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smut
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  黑穗病
    Progress on the Studies of Sugarcane Breeding for Resistance to Smut(Ustilago scitaminea Syd.)
    甘蔗抗黑穗病育种研究的进展
短句来源
    Relation between Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Sugarcane and Resistance to Smut
    甘蔗受黑穗病菌侵染后苯丙烷类代谢变化及与其抗性的关系
短句来源
    Resistance of Foxtail Millet to Kernel Smut and Its Genetic Analysis
    谷子(粟)对粒黑穗病的抗性及遗传分析
短句来源
    Current status and prospects of smut and smut resistance breeding in sugarcane
    甘蔗黑穗病及其抗病育种的现状与展望
短句来源
    Identifion of Brooncorn Millet Varieties Resource For Resistance to Smut in China
    中国黍稷品种资源抗黑穗病的鉴定
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  黑粉病
    A STUDY ON SMUT OF BAMBOO AND ITS BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PATHOGEN (USTILAGo SHIRAIANA P. HENN)
    竹黑粉病及其病原菌(Ustilago shiraiana P.Henn)生物学的研究
短句来源
    A Preliminary Study on Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Fungus of Rice Kernel Smut
    稻粒黑粉病病原菌分类地位的初步研究
短句来源
    RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EPIDEMIC OF RICE KERNEL SMUT AND METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS
    稻粒黑粉病发生流行与气象因素的关系
短句来源
    STUDY ON STANDARDIZED INDEX FOR GRAIN SMUT OF RICE
    稻粒黑粉病分级标准研究
短句来源
    Control of Kernel Smut in Hybrid Seed Production of the Combinations of Pei'ai 64S
    培矮64S系列组合制种稻粒黑粉病防控技术研究
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  黑粉菌
    A Preliminary Survey on Smut Fungi in Henan Province
    河南黑粉菌初步调查
短句来源
    Taxonomic Studies on Smut in the Gansu Province
    甘肃省黑粉菌分类研究
短句来源
    The paper reported 30 smut fungus species that grew in feed plants and crops in Gansu Province,which belonged to 8 genera.
    文章报道了甘肃省饲用植物及作物上的黑粉菌共30种,分属于8个属。
短句来源
  “smut”译为未确定词的双语例句
    THE EXPERIMENT AND ANALYSIS ON EPIDEMIC RULE OF FALSE SMUT OF RICE
    稻曲病流行规律试验与分析
短句来源
    STUDIES ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN AND SAMPLING TECHNOLOGY OF THE LOOSE SMUT OF WHEAT IN WHEAT FIELDS
    小麦散黑穗病空间分布型及抽样技术
短句来源
    Study on the Primary Infection Source of Rice False Smut
    稻曲病菌初侵染源研究
短句来源
    Spatial distribution patterns of diseased panicle and diseased grain of rice green smut (Ustilaginoidea virens)
    稻曲病(Ustilaginoidea virens)病穗和病粒的空间分布型
短句来源
    Identification of the Variety Resistance to False Smut of Rice
    黑龙江省水稻品种(系)对稻曲病的抗性鉴定
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  smut
Mycocinogeny in smut yeast-like fungi of the genus Pseudozyma
      
Genealogy-Based Comparison of Loose Smut Resistance for Spring Common Wheat Cultivars
      
Comparative genealogical analysis was conducted for loose smut-resistant and susceptible common wheat cultivars of three regions: Russia, Canada, and India.
      
A contingency table was constructed with the data on resistance or susceptibility of 839 common and durum wheat cultivars and demonstrated a significant association for resistance to two, loose and stinking, types of smut.
      
grisea but also enhanced resistance to rice false smut (a disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens) and rice kernel smut (another disease caused by Tilletia barclayana).
      
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Following a series of experiments conducted in East China Agricultural Re-search Institute (Nanking) during the past years,the "red arsenic",a well-knownraw-drug (containing approximately 90% of As_2O_3,9% of AS_2S_2 and 1% of mis-cellaneous substances),is found to be acceptable as seed disinfectant for the controlof cereal smuts.This raw-drug is not only excellent in effectiveness,but alsoeasily obtainable in this country. Incidence of infection of wheat bunt in the plots receiving 3 different treatments,namely,red...

Following a series of experiments conducted in East China Agricultural Re-search Institute (Nanking) during the past years,the "red arsenic",a well-knownraw-drug (containing approximately 90% of As_2O_3,9% of AS_2S_2 and 1% of mis-cellaneous substances),is found to be acceptable as seed disinfectant for the controlof cereal smuts.This raw-drug is not only excellent in effectiveness,but alsoeasily obtainable in this country. Incidence of infection of wheat bunt in the plots receiving 3 different treatments,namely,red arsenic (inoculated seed grains dusted at the rate of 0.05 % by weight),copper carbonate (0.3%),ethyl mercury phosphate (0.05%),during the last 4years,averaged 0.2%,1.4% and 2.7%,respectively against 44.8% in the control.The corresponding figures for the flag smut of wheat were respectively 3.1%,0.8%,5.0% against 20.5%; for the covered smut of barley,0.9%,1.1%,0.9% against1.6%; for the kernel smut of oats,6.8%,3.1%,0.5% against 41.4%.The resultsmake us believe that this native raw-drug is not inferior,in some cases even su-perior,to other fungicides now extensively manufactured and considered efficientin preventing the various cereal smuts.But in the control of the covered smut ofbarley,as we have already shown elsewhere,another native raw-drag,sulphur ismore effective.In the last 3 years,field experiments were carried out to studywhether arsenic gives beneficial effect on the germination of seed and on the yieldof grain.Arsenic was applied as dust to the clean seed wheat following thestandard hot water treatment.Data showed that the number of seedlings in asingle 12-ft.row ranged 368-400 from treated seed as compared with 362-386 fromuntreated seed.Yield of grain also increased 4.7 to 23.6 per cent.It is,there-fore,evident that this fungicidal dust,when properly used,is at least not injuriousto seed wheat.The following points,however,must be borne in mind when thearsenic treatment is put into practice: (1) The dosage should not be higher than0.05 per cent and lower than 0.005 per cent by weight of seed grain.Otherwise, ??it would be either injurious to seed germination or ineffective for disease control.(2) Arsenic can be applied only to thoroughly dried seed grain. Seed wheat con-taining 24% of moisture when treatment was made, lost its vitality in a very fewdays, while that with less than 12% moisture can be stored for one month withoutspoilage. (3) Arsenic reduced germination of seed grain after storage at the highertemperatures. Under laboratory conditions, seeds, treated during hot summer whenthe air temperature ranged between 31 and 35℃, largely lost their germinativecapacity within half a month, but seeds, treated in cooler season when air tempera-ture dropped below 22℃, germinated as untreated ones after being stored for 3months or longer. (4) The relative humidity during storage played the most im-portant role in causing arsenic injury to the seeds. Seeds of wheat containingproper moisture (around 12%) dusted with arsenic at correct rate (0.05% byweight), failed to germinate after being stored for 5 days at temperatures above30℃ under 100% r.b.; but there was little or no injury after a storage period ofover 7 months at 37℃ under 18% r.h. (5) The length of storage period is alsoa factor in causing arsenic injury, and at the same time affecting the efficiency ofthe treatment. Seeds dusted with arsenic at a dosage of 0.05% during mid-summer(July of 1953) retained their germinative capacity within 0.5 month, but no seedsgerminated after 2.5 months' storage. On the other hand, almost complete controlof disease was obtained from thoroughly infested seed grain dusted with 0.0125%of arsenic and stored for 60 days, but similarly treated seeds which were sownimmediately, gave 45.15% infection as compared with 72.77% in the check plot.Consequently, the proper method of using arsenic against cereal smuts is to dustthoroughly dried seed grain at the rate of 0.05-0.0125% by weight and to storetreated seeds under cool (below 25℃) and rather dry (around 80% of r.h.) con-ditions for a period of about one month. According to the results obtained from experiments conducted under bothlaboratory and field conditions, it is found that there is no synergism nor antago-nism between arsenic and such filling materials as ashes, slake lime, talc, charcoalpowder, and calcium phosphate; and that neither soil temperature nor soil moistureact as factors influencing the germination of treated seeds.

(一)用紅砒粉末作為種子消毒處理藥劑,對於幼苗感染性的小麥腥黑穗、小麥稈黑穗及燕麥堅黑穗等,有極良好的防治效果。但對大麥堅黑穗及條斑病,則不見功。(二)紅砒使用得法,對於麥種絕對無害;而且對於大麥、小麥的清潔種子,有積極的增產作用;惟對於燕麥還未能肯定。(三)紅砒粉末的拌種用量,當以種子重的0.025—0.05%為準簧僦?.005%,仍有殺菌效果。(四)為了增大藥物的容積,使得微量的紅砒粉末能够均勻週到地沾着每一麥粒,可用滑石粉、木灰末、甚至消石灰、草木灰或過磷酸鈣來稀释。(五)麥種拌砒後,須經一定期間的貯藏後播種,方顯出其强大的殺菌防病效果珉S拌隨種,則效果较少。至貯藏期間的久暫,則當因季節和用量等等而異。大致可以一個月為度。(六)紅砒使用不得其法,易起藥害。而藥害有無的關键,主耍在於拌砒後貯藏中的濕度,其次才是温度。如充分乾燥,在酷暑的氣候條件(37℃)下,貯藏7個月,尚??無妨礙。至於播種時的地温土濕,則關係極微。(七)紅砒的藥害與麥種處理當時的含水量有密切關係.含水量多,極為蝛U;含水量在12%以下,即安全無礙。(八)在自然狀况下用紅砒處理麥種,應當避去炎夏季節。又麥種拌砒前,必須充分晒乾。拌砒後...

(一)用紅砒粉末作為種子消毒處理藥劑,對於幼苗感染性的小麥腥黑穗、小麥稈黑穗及燕麥堅黑穗等,有極良好的防治效果。但對大麥堅黑穗及條斑病,則不見功。(二)紅砒使用得法,對於麥種絕對無害;而且對於大麥、小麥的清潔種子,有積極的增產作用;惟對於燕麥還未能肯定。(三)紅砒粉末的拌種用量,當以種子重的0.025—0.05%為準簧僦?.005%,仍有殺菌效果。(四)為了增大藥物的容積,使得微量的紅砒粉末能够均勻週到地沾着每一麥粒,可用滑石粉、木灰末、甚至消石灰、草木灰或過磷酸鈣來稀释。(五)麥種拌砒後,須經一定期間的貯藏後播種,方顯出其强大的殺菌防病效果珉S拌隨種,則效果较少。至貯藏期間的久暫,則當因季節和用量等等而異。大致可以一個月為度。(六)紅砒使用不得其法,易起藥害。而藥害有無的關键,主耍在於拌砒後貯藏中的濕度,其次才是温度。如充分乾燥,在酷暑的氣候條件(37℃)下,貯藏7個月,尚??無妨礙。至於播種時的地温土濕,則關係極微。(七)紅砒的藥害與麥種處理當時的含水量有密切關係.含水量多,極為蝛U;含水量在12%以下,即安全無礙。(八)在自然狀况下用紅砒處理麥種,應當避去炎夏季節。又麥種拌砒前,必須充分晒乾。拌砒後,必須貯置高燥處所。

High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only...

High percentage of chlamydospore germination of Neovossia horrida (Tak.)P.& K.with abundant basidiospore production was obtained by placing moistenedspores in a Petri dish with limited supply of water,the dish-cover being inkedblue to insure a favordable light condition.Moistened spores applied on the sur-face of kernels of a growing rice head enclosed in a paraffin paper bag was alsofound to germinate by producing a very short basidium and a large number ofbasidiospores.It is,therefore,concluded that not only light but also oxygen isrequired for normal germination of the spores of the rice kernel smut. Results of a series of inoculation experiments conclusively show that thefungus infects rice kernels during the milky dough stage.Basidiospore inoculationgives higher percentage of infection than chlamydospore inoculation. Field observation indicates that the incidence of high percentage of infectionis coincident with the excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer.Fluctuationof the amount of infection from year to year is probably determined chiefly by theduration of high moisture period from heading to dough stage.There are someevidences of varietal difference in the susceptibility of rice to the kernel smut.

(一)稻粒黑穗病菌厚垣孢子的正常萌发,在外界环境條件的關係上,不僅要求一定的光照,而且需有充分的氧氣供給。至於對水分的要求,只要空氣中?窒喈敐穸?已足供萌发的需要,不一定要有水滴的經常存在。(二)接種試驗證明病原係在水稻的灌漿期侵入種实。在自然界中,這種侵染顯然是通過氣流傳播而實现的。但種子與土壤所荷带的病原菌厚垣孢子,都是侵染的來源。(三)过量的氮素肥料,與高的稻粒黑穗病感染率有密切的關係。(四)稻粒黑穗病发生程度的年份间差異可能主要是决定於抽穗至乳熟期的高濕度的持續時間。(五)初步調查的資料表示水稻品種间具有顯著的感病性差別。

1.Chlamydospores of kaoliang head smut treated under moist conditions at 32-35℃ inan incubator for 30 days,and then transferred to the cane-sugar solution,resulted 60 to 90%germination in contrast to only about 10% with the untreated control.The germination rateof spores treated at 20℃ was also increased,though to a much less extent.2.High temperature treatment under moist conditions was more effective than under dryconditions.3.Solutions of sucrose,xylose,or raffinose were found to be the best media for...

1.Chlamydospores of kaoliang head smut treated under moist conditions at 32-35℃ inan incubator for 30 days,and then transferred to the cane-sugar solution,resulted 60 to 90%germination in contrast to only about 10% with the untreated control.The germination rateof spores treated at 20℃ was also increased,though to a much less extent.2.High temperature treatment under moist conditions was more effective than under dryconditions.3.Solutions of sucrose,xylose,or raffinose were found to be the best media for thechlamydospore germination,while neither glucose,sorbose,levulose nor galactose solution,northe addition of dung-infusion or plumules of germinated seed of kaoliang promoted the germina-tion.4.The germinability of the chlamydospores previously subjected to moist high tempera-ture treatment began to decrease after 110 days of treatment,and it sharply dropped to 5%after 190 days.5.Light apparently exerts no influence on the after-ripening and germination of thechlamydospores.6.The chlamydospores germinated well between pH 4.4-10.0,but their germination wasmarkedly inhibited at pH 3.4.

高粮丝黑穗菌厚垣孢子发芽率低的主要原因是生理后熟不足,温湿度对生理后熟起着决定性作用。在32—35℃高温和湿润环境里处理30天后,就能完成厚垣孢子生理后熟的发育阶段,使孢子发芽率从10%左右提高到60—90%。在20℃时孢子发芽率虽略有提高,但远不如高温处理的效果好。湿润处理远比干燥处理的发芽率高。电灯光对厚垣孢子的生理后熟以及阳光对厚垣孢子发芽,均无刺激或抑制作用。在35℃和20℃下连续处理110天后,发芽率均一致表现下降,190天后降到5%左右。蔗糖、木糖、棉子糖有利于厚垣孢子发芽。葡萄糖、山梨糖、果糖、半乳糖效果不明显。马粪浸液或添加高粮芽组织,都无刺激作用。厚垣孢子发芽要求的 pH 范围不严,过酸(pH 3.4)可抑制发芽,但过碱(pH10.0)并无影响,pH 4.4—10.0均适于发芽。

 
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