律性活动的作用。 (三)颈动脉窦内压力增加也可以反射地刺激各段小肠以及结肠的运动,能够提高其紧张性,节律性与收缩强度。如果肠的运动性较高,有时则能发生抑制效应。 (四)我们认为颈动脉窦压力感受性反射在植物神经系统中能广泛扩散,尤其在浅麻醉或清醒状态下最容易表现出来,并且一般是副交感性的。

 
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