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economics of scale
相关语句
  规模经济
    The Analysis On The Economics of Scale of Steel Industry In China
    我国钢铁行业规模经济的实证分析
短句来源
    Research on the Merger and Acquisition of Harbin Pharmacy Industry by the Economics of Scale Theory
    规模经济下的哈尔滨医药行业并购重组研究
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    The foundation of the supply chain alliance in the nonferrous metal industry can not only bring economics of scale, economics of scope, economics of network and economics of speed, improve the profit rate of the industry, but also improve the decisive factors of its international competitiveness including factors of production, demand elements, relevant and auxiliary industries, etc.
    建立有色金属供应链联盟不仅能带来规模经济、范围经济、联结经济与速度经济,提高产业利润率; 而且能改善有色金属工业生产要素、需求要素、相关与辅助产业等国际竞争力的决定因素。
短句来源
    The endogenous impetus of clustering for Shaoxing textile industry lies in external economics of scale.
    绍兴市纺织产业集聚的内在动因在于外部规模经济效应。
短句来源
    (2) There is no direct connection between natural monopoly and economics of scale or economies of scope;
    ②自然垄断与规模经济、范围经济没有必然的联系;
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  “economics of scale”译为未确定词的双语例句
    And then discusses the competitive advantages of strategic alliances’enhancing competitiveness of enterprise posed in the global value chain with transaction costs, economics of scale and scope theory and the global value chain theory.
    从全球汽车产业价值链和我国汽车产业的统计数据着手,分析了我国汽车产业在全球价值链中的地位及不利因素,由此提出用战略联盟来发展我国汽车产业,改善我国汽车产业在全球价值链中的地位的思想。
短句来源
    In a transmission system the market efficiency can be achieved under the economic dispatch based on short run marginal cost(SRMC)methods ,but the capacity returns are serious inadequate as its economics of scale and scope.
    以短期边际成本原理为基础的经济调度可以保证市场效率 ,但由于规模 (scale)经济性和范围 (scope)经济性使输电投资的容量回报严重不足 ;
短句来源
    So in this paper, it is pointed out that EVE method is a new kind of pricing method, which has strict economic foundations, and is particularly suitable for electricity market with strong economics of scale.
    因此,文中指出,当量电价法是一类新的定价方法,它有严格的经济学基础,特别适用于有强烈规模经济性的电力市场。
短句来源
    When there are economics of scale in generation market, EVE pricing method provides an intrinsic and reasonable mechanism to compensate the capacity investment automatically.
    EVE还提供了一种独特的容量投资自动补偿机制,使得在发电生产成本存在规模经济性时,发电厂商可以得到合理的补偿。
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  economics of scale
Integer programming problems with a concave cost function are often encountered in optimization models involving economics of scale.
      
Existing retail units, getting larger in order to achieve economics of scale, and new forms of large-scale retailing do not fit easily in the traditional spatial pattern of retail concentrations.
      
The main conclusion from these research findings is that only minor economics of scale exist in the banking sector.
      
The economics of scale are not in favour of SSF, because each small mill caters to limited number of population.
      
The disposal and incineration market is characterised by indivisible production factors and economics of scale.
      
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In a transmission system the market efficiency can be achieved under the economic dispatch based on short run marginal cost(SRMC)methods ,but the capacity returns are serious inadequate as its economics of scale and scope. While the cost supplements based on load flow tracing methods will damage the market efficiency. The first and second market principles in transmission system introduced in this paper claim that both the market efficiency and the adequate capacity return must be accomplished at the same...

In a transmission system the market efficiency can be achieved under the economic dispatch based on short run marginal cost(SRMC)methods ,but the capacity returns are serious inadequate as its economics of scale and scope. While the cost supplements based on load flow tracing methods will damage the market efficiency. The first and second market principles in transmission system introduced in this paper claim that both the market efficiency and the adequate capacity return must be accomplished at the same time. An invariability principle of load flow embedded capacity cost in proportion is introduced. And the transmission electricity value equivalent(EVE) pricing methods of typeⅡ are presented in this paper, which is adaptable to the primary stage of opening region electricity market and recommend to China. Finally a case study is given. The invariability principle is confirmed and the first and second market principles in transmission system are satisfied.

以短期边际成本原理为基础的经济调度可以保证市场效率 ,但由于规模 (scale)经济性和范围 (scope)经济性使输电投资的容量回报严重不足 ;而用潮流追踪法追加成本又会损害市场效率。当量电价理论主张在输电领域也必须满足第 1市场原则 ,即 :既要保证市场效率 ,又要保证容量充分回报 ;还要满足第 2市场原则 ,即 :在全网统筹实现市场效率和容量充分回报后 ,在新、老线路投资者之间进行再调节 ,实现经济公平。输电市场中的市场效率具体表现为经济调度潮流。文中介绍了比例于线损嵌入容量成本的经济调度潮流不变的不变性原理 ,基于此建立了输电的当量电价方法。介绍了Ⅱ型输电当量电价法 ,由于它要求政府对全网应回收的容量成本包括搁浅成本的年金 ,事先进行审核 ,并以过路费率的形式计入优化目标 ,因此电网公司可适度规避风险 ,适合于开放输电市场的初期 ,从而推荐给我国采用。最后给出了算例 ,将Ⅱ型输电当量电价法与短期边际成本法以及潮流追踪的追加法做了比较 ,验证了经济调度潮流的不变性原理 ,自动实现了交易和潮流解耦 ,很好地实现了第 1市场原则和第 2市场原则。

Through the analyses and comparisons between electricity value equivalent (EVE) pricing method and uniform market clearing pricing (MCP) method, it is proved that the EVE method can not only conform with the power system operation characteristics, but also provide abundant and correct economic signals as same as uniform MCP method. However, the practical EVE method upgrades the minimal marginal cost broken line to the average cost reference frames with the merit loading order, which make EVE method different...

Through the analyses and comparisons between electricity value equivalent (EVE) pricing method and uniform market clearing pricing (MCP) method, it is proved that the EVE method can not only conform with the power system operation characteristics, but also provide abundant and correct economic signals as same as uniform MCP method. However, the practical EVE method upgrades the minimal marginal cost broken line to the average cost reference frames with the merit loading order, which make EVE method different from the marginal cost method, and integrate the economical marginal cost theory with accountancy average cost theory. So in this paper, it is pointed out that EVE method is a new kind of pricing method, which has strict economic foundations, and is particularly suitable for electricity market with strong economics of scale. At the same time, it solves the dilemmatic problems of market efficiency and adequate investment return. Particularly, at the generation capacity shortage circumstance, it can restrain the price spikes, and automatically punish the bad market activity of generators effectively and reasonably, so it can solve the difficult problems of opening the electricity market with generation capacity shortage. Furthermore, it provides the effective and reasonable regulation measures worthy of government function. EVE pricing method proves itself to be an excellent pricing method for electricity market.

通过对当量电价法与统一出清电价法的对比分析,证实了当量电价法不但符合电力系统运行特点,而且与统一出清的边际成本电价法一样,能够提供丰富和正确的经济学信号。但发电上网当量电价法又是在保持优良加载顺序条件下,将边际成本性质的最小成本折线,提升到参考系的平均成本水平,这就使当量电价理论区别于传统的边际成本理论,将经济学的边际成本理论和会计学的平均成本理论统一起来。因此,文中指出,当量电价法是一类新的定价方法,它有严格的经济学基础,特别适用于有强烈规模经济性的电力市场。同时,它还解决了市场效率和投资充分回报这个两难问题;特别是在电力短缺情况下,可以自动抑制电价的飞升,又可以对发电厂商的不良市场行为自动实现有效而合理的惩罚,解决了缺电条件下同样能开放电力市场的重大难题;并提供了与政府职能相称的有效、合理的监管手段。当量电价法不失为一种适用于电力市场的优秀的定价方法。

The agent-based simulation results based on IEEE reliability test system data were presented in this paper. The results show that: (1) Decreasing the generator firm's capacity share of the total available capacity is important for restraining the generator firm's market power in the electricity market with Uniform clearing pricing (UCP) method and pay as bid pricing (PAB) method, However, the condition is the adequate capacity reserve. In other words, UCP and PAB are inapplicable for the capacity shortage electricity...

The agent-based simulation results based on IEEE reliability test system data were presented in this paper. The results show that: (1) Decreasing the generator firm's capacity share of the total available capacity is important for restraining the generator firm's market power in the electricity market with Uniform clearing pricing (UCP) method and pay as bid pricing (PAB) method, However, the condition is the adequate capacity reserve. In other words, UCP and PAB are inapplicable for the capacity shortage electricity market. (2) The PAB pricing method cannot restrain the generator firm's market power. Some time the market power in PAB auction may be higher than that in UCP auction. (3) When the electricity value equivalent (EVE) pricing method is employed in market pricing, there exists very small room for a power supplier to lift up the market price by his strategic bidding and the market becomes robust in some sense. When there are economics of scale in generation market, EVE pricing method provides an intrinsic and reasonable mechanism to compensate the capacity investment automatically. However in UCP auction there are some firms bearing the negative profits while bidding the price more than their marginal cost. All these results show that there is excellent market characteristic in the electricity market with EVE pricing method and it is an advisable choice for China electricity market.

以IEEE可靠性测试系统的数据为基础,对不同定价规则的电力拍卖市场进行了基于智能代理的仿真。结果表明:①在统一出清电价(UCP)和按报价支付(PAB)的电力市场,减少发电厂商的市场份额可以削减发电厂商的市场力,但条件是系统要有足够的备用容量;如果负荷需求接近总可用容量,即使最大的发电厂商的市场份额只有11.4%时,其电力市场的价格也会远远偏离其边际成本价格。②在PAB电力市场,市场均衡状态的总购电费用以及平均价格两方面几乎和UCP电力市场电价没有差别,甚至还要高于UCP电力市场的均衡价格,因此,使用PAB的方法很难达到抑制电价飞升的目的。③在当量电价(EVE)的电力市场,发电厂商几乎没有策略空间,所有的发电厂商都自动按照其成本报价,而且对于各种情况都具有相当稳定的表现。EVE还提供了一种独特的容量投资自动补偿机制,使得在发电生产成本存在规模经济性时,发电厂商可以得到合理的补偿。而在UCP和PAB电力市场,一方面会出现发电厂商报高价的现象,另一方面还会出现部分发电厂商负利润的情况。所有结果表明EVE具有优良的市场特征,对于发电容量相对紧缺,不变成本不可忽视的中国电力工业现状,采用EVE不失为一个明智的选择。

 
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