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orchard
相关语句
  果园
    ECONOMIC AND ECOLOGICAL EFFECT ANALYSIS OF ORCHARD GROUNDCOVER MANAGEMENT
    果园地面覆盖管理的生态经济效益分析
短句来源
    Analysis on Ecological and Economic Benefit of Orchard Intercropping System in Red Soil Erosion Area
    红壤侵蚀区果园间作系统生态经济效益分析
短句来源
    The results showed that the contents of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in vegetable field, orchard field, and high-input corn field were obviously higher than those in soybean field and mid- and low-input corn fields.
    结果表明,菜地、果园和高投入玉米地土壤总有机碳(SOC)、全氮(TN)和全磷(TP)含量明显高于中、低投入玉米地和大豆地土壤.
短句来源
    The soil quality index of orchard and vegetable fields was 0.525 and 0.503, respectively, being higher than those of corn and soybean fields (0.417—0.494).
    菜地土壤有效磷(AP)含量和电导率(EC)显著高于其他土壤,不同农田生态系统土壤物理性状差异不明显. 果园和菜地土壤质量指数分别为0.525和0.503,高于传统农田玉米和大豆土壤(0.417~0.494).
短句来源
    for orchard and vegetable garden where plants are cultivated over successive five years,the detected rate of organophosphorus pesticides in soil is up to 80%;
    果园和蔬菜保护地栽培连续五年以上的地块,土壤中有机磷农药检出率高达80%以上;
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  “orchard”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Effect of Balance Fertilization on Young Satsuma in Rad SoilRoam Orchard
    平衡施肥对低丘红壤幼龄温州蜜柑园产量和果实品质的影响
短句来源
    The NH3-N concentration was comparatively high in the Litchi orchard and vegetable plot,which illuminated that the loss of NH3-N was relatively high in these two areas.
    荔枝林区和菜地区,流域水体中NH3-N的浓度相对较高,说明这2个农业用地区NH3-N的流失量相对较高;
短句来源
    Studies on the relationship between enzyme activity and fertility of soil in Ginkgo orchard
    银杏园土壤酶活性与土壤肥力的关系研究
短句来源
    Status of organic matter and nutrients in Shandong orchard soils
    山东省苹果园土壤有机质及养分状况研究
短句来源
    Assessment on Danger of Soil Erosion in Sanhe Ecological Orchard Based on GIS
    基于GIS的丰都三合水土保持生态园区土壤侵蚀危险性评价
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  orchard
Based on the growth, wood property of the ortets, and rooting abilities of cuttings, 32 Pinus massoniana clones for pulp use were selected from forests of superior provenance, mixed families, and progeny test of seed orchard by two-step selection.
      
A cutting orchard of 0.33 hm2 on the hillside was constructed to intensively produce cuttings according to the tests on construction methods, pruning, and fertilization.
      
A total of 50,000 grade I, 37,500 grade II, and 62,500 grade III cuttings were collected per hectare of this cutting orchard each time, and were cut three times each year.
      
Variation analysis and fine family selection on half-sib progenies from clonal seed orchard of Pinus massoniana
      
Variation of traits that include height, diameter at breast height (DBH), stem volume, crown width, straightness, wood basic density, tracheid length and width of open-pollinated progenies from clonal seed orchard of Pinus massoniana was analyzed.
      
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This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give...

This investigation was undertaken to attain by means of pot cultures and chemical analyses a better understanding of the significance of the degree of base saturation in relation to the growth and mineral composition of certain crops. Two relatively pure mineral colloids, bentonite and kaolin, and a lucastrine orchard soil containing illitic type of clay minerals were used for the studies. Bentonite and kaolin were first electrodialyzed and then mixed with different amounts of pure quartz sand to give different levels of base exchange capacity. Treatments were made to all three cultural media for varying degrees of base saturation with constant ratio between exchangeable bases. Oats and rye were grown in succession in montmorillonitic and kaolinitic media, while peach, soybean, proso, tomato and oats were grown in the illitic soil. Dry weights and contents of certain mineral constituents of oats, rye and tomato were determined. Yield data from the montmorillonitic media showed nearly linear relationship between the degree of base saturation and the growth of the plants. In the kaolinitic media the increase of yield was only noticeable from the first increment of bases, effects above 40% total base saturation being insignificant. The results from illitic soil were intermediate between those mentioned above, i.e., the highest yield of tomato was obtained at the 75% saturation level. The yield data further indicate that the growth of plants was more closely related to the degree of base saturation than to the total supply of exchangeable bases. With the same amounts of bases and at the levels below 60% base saturation, the yields of rye in the kaolinitic colloid were higher than in the montmorillonitic colloid. In the montmorillonitic media, the increase of Ca uptake by the plants from the first increment of Ca was pronounced with only little effects above 30% Ca saturation (or 40% level of total base saturation). The K content of the plants was increased appreciably at only the higher levels of base saturation, while significant increases of the Mg content of the plants occured at lower levels (i.e. below 60% base saturation level). In the kaolinitic media, no appreciable change of Ca and Mg contents of the plants was noticed. This is an interesting contrast to the results obtained with the montmorillonitic media. However, there were definite increases in K content of plants with increasing increments of K at the lower levels of saturation. The higher contents of Ca and Mg in the plants were found in kaolinitic media rather than in the montmorillonitic media provided that the total base saturation level was under 60% of the exchange capacity. On the other hand, the K content of the plants from montmorillonitic media was invariably higher than from kaolinitic media. In the illitic soil, the most marked increase of Ca content in plants occured when the degree of base saturation increased from the 50% to the 75% level. Beyond that point, no appreciable increase was noticed. As the degree of base saturation of illitic soil increased, the K and Mg percentages in plants increased also. Among the conclusions obtained from the experiments, the following are of outstanding significance: 1. Exchangeable cations are not equally available. With the equal supply of total exchangeable cations, their availability varies with the degree of base saturation. Within a certain range, the higher the degree of base saturation, the greater the availability of the exchangeable cation. This affords a theoretical explanation of the advantage of localized application of fertilizers. 2. The availability of exchangeable cations varies with the nature of clay minerals. With the given amount of exchangeable cations and the same degree of base saturation, the individual exchangeable cation held by the clay mineral differs in availability according to the following order: For Ca" and K', kaolinite>montmorillonite>kaolinite. This gives the reason why a montmorillonitic soil should be fertilized with respect to the Ca and K to higher levels than a kaolinitic soil. 3. In order to afford sufficient amount of active cations for the growth of plants, higher degree of ionic saturation is required for Ca" than is for Mg", which in turn should be higher than for K'. The study also discusses, from the theoretical point of view, some of the factors involved in determining the availability of exchangeable bases.

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽...

本研究之主要目的在于寻求不同粘粒矿物所吸附的代換性陽离子对植物生長及其矿質营养成分的影响。通过这一試驗,希望了解影响代换性陽离子的若干重要因子,从而提供关于施肥原則及技术的若干理論。试验分温室栽培及植株化学分析兩部份。栽培所用植物包括燕麦、黑麦、小米、大豆、番茄、桃树等数种,培养基根据所合粘番矿物不同,分微晶高陵土系,高陵土系及水化云母系三大类。培养基的鹽基代換率、鹽基飽和度,以及各代换性鹽基間的互相比例,均加以控制。另以砂培处理为对照,試驗的主要結果可以綜結如下: 1.在微晶高陵土系的栽培試驗里,植物的生長概和鹽基飽和度成直线相关,但高陵土系及水化云母系的栽培試驗結果并不完全如此。在这些培养基理,植物的生長,虽然也因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善,但其改善的趋势停止于一定的鹽基飽和度水平上。例如,在本試驗里,对黑麦和燕麦言,当高陵土系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到40%时,或对番茄言, 当水化云母系培养基的鹽基飽和度达到75%时,植物的生長都不再因鹽基飽和度的增加而改善了,这說明就植物的矿質营养言,鹽基飽和度具有特殊重要的意义。一般說来,鹽基飽和度愈大,代换性鹽基的有效度也愈大。 2.作为影响植物矿質营养的土埌肥力因素,鹽基飽和度的重要性一般超过鹽基代換率。試驗的結果表明:鹽基代換率不等,而鹽基飽和度相等的同一發生学来源的土埌,其植物生長狀况一般相等或相差不远。这說明代換性鹽基的絕对数量不足以指示作物生長的优劣。不仅如此,試驗的結果也啟示出含代換性陽离子絕对数量相等的兩种同源土埌,就对植物的矿質营养言,并不意味着具有相等的供应該有效性陽离子的能力。由于它們間質地上的可能差異,——質地輕者鹽基代换率小,質地粘重者,鹽基代換率大,——因之其鹽基飽和度就不相等。飽和度大者,鹽基的有效度就高。 3.栽培試驗及室內化学分析的結果都表明在总鹽基飽和度为60%以下的土埌中(Ca:Mg:K=15:3:2),高陵土类粘粒矿物上的代换性Ca~(++)及Mg~(++)的有效度均高于微晶高陵土,而K~+則相反。 4.植物矿質成分的化学分析結果表明:各营养离子的鹽基飽和度在一定范圍内的变化,可以显著地影响它进入植物体內的量。例如,当微晶高陵土系培养基的鈣离子飽和度在30%以下的范圍內作增减的变动时,都能明显地反映在其所生長的植物体內的含鈣量上。植物体內的鉀离子,則能反映飽和度自4%至6%的范圍內的变化。鎂的情况大体近似于鉀,只是其变化范圍更小一些。这說明同一种植物为了滿足其自身的营养需要,对于同一种粘粒矿物上所吸附的不同离子,有不同的飽和度的要求。鈣最大,(对黑麦,燕麦而言約30%以上),鎂次之(約9%),鉀最小(約6%)。这些标准也是施肥的最低要求。 5.栽培試驗及化学分析都証明同一种离子吸附在不同的粘粒矿物上,縱然离子飽和度相等,其对植物生長和矿質养分的影响也不相等。研究結果显示出在同一离子飽和度下,不同粘粒矿物上的离子有效度大体依下列次序变化:高陵土>微晶高陵土>水化云母。在农業实踐中,不同类型的土埌所要求的施肥标准不等,在这里也得到了一些理論根据。試驗結果对于实际施肥,应有一定的指导价值。除以上主要結果外,本文还对有关代換性离子有效度的理論問題进行了討論和分析,并提出了作者自己的初步意見。

Citrus trees grow well in the red soil hilly lands of subtropical China. Fujian province has a considerable acreage of citrus planted in such an environment.Seeking for a more suitable manuring programme for rapid increase in citrus production,We had,in the past two years (1981,1982) selected thirty uniform Tankan trees (grafted on Fuju stock),20 years old,in a typical red soil hilly country orchard in Nanjing county,near Zhangzhou,Fujian,for study.Representative leaf and soil samples were collected at...

Citrus trees grow well in the red soil hilly lands of subtropical China. Fujian province has a considerable acreage of citrus planted in such an environment.Seeking for a more suitable manuring programme for rapid increase in citrus production,We had,in the past two years (1981,1982) selected thirty uniform Tankan trees (grafted on Fuju stock),20 years old,in a typical red soil hilly country orchard in Nanjing county,near Zhangzhou,Fujian,for study.Representative leaf and soil samples were collected at intervals for laboratory analysis during 1981 and 1982.The results were illustrated in Figures 1,2 and 3,and the main points briefly summarised as follows. 1.Annual variation curve representing the amount of major nutrient elements in Tankan leaf possessed a special pattern of its own,and showed significant differences.In the foliage,calcium content rose quickly with the increases of leaf-age,the amount of potassium dropped gradually, while magnesium likewise had a tendency to drop in content with the advance of seasons.The nitrogen content was low both at the beginning and the end but high and steady during the experiment.The amounts of phosphorus was highest during the period of September to November or in November. With the exception of calcium,the major nutrient elements were main- rained at a stationary status during July to November.The amount of fruiting influenced the major nutrient element contents,for instance,the amount of potassium and magnesium were much lower in the foliage during the heavy cropping year than that of the“off year”,while that of nitrogen and calcium were just the reverse.The amount of phosphorus was less affected by fruiting. 2.Results from our laboratory analysis of orchard soils indicated that about a third of the illustrated curves showing the seasonal variation of available nutrient elements,was nonsignificant.This situation occured espe- cially in the subsoil.The changes of significant differences of scasonal variations were found to be more pronounced between the years.Furth- ermore,data from our two year studies showed that the amount of the major available nutrient elements was consistently greater in the topsoil than that of the subsoil. Seasonal variation of soil pH was very pronounced.The amount of hydrolyzable nitrogen during 1981 (being a heavy cropping year) dropped gradually from summer to winter.But,in the case of an“off year”like that of 1982,seasonal variation of hydrolyzable nitrogen content disappeared altogether.Available potassium,phosphorus and magnesium of the topsoil became relatively low toward the end of growing season (in 1981),while the amount of these same elements showed little variation during the“off year”in 1982.Seasonal variation of the amount of nutrient elements in the subsoil was not conspicuous.The amount of available calcium dropped during the“on year”but showed an upward trend during the“off year” (1982) 3 Most of our results from statistical analysis did not showed significant correlation between the soil and the foliar nutrient element contents.Thus, it remains necessary in our further studies on fruit tree nutrition to investigate,under definite conditions,how soil and foliar analyses could be better employed as a tool to formulate practical manuring programme for proper orchard fertilization.

1981~1982年,作者对蕉柑叶片常量元素含量与土壤有效养分含量、pH 值的年周期变化进行了研究。通过统计分析表明:1.叶片各常量元素含量年周期变化曲线具有特定模式,且一致呈现季节性显著差异。叶片元素(除钙外)大致于7~11月为其含量变化的稳定期。叶片元素含量且受大小年结果所影响,钾、镁含量大年低于小年,氮、钙含量则相反,磷含量少受影响。2.土壤有效养分含量年周期变化,有1/3曲线季节间未达显著性差异,且此现象主要出现在下层土壤。有效养分含量年份间的季节差异显著性变化较大。两年各有效养分含量的全部数值,上层土壤恒高于下层土壤。上、下层土壤 pH 值均呈现季节性显著差异。3.年周期变化中的叶片与土壤常量元素含量相关系数,大多数未达显著水准。故今后尚需探明在特定条件下,各剐元素叶片与土壤分析指导施肥的实用价值。

During the period of May--June, 1984, observations were made to inve-stigate the characteristics of radiation balance, heat balance and micro-climate in the mountainous orchard with and without plastic film mulchin Mengyin County, Shandong Province.The results of the observations were summarized as follows:1. The film mulch increased the radiation balance during daytime andreduced it at night.2. The film mulch reduced the soil evaporation and the net radiationwas mainly consumed in the plant transpiration.3...

During the period of May--June, 1984, observations were made to inve-stigate the characteristics of radiation balance, heat balance and micro-climate in the mountainous orchard with and without plastic film mulchin Mengyin County, Shandong Province.The results of the observations were summarized as follows:1. The film mulch increased the radiation balance during daytime andreduced it at night.2. The film mulch reduced the soil evaporation and the net radiationwas mainly consumed in the plant transpiration.3 The plastic film mulch changed the thermal properties of soil. Theheat capacity, the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of thesoil were higher in the orchard with film mulch than that without film. The film mulch resulted in a significant inerease of. yield and wasproved to be a quite effective agricultural measure modifying the micro-climate in the mountainous orchard.

根据1984年5~6月在山东蒙阴山地果园内的地膜覆盖与无覆盖的辐射平衡、热量平衡的小气候的观测,对辐射能与热能收支作了计算和分析,得到下列初步结果: 1.覆膜增大了白天的辐射平衡而减小了夜间的辐射平衡。2.覆膜减少了土壤蒸发,净辐射主要用于植株的蒸腾。3.覆膜改变了土壤热性质。土壤热容量、土壤导热率和土壤导温率都比无覆盖的大。地膜覆盖显著增加产量,为一种有效改善山地果园小气候的农业措施。

 
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