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  tnt
Using Bacillus subtilis SK1 as an example, it was demonstrated for the first time that 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) transformation pathways change with TNT concentration.
      
subtilis SK1, delayed at 20 mg/l TNT (minimum toxic concentration), was resumed following TNT transformation.
      
Aromatic amines were predominant metabolites detected in the culture medium at early stages of TNT transformation.
      
The culture growth was completely inhibited by 200 mg/l TNT.
      
The sensitivity of Escherichia coli strains K-12 and 055 to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was found to correlate with the structural and functional properties of the outer lipoprotein membrane.
      
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Microstructure of TNT deformed under fast loading was observed with optical microscope and SEM.Adiabatic shear bands'were found in specimens.There are two type of adiabatic shear bands,namely,the deformed bands,and the transformed bands.The crystals in the deformed band were severely twisted,and in the transformed b&nds,phase-transition of crystal was found.Strain rate and plastic deformation are chief factors for forming adiabatic shear bands.Under high strain rate and large deformation,it is easier to...

Microstructure of TNT deformed under fast loading was observed with optical microscope and SEM.Adiabatic shear bands'were found in specimens.There are two type of adiabatic shear bands,namely,the deformed bands,and the transformed bands.The crystals in the deformed band were severely twisted,and in the transformed b&nds,phase-transition of crystal was found.Strain rate and plastic deformation are chief factors for forming adiabatic shear bands.Under high strain rate and large deformation,it is easier to form adiabatic shear bands in TNT than that in metal.

本文对快速加载后的国产TNT材料,采用光学显微镜和扫描电镜观察,研究了其显微组织。结果表明,在快速加载条件下材料中有绝热剪切带生成。剪切带在细观上的表现形式为:(1)以应变高度集中、晶粒剧烈扭曲为特征的细观组织形貌;(2)在局部区域,晶粒被急剧拉长,形成粗亮而边界清晰的剪切带。在快速加载条件下TNT材料中绝热剪切带的产生同时取决于应变和应变率。在高应变速率和大变形条件下,TNT材料比金属材料更容易形成剪切带。

Based on experimental data, reactivity and temperature at various points of time in the TNT detonation reaction zone and Taylor zone are calculated.The nucleation and the growth of diamond from free carbon as is formed in the TNT detonation reactive zone have been estimated by classical homogeneous crystal nucleation and growth theory. The estimated yield of ultrafine diamond is in agreement with that from the experimental data.

以实验测定的爆轰压力和比容等空间分布参数为依据,用简单理论估算温度和反应度,用晶粒均匀成核和长大理论估算了TNT爆轰游离碳在上述热力学条件下的金刚石成核和长大过程,估算的金刚石得率与实验值相符。

The development of high explosives could be reviewed as TNT,RDX,and HMX as three historical stages,and now we are coming in the fourth stage which marked by the appearance of CL 20 However,the increment of energy denicty of the CL 20 is only about 10% greater than that of HMX For the needs of the improvement of the weapon systems in the next century,it is necessary to search and develop the superior high energy density materials,and it would be some quite new classes of substance Performance of...

The development of high explosives could be reviewed as TNT,RDX,and HMX as three historical stages,and now we are coming in the fourth stage which marked by the appearance of CL 20 However,the increment of energy denicty of the CL 20 is only about 10% greater than that of HMX For the needs of the improvement of the weapon systems in the next century,it is necessary to search and develop the superior high energy density materials,and it would be some quite new classes of substance Performance of nitrogen cluster,such as octaazacubane N 8,was calculated by quantum chemists and demonstrated its remarkable prospects,which is represented as an example of the imaginary SHEDM And it was emphasized that new allotropic forms of nitrogen N n would be the most promissing substance as SHEDM Recently N + 5 was found in the MS,and it is already prepared as a salt by Christe Nitrogen polymer N n,in which n is a large number and N atoms are connected by covalent bonds in a three dimentioal net structure just as a polymer,is should be paid the greatest attention and would become the most powerful SHEMD in the next century [

高能炸药的发展可以看做经TNT ,RDX ,HMX三个阶段 ,而现在进入以CL - 2 0为标志的第四个阶段 ,CL - 2 0的能量密度增益也仅大于HMX约 1 0 %;文章举出了量子化学家们对可能的超级高能量密度材料八氮杂立方烷性能所做的引人注目的计算结果 ,并强调新的氮同素异形体将是最有希望的超级高能量密度材料。最近在质谱谱线中发现了N+5 ,Christe制得了N+5 的盐。关于聚合氮Nn,n为一个很大的数字 ,N原子均以共价键相结合而成为三维的网状结构 ,它是最值得重视的 ,有可能成为下一世纪威力最大的超级高能量密度材料

 
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