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coastal     
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  沿海
     Investigation of Public Safety System Structure in Coastal City: Theory & Application
     沿海城市公共安全系统构建理论与应用研究
短句来源
     Effects of Crop Industry Structure Changing on Soil Quality in Developed Coastal Region
     沿海经济发达区种植业结构变动对土壤质量的影响
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     Study on Niche of Representative Harmful Algal Bloom Species in the Coastal Waters of China
     中国沿海典型赤潮藻的生态位研究
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     PALEOMAGNETIC STUDY OF TWO SEDIMENT CORES FROM THE NORTHERN COASTAL REGION OF CHINA
     中国北方沿海两个沉积岩芯的古地磁研究
短句来源
     PYROXENE AND AMPHIBOLE MEGACRYSTS IN ALKALI BASALTIC ROCKS FROM SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PROVINCES OF CHINA
     我国东南沿海碱性玄武质岩石中辉石和角闪石巨晶
短句来源
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  海岸
     Researches on Coastal Storm Surge Frequency during the Warm Period of Middle Holocene in Middle Jiangsu Province
     江苏中部海岸全新世中期温暖期风暴潮频率的研究
短句来源
     Study on the Coastal Zone Environment Degradation in the Southern Coast of the Laizhou Bay and Its Control Policy
     莱州湾南岸海岸带环境退化及治理对策研究
短句来源
     Study on Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport in Coastal and Estuarine Region
     河口海岸带附近地下水运移规律研究
短句来源
     Study on Numerical Simulations of Hydrodynamics and Its Application to the Study on Sediment Movement in Coastal and Estuarine Waters
     海岸河口水动力数值模拟研究及对泥沙运动研究的应用
短句来源
     Study on Soil Ecological Characteristics of Shelter Forest in Silting Coastal Area
     泥质海岸防护林土壤生态特性研究
短句来源
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  滨海
     The authors study the accumulation and cycle characteristics of N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, B, Mo in casuarina equisetifolia trees on Fujian coastal platform.
     本文研究了N、P、K、Na、Ca、Mg、Cu、Zn、Fe、Mn、B、Mo 12种元素在福建滨海台地的木麻黄林中的积累和循环特征。
短句来源
     Orchard in coastal areas in Taizhou of Zhejiang, established by protective forest, cold decrease wind speed by 36.8%-70.3%, fruit drop by 38.2%-60.5%, increase air humidity by 1%-3%, decrease evaporation by 13.7%, improve ecological environment of orchard, promote tree growth, increase output by 11.7% -18.8% per 0.07 hectare.
     沿海围涂果园,采用“窄带小网型”防护林营建技术,能降低风速36.8%~70.3%,减少落果38.2%~60.5%,提高空气湿度1%~3%,减少蒸发量13.7%,改善果园生态环境,促进果树生长,从而提高产量(每0.07hm~2提高11.7%~18.8%),该技术宜于南方滨海果园推广。
短句来源
     To find the basic law of the pollution gas concentrations change, the author use the daily trace gases (CO, NO_x, O_3, SO_2) concentrations data from December 2003 to March 2006 to analyze trace gases concentrations change in the coastal commercial residential restrict of Qingdao.
     本文利用2003年12月至2006年03月逐日污染气体(CO、NOx、O_3、SO_2)浓度资料,分析了CO、NOx、O_3和SO_2的浓度变化特征,初步掌握青岛市滨海商业住宅区污染气体浓度变化的基本规律。
短句来源
     6 species are coastal plants.
     滨海植物 6 种。
短句来源
     It is shown from the analysis results that the coastal wetlands in the area have undergone severe fragmentation with a patch density of 6.7 ind. /km~2 and a corridor density of 0.01 km/hm~2,the fragmentation degree of artificial landscape is higher than that of natural landscape,and the human activities are the main cause for the landscape fragmentation of coastal wetlands in the area.
     结果表明,莱州湾南岸滨海湿地景观破碎化严重,整体斑块密度为6.7个/km2,廊道密度为0.01 km/hm2,人工景观破碎化程度比自然景观高,人类活动是造成莱州湾南岸滨海湿地景观破碎化的主要原因。
短句来源
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  沿岸
     In April and May 1984, the major redox sensitive chemical species, i. e. NO3-, NO2, NH4, dissolved O2 (DO), Fe2+, Mn2+, I-, IO3-, and H2S, of Xiamen coastal water were determined.
     1984年4—5月间,测定了厦门沿岸海水中的主要氧化还原敏感化学形态即NO_3~-、NO_2~-、NH_4~+、溶解氧(DO)、Fe~(2+)、Mn~(2+)、I~-、IO_3~-和H_2S。
短句来源
     The concentration ranges(the mean values) of dissolved Chpper and Cadmium in Dong shan coastal sea water, Fujian province in May 1990 were 0. 25 ~ 1. 73(0. 74) and 0. 008~0.067(0.021 )μg/dm3,respectively;
     1990年5月东山沿岸海域溶解态Cu、Cd的浓度范围(平均值)分别为0.25~1.73(0.74)和0.008~0.067(0.021)μg/dm3,11月的分别为0.41~2.03(0.96)和0.014~0.263(0.028)μg/dm3。
短句来源
     In 1994, the concentrahon ofbismuth (III) in Qingdao coastal seawaters was 0.017-0.103μg / L.
     1994年利用该方法测定青岛沿岸海水中铋(III)的浓度为0.017-0.103μg/L。
短句来源
     The Simutaneous Separtion and Determination of ~(210)Pb and ~(226)Ra in Coastal Marine Sediments and It's Application in Geochronology
     沿岸沉积物中~(210)Pb、~(226)Ra的同时分离测定及其在地质年代学上的应用
短句来源
     Whereas Cyclotella striata, Cyclotella stylorum, Diploneis bombus, Traychneis aspera and Tabularia tabulata can be used to identify the influence of the coastal currents in SCS.
     而Cyclotella stylorum, Cyclotella striata, Diploneis bombus, Traychneis as pera, Tabularia tabulata 等则可看作判断沿岸流对南海水体影响强度的标志种。
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  coastal
A series of methodologies for the measurements of iodine species in the gas and particle phases of the coastal atmosphere has been developed.
      
A seaweed-chamber experiment was performed, indicating that gaseous I2 is one of the important precursors that lead to new particle formation in the presence of solar light in the ambient air at the coastal tidal area.
      
The results showed that the zooplankton in the Yueqing Bay could be divided into four ecotypes, namely coastal low saline species, estuary brackish water species, offshore warm water species, and eurytopic species.
      
The coastal low saline species was the dominant ecotype in the study area, and the dominant species were Labidocera euchaeta, Acartia pacifica, Acrocalanus gibber, Pseudeuphausia sinica, and Sagitta bedoti among others.
      
Holocene depocenter shift in the middle-lower Changjiang River basins and coastal area in response to sea level change
      
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A brief mosquito survey was made from Hainan Island and the Leichowpeninsula of Kwangtung Province during April and May, 1953. Collections were madeon adults as well as on larvae and pupae from various habitations. Altogether 31species were discovered. They included: (1) Aedes aegypti, (2) Aedes albopictus(3) Aedes scutellaris (4) Aedes togoi (5) Aedes vittatus (6) Culex fatigans (7) Culextritaeniorhynchus (8) Culex bitaeniorhynchus (9) Culex vagans (10) Culex vishnui(11) Culex mimeticus (12) Culex mimulus (13)...

A brief mosquito survey was made from Hainan Island and the Leichowpeninsula of Kwangtung Province during April and May, 1953. Collections were madeon adults as well as on larvae and pupae from various habitations. Altogether 31species were discovered. They included: (1) Aedes aegypti, (2) Aedes albopictus(3) Aedes scutellaris (4) Aedes togoi (5) Aedes vittatus (6) Culex fatigans (7) Culextritaeniorhynchus (8) Culex bitaeniorhynchus (9) Culex vagans (10) Culex vishnui(11) Culex mimeticus (12) Culex mimulus (13) Culex sitiens (14) Culex vorax(15) Culex fuscanus (16) Armigeres obturbans (17) Mansonia uniformis(18) Anopheles hyrcanus var. sinensis (19) Anopheles hyrcanus nigerrimus(20) Anopheles vagus (21) Anopheles minimus (22) Anopheles jeyporiensis var.,candidiensis (23) Anopheles fluviatilis (24) Anopheles varuna (25) Anophelesphilippinensis (26) Anopheles splendidus (27) Anopheles karwari (28) Anophelesannularis (29) Anopheles leucosphyrus, (30) Anopheles kochi (31) Anopheles bar-birostris. In the hilly regions A. minimus and A. jeyporiensis were-by far the commonestspecies found in human dwellings while A, hyrcanus var. sinensis was less common.In the coastal regions the reverse was true. A key for the identification of all species of mosquitoes reported up to thepresent from Hainan Island was given.

1.本文叙述1953年4月至5月作者参加海南岛与雷州半岛蚊类采集调查情况,共获蚊类31种,将其地理分布与捕集场所详加描述。 2.本文将以往海南岛与雷州半岛的蚊类调查研究的文献作总的温习并扼要列举之。 3.本文内将海南岛及雷州半岛的地理环境与蚊种的分布情况。加以讨论。 4.最后将海南岛已知蚊种编为检索表以便研究及参考。

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities...

Ⅰ. The Yinshan district as an example of "activizing region" in the Chinese platform One of the most typical localities that show clearly the phenomenon of"activization of platform" (активи. зация платформы) is the Yinshan region, aneast western mountain range on the border between the North-China plain andthe Mongolian plateau. It has long been recognized as a platform because ofthe presence of a folded foundation Pre-Sinian in age. However, owing to thefacts that Mesozoic crustal movements and magmatic activities are importantwithin this area, some geologists including G Schoenmann, hold that it is ageosynclinal region. It is Ю. М Шейманн who first noticed the phenomenon of activizationappearing in the Chinese platform. В. М. Синицын in his "Строенив и развитиекитайской платформы" indicates that some of the mountain ranges includingYinshan, which have been formerly referred to the folding belts developingfrom geosynclines, are in fact the internal structures of the Chinese platform. In this paper the writer after the opinion of В. М. Синицын, assigns theYinshan area as one of the "activizing regions" in the Chinese platform, andgives more detailed descriptions and discussions mainly on the point of thehistory of its stratigraphic development. Really it is a fact that the Yinshan region has an old folded foundationwhich is composed of metamorphic complex including chiefly gneisses, schists,and old granitic intrusions apparently Pre-Sinian in age. Since the formationof this folded foundation during the Luliang movement (=Goto-Karelian mo-vement), the old land of the Yinshan region has "activized" or "resurrected"several times. As early as in the Sinian period, a depression prolonging in E-Wdirection happened on its southern border, where Sinian limestone 900 metresin thickness and in some places up to 9,620 metres was so deposited. During a long time of the Palaeozoic era, the Yinshan old land was in the poriod ofdenudation except some Cambrian marine limestones only 144 metres in thick-ness deposited in the western part. At the end of the Palaeozoic era, local acti-vization with the formation of continental basin-deposits of Permian age, up to1,380 metres in thickness, as found in the Tachingshan area again happened.In the middle Mesozoic era, the Yinshan region came to a period of strongactivity. Structural depressions duo to "Процесс аркогенеза" occurred universallywithin the whole area and magmatie activities in large magnitude associatedthis crustal movement, so that a great sequence of freshwater basin-depositswith intercalations of volcanic beds, up to 8,000 metres in total thickness wereformed. During the formation of these strata, especially at the end of Mesozoic,interruptions of depositon happened frequently, folds and thrusts were abund-antly formed, and intrusive bodies of "young granite" were produced hereand there. In the Tertiary period, the Yinshan region was violently faulted, andvolcanic activities still happened, producing the basalt lava flow spreading ina wide area. The activity of the Yinshan old land has not ceased even to-dayas shown by the facte that its whole area is in the process of uplift and by thepresence of an earthquake zone known in the historical time. Ⅱ. To what Geotectonic Unit does the Southeastern Coastal Region of China Belong? On the Southeastern coast of China there is a district where geotectoniccharacteristics have never been recognized clearly. It is A. W. Grabau who firstreferred it to an old land named "Cathaysia". J. S. Lee holds the same opinion.In his geotectonic map of China, B. M. Синицын also assigns this region to aplatform and marks it as a part of his "Южно-китайский платформенный массив".However, there is still another opinion opposed to this. A. C. Хоминтовский, forinstance, renders recently this district to a geosynclinal region and proposes thename "Minche Pacific folding zone" for it. H. T. Yang and T. Y. Yu agreewith him. In the year 1954, the writer in his compilation-work connected with thegeology of Fukien and Kwangtung, found that the geotectonic characteristics ofthe southeastern coastal region of China are not only unagreeable with thosefound in a common platform on the one hand, but also contrasting, with thoseof a geosynclinal region on the other. In fact, it cannot be referred suitably toany geotectonic unit except to the intermediate type as shown by the history ofits geological development. Apparently it is an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. During the Pre-Sinian crustal movement (the Luliang movement), a foldedfoundation composed of old gneisses, schists, and phyllites was completely for-med. Obviously this is a part of the broad old land of Southern China. In the earlier stage of the Palaeozoic era, the whole area of this region wasexposed in the air and under denudation. Hence, no deposit of any kind wasformed. After the Caledonian movement, depressions happened in the western partof this region, where the Devonian-Lower carboniferous continental deposit, theNanching series consisting mainly of quartzite, conglomerate and shale has beenformed, but the other parts were still under denudation. These facts show thatthis region was still a land at that time. Uralian and Lower Permian limestones, known respectively as the Chuan-shan limestone and the Chihsia limestone, separated from each other by adisconformity, spread widely in this region. This indicates that the marine trans-gressions really happened in the southeastern coastal region of China. However,the thicknesses of these limestones (only 30 metres and 150 metres respectively)and their uniformity in the horizontal direction show that the sea at thosetimes was shallow, and the magnitude of subsidence of the earth crust withinthis region was small. The unnoticed lateral changing of lithological charactersof these limestones proves the same fact. Undoubtedly these limestones arenothing but the marine deposits of platform-type. From Upper Permian toTriassic, this region was under a condition of alternation of transgression andregression of the sea. Owing to the fact that the amplitude of oscillation of theearth crust of this region at that time was small, the deposits formed duringthe marine transgression were thin and interrupted again and again by disconfor-mities (or even unconformities). Sometimes continental deposits are intercalated. Since the later period of Triassic, the southeastern coastal region has neverbeen covered by the sea again. And, a new condition began to happen in LowerJurassic. Here, the old land became to "resurrected", so that a series of depres-sing belts were formed as a result of "Процесс аркогенеза". In association withthe subsidence of these depressions, continental beds with a total thicknessup to 3,000 metres were deposited. In the beds interruptions frequently occurred.Folds were abundants, although they or at least some of them were intermediatetype. At the same time, magmatic activities were significant. Itappearedfirstly in the form of volcanic eruptions as recorded by a great sequence of beds consisting of tuff and rhyolite intercalating in the continental bedsmentioned above. And then, at the end of the Mesozoic, numerous graniticbodies were produced. Coming to the Cenozoic era, this region still sufferedfrom rather strong crustal movements accompanied by basalt lava eruptions. Theactivity of the old land has not yet been ceased even to-day as marked by thepresence of a famous earthquake zone between Kwangtung and Fukien, and theabundance of hot springs which widely spread within this region. All theseshow the typical characters of an "activizing" or "resurrected" platform. Final-ly, the complexity of the types of mineral deposits found in Fukien and Kwang-tung also proves the geotectonic nature of this region. Summarizing the whole matter, we may say that the southeastern coastalregion of China was originally an old land. Although it has been agian andagain submerged by the sea, the resulting marine deposits are entirely differentfrom those of geosynclinal region. In the middle of Mesozoic, this region beganto be active violently again, producing a series of depressions or "secondarygeosynclines", in which thick continental beds were deposited, and, at the sametime, folds of intermediate type, serious volcanic eruptions and magmatic intru-sions were produced. Hence, to refer the southeastern coastal region of China toan "activizing" platform is quite strongly proved. The northwestern boundary of this "activizing" platform is generally onthe line starting from central Chekiang through central Kiangsi to the Sou-thwestern part of Kwangtung, because the history and characteristics of geolo-gical development of the Southeastern Kiangsi and Central-southern Kwangtungare quite similar to those of Fukien and Eastern Kwangtung. As to the nomination of this geotectonic unit, the writer proposes to callit "Cathaysian activizing region". This name is derived from the "Cathaysia"of A. W. Grabau but adds, according to necessity, the meaning of activizing or"resurrected" characters of this region. The so-called "Minche Pacific foldingzone" of A. C. Хоминтовский is obviously unacceptable because it entirely doesnot coincide with fact. Compared with the "aetivizing" platforms found in other parts of theworld, the Cathaysian coastal "activizing" platform has its own characteristics,especially shown by the presence of numerous, widely spread, small depressionsor "secondary geosynclines", and the acidic magmatic activities appearing on alarge scale. All these indicate that this is a special type differing from all th

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Ⅰ. General SKETCH The Cenozoic basalt lavas are widely distributed along the coastal regionand its adjacent districts in eastern China. They form either widespread plateausor scattered mesa-like hills; and, in some places, the volcanic craters are stilladmirably preserved to-day. These basalt sheets were erupted extensively in lateTertiary and early Quaternary times. They belong to the multiple-vent basalts,but not the plateau basalt in the type of eruption. In this paper are given the results of a petrochemical...

Ⅰ. General SKETCH The Cenozoic basalt lavas are widely distributed along the coastal regionand its adjacent districts in eastern China. They form either widespread plateausor scattered mesa-like hills; and, in some places, the volcanic craters are stilladmirably preserved to-day. These basalt sheets were erupted extensively in lateTertiary and early Quaternary times. They belong to the multiple-vent basalts,but not the plateau basalt in the type of eruption. In this paper are given the results of a petrochemical study of the Ceno-zoic basalt in eastern China. Geological and petrographical studies of the basaltsare not described in detail. Judging from the chemical compositions, the mostoutstanding characteristic feature of the most basaltic rocks is the richness inalkalis, especially in K_2O, also the undersaturation in silica, and, therfore,the most of the basalts distinctly belong to the alkaline rock suite. Such chemicalcharacters are closely related to modal compositions. The general petrogra-phical characters of the basalt may be now as well described. In North Chinaand South Manchuria most basalts are trachy basalt and its allied types, andoccasional nepheline basalt. The constituent minerals of these basalt are cha-racterized by the presence of anorthoclase, potash-adesine, plagioclase, titanaugite,as well as by the abundance of olivine. In South China the main basalt is olivinebasalt, consisting of olivine, augite, and plagioclase as usual. At some placesthe basalt may be slightly silica saturated that the occasional presence of hyper-thene and quartz (xenocryst) is noteworthy. In North Manchuria the dominant basalt is leucite basalt, containing leucite and olivine as phenocryst and groundmass constituent. Xenocryst of quartz and feldspar grains are sometimes present.In Taiwan Province, basalt of Kuanyinshan volcano is of the tholeiite type,but, in some other districts, the alkaline basalt with feldspathoidal constituentalso occurs. In view of the above-mentioned facts, the petrographical difference seemsto be matched by the differences of the major tectonic forms of China. Thesefacts may be tabulated below: Geographical region Tectonic forms Basalt type 1. North Manchuria Granitized region in Varisclde Leucite basalt 2. North China & South Precambrian Sino-Korean Trachybasalt Manchuria massive 3. South China Huanan platform in Yenshanide Olivine basalt 4. Taiwan Himalayide Tholeiite basalt Ⅱ. Regional INVESTIGATION In Table 1 the chemical analyses of the Cenozoic volcanic rocks in easternChina published up to 1951 were collected, of which 74 analyses are basalticrocks. The available analyses of every basalt sheet are taken an average to re-present the regional composition of the basaltic rocks. The localities of the basaltsheets where the analyzed chemical data are referable are shown in Figure 1.In all, 21 localities of basalt are investigated. The average chemical compositionsof each basalt locality, together with the normative minerals, Niggli's valuesand Zavarickij's numbers are given in Tables 2 A and 2 B respectively (localnos. in Table 2 correspond to the numerous in circle in Figure 1). For theconvenience of comparison, the average chemical composition of some standardbasalts (after S. R. Nockolds, 1954), some alkaline basalt in New Zealand (afterW. N. Benson, 1944) and Uganda (after A. Holmes, 1937), and the world's ba-salts, together with the normative minerals, Niggli's values and Zavarickij'snumbers of our calculation, are selected and given in Tables 3A, 3B, 7A, 7Brespectively. As mentioned above, the chemical composition of eastern China basalt ischaracterized by the high content of alkalies, and especially the K_2O. This cha-racter is definitely revealed by the normative feldspar, which is given in Table2 A and graphically shown in Figure 2. From this graphical representation,it is recognized that the normative feldspar becomes increasingly enriched ormolecular from South China to North Manchuria. Although the projected points appear to be scattered, a trend of clustering of the normative feldspars in accor-dance with its geographical distribution is apparent upon close inspection. Inthe normative pyroxene diagram, Figure 3, it is shown that most basalts of easternChina are rich in Wo molecular, falling near the Di-Hd line; On the otherhand, those of Kuanyinshan basalts of Taiwan Province are poor in Wo andcluster in the central part of the Di-Hd-Fs-En field. Therefore, that the easternChina basalt, excluding that of Kuanyinshan, belong to the alkaline rock suiteis justified. The comparison diagrams of qz, al-alk, C-(al-alk) and K-mg ofNiggli's values, based on the data given in Tables 2 B, 3 B, and 7 B, are gra-phically shown in Figs. 4, 5, 6 and 7 respectively. As will be seen from thesefigures, in general, the qz and al-alk of Niggli's value are lower, but C-(al-alk) and K-mg are higher than those of some common basalts. Fig. 8 isZavorickij's petrochemical vector diagram, from which the petrochemical cha-racters of high alkaline property in eastern China basalts are clearly justified. Ⅲ. Serial COMPARISON For ascertaining and understanding the general chemical characters, theCenozoic eastern China basalt and its differentiated associations are divided,based on the SiO_2 content, into 5 chemical types, the average composition ofwhich is given in Table 5A. As the chemical composition of Kuanyinshanvolcanic rocks in Taiwan Province shows a distinct calc-alkaline affinity, it is,therefore, dealt with the same procedure as well. The average chemical compo-sition of the volcanic rocks is given in Table 5 B. Since the Cenozoic basalt ineastern China covers the region adjacent to the Circum-Japan Sea and the Ja-panese Archipelagoes which are well known by the occurrence of alkaline andcalc-alkaline rock suite respectively. The serial variation in the chemical com-position of eastern China volcanic rocks is examinated in comparing them withthose of the Circum-Japan Sea and the Japanese volcanic rocks. The data usedfor the Circum-Japan Sea and Japanese rocks, which are given in Tables 6 A and6 B, are based on Tomita's and Yamada's calculated results respectively. Zavaric-kij's number of the same rocks, based on Zavarickij's data, is given in Table6 C. Following various petrochemical methods, some graphic diagrams are cons-tructed in order to express the chemical characters of the rock series of easternChina more definitely. The difference in chemical composition as comparedwith the Circum-Japan Sea alkaline rock suite is shown in the normal varia-tion diagram Figure 9. Other petrochemical indices (proposed by Peacock, Hol- mes and Tomita respectively) obtained are summarized below: Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅳ alkali-lime index (Fig. 10) 65.5 59.0 63.0 52.0 alkali-alumina index (Fig. 11) -- -- 67.8 63.3 Ol-Q index (Fig. 12) 20.0 43.0 72.5 76.5 Ne-Hy index (Fig. 13) -- -- 55.0 59.9 Di-C index (Fig. 14) 46.5 46.5 -- -- Ⅰ. Japanese volcanic rocks; Ⅱ. Taiwan volcanic rocks; Ⅲ. Circum-Japan Sea alkaline suite; Ⅳ. eastern China volcanic rocks.From these graphical solutions in Figs. 10-14, it may be justified that thevolcanic rocks in eastern Asia have increasingly enriched the alkali contentfrom the Japanese Archipelagoes to the mainland of China. Figure 15 is avariation diagram of the normative feldspar of the eastern China series, incomparison with that of the Circum-Japan Sea region, the Japanese Archipela-goes and New Zealand. As will be seen from the diagram, the variation of thenormative feldspar of eastern China rock series is quite discriminative. Notonly is it richer in or molecular, but the positions of point N and O (corres-pond to the respective Ol-Q and Ne-Hy indices as shown in Figs. 12 and 13)of the eastern China series are also in a later course than the others. Figure 16is a paragenetic diagram of the normative plagioclase and pyroxlene of theeastern China series. In the variation diagram of the normative pyroxene, Fig.17, the distinct difference in the course of variation between the alkaline andcalc-alkaline series is clearly revealed. In this connection, the directon of varia-tion in the normative pyroxene of the alkaline series differs from that of thecalc-alkaline series. It is also notable that the range of variation in the easternChina series is smaller, due to the presence of higher Wo molecular in bothbasic and acidic types, as compared with that of the Circum-Japan Sea series.Figure 18 is Zavarickij's petrochemical vector diagram of the eastern Chinaseries compared with that of Circum-Japan Sea and Japanese series. It may be acomplemental diagram of the serial comparison diagram of eastern Asia volcanicrock series, prepared by Zavarickij (cf. A. N. Zavarickij's Introduction to Petro-chemistry of Igneous Rocks, 1950, Fig. 61, p. 205, in Russian). The distinctdifference of these rock series may be clearly observed in the graphical solution.In Table 7 A is given the average chemical composition of eastern China basalt,together with the composition of basaltic rocks of the world (including olvinebasalt and Toleiite, Ocean basalt and Continent basalt) for comparison. Theeastern China average is very similar to the average composition of the olivine- basalt of the Circum-Japan Sea region (based on Tomita, 1935, and recalculatedby the writer), while it differed more or less from that of any of the world'sbasalts by the high content of alkali and especially K_20. This character isdefinitely revealed by the normative feldspar and pyroxene, which are graphi-cally shown in Figs. 19 and 21 respectively. Figure 20 is Zavarickij's petroche-mical diagram of the world's basalt. As shown in these diagrams, it suggests atransitional relation rather than a sharp cleft in the petrochemical charactersof the world's basalts. There are no distinct types of basalt magma but rathera continuous series from silica saturated (tholeiitic) to silica-undersaturated(olivine-basalt) rock, although the chemical distinction may be too subtle to beread directly from chemical analyses. Ⅳ. ORIGINAL Basalt Magma The original magma of eastern China basalt belongs to the olivine basaltmagma type. In this discussion it is assumed that the primary olivine basaltmagma is melted from a crust of peridotitic crystalline rock in the upper partof the sima layer. Olivine basalt magma may be modified by the gain of alimited amount of silica and some alkalies to produce a derived melt, whichappears to coincide with the tholeiitic

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