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parasitism
相关语句
  寄生
    THE STUDY OF PARASITISM OF FOUR EGG ENEMIES ON LYMANTRIA DISSOLUTA SWINHOE
    四种卵蜂对条毒蛾的寄生作用研究
短句来源
    One thousand five hundred and 2000 heads of Scleroderma guani were put in each 0.67 hm2 respectively,one month later the parasitism rate were 62.1 % and 67.7 % respectively.
    每0.67 hm2柏木林分别施放1 500头和2 000头管氏肿腿蜂,1个月后寄生率分别为62.1%和67.7%; 并表明其为一项环保有效的防治措施。
短句来源
    Study on the Population Dynamics of Pantana phyllostachysae and Parasitism of Natural Enemies
    刚竹毒蛾种群动态及天敌寄生率的研究
短句来源
    Parasitism of Verticillium chamydosporium strain V_(10) and its effect on controlling nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)
    厚垣轮枝菌V_(10)菌株对南方根结线虫的寄生和防治作用
短句来源
    Study on specialization of parasitism of hyperparasites (Tuberculina vinosa, T. fraxinis)
    重寄生菌葡酒锈生座孢(Tuberculina vinosa)和白蜡锈生座孢(T.fraxinis)的寄生专化性
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  寄生性
    Observation of egg parasitism of Meloidogyne incognita by Paecilomyces lilacinus strain FZ-0289 in vitro
    淡紫拟青霉FZ-0289菌株对南方根结线虫卵寄生性的离体观测
短句来源
    The Parasitism of Gliocladium Roseum 67-1 Strain on Sclerotia of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum and the Molecular Mechanism Involved
    粉红粘帚霉67-1菌株对核盘菌的寄生性及其分子机理
短句来源
    Four soils with different pH, texture and organic matter influenced parasitism of J2 and biocontrol effectiveness of the two fungi.
    土壤pH,土壤结构和有机质均影响H.minnesotensis和H.rhossiliensis对J2的寄生性,这取决于真菌种,真菌接种水平和接种天数。
短句来源
    Parasitism of an isolate of Cunninghamella elegans to eggs of Meloidogyne incognita in vitro
    绮丽小克银汉霉对南方根结线虫卵的寄生性
短句来源
    Parasitism Research on Beauveria bassiana for Soybean Aphis
    白僵菌对大豆蚜的寄生性研究
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  “parasitism”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The percentage of parasitism reached to 60—70% in May and June,and only female adults of T.
    该索线虫寄率某些年份可高达60—70%,在我省荔枝。
短句来源
    The relations between development duration and temperature from the stage of parasitism to incunabulum and incunabulum to emergence can be described as N=134.0426/(T-9.5234) and N=84.9558/(T-11.5965), respectively, the results of which fit in with χ 2 test.
    从该蜂接蜂至成茧 ,茧至羽化发育历期与湿度关系分别为N =13 4.0 42 6 (T -9.5 2 3 4)和N =84.95 5 8 (T -11.5 965 ) ,各温度下发育历期的理论值与实测值经卡方测验相符 ,即该预测式适用
短句来源
    chilolis ishii ranged from 33.7% to 72.1 %, with averaged parasitism reached 55.1% and the larval descity was reduced by 35.7% to 88.2%, its averaged at 62.0%.
    虫口减退率为35.7%~88.2%,平均62.0%。
短句来源
    Discovery of Associated Parasitism of egg parasite in Dendrolimus punctatus Walker
    马尾松毛虫卵期寄生蜂的共寄生新发现
短句来源
    PRELIMINARY STUDIES ON PARASITISM OF OLPITRICHUM AFICANUM
    菌生真菌Olpitrichumafricanum寄生性初步研究
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  parasitism
The natural parasitism rates on the whole gradually increased in field with time.
      
Intracellular Parasitism and the Problem of Sarcocystosis
      
These data support an earlier suggestion about import by rickettsiae of indispensable proteins from cytoplasm of the host cell as a molecular basis of obligate intracellular parasitism.
      
The selectivity of parasitism of the studied UMB to the victim bacteria has been shown: only two soil microorganisms of the seven test objects, B.
      
This function determines a qualitatively different pattern of symbiotic partner interactions in the following sequence: parasitism-mutualism-commensalism.
      
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Surface sterilized wheat leaf segments infected with rusts (chiefly P. triticina) were found to be capable of producing large amounts of uredospores in complete darkness when sufficient nutrients were furnished. Sporulation continued for 40-50 days in culture and finally some rust mycelia were found to extend from within the leaf segments on to surrounding media. It was proved through TTC staining, plasmolysis test and microscopic examination that host tissues remained alive only for about 10 days. These observations...

Surface sterilized wheat leaf segments infected with rusts (chiefly P. triticina) were found to be capable of producing large amounts of uredospores in complete darkness when sufficient nutrients were furnished. Sporulation continued for 40-50 days in culture and finally some rust mycelia were found to extend from within the leaf segments on to surrounding media. It was proved through TTC staining, plasmolysis test and microscopic examination that host tissues remained alive only for about 10 days. These observations verified that wheat rusts were able to grow and sporulate on dead host tissues. A critical discussion on modern concept of obligate parasitism as well as the biological basis of hypersensitive reaction was presented. Among different carbon sources, glucose, sucrose, fructose, and glycerin markedly enhanced sporulation on leaf segments so cultured; peptone was proved to be the best nitrogen source although inorganic nitrogen could also be utilized. Some leaf segments produced black uredo pustules with dead spores. This was proved to be due to the fact that phenolic compounds were oxidized through the action of polyphenoloxidase and more toxic quinone compounds were accumulated, and finally black pigments were produced. The oxidation of phenolic compounds could be inhibited by the addition of ascorbic acid to the media, and blackening of spores was successfully checked. Uredospores produced on leaf segments were transfered aseptically to different synthetic media and on some of them limited white colonies developed. The nutrient requirements for growth were essentially the same as those for leaf segment cultures. In respiration experiments with labeled glucose, a strong HMP tendency was observed in germinating uredospores as well as diseased tissues while healthy tissues exhibited a rather strong EMP tendency. More C~(14) was recovered in organic acid moiety of diseased tissues. No appreciable differences of C~(14) recoverage between healthy and diseased tissues in chlorophyll, sugar and amino acid moieties were found. It appears that there were no correlations between sugar or phenol contents and rust resistance among different wheat varieties. However, phenol contents of resistant varieties were invariably higher in the inoculated plants than in the controls, while a reversed situation was observed in susceptible varieties. Susceptible tissues contained more ascorbic acid with higher dehydrogenase activity than resistant, tissues. These facts were discussed on the basis of current hypothesis of rust resistance.

感染叶锈菌(Puccinia triticina)的小麦病叶段經消毒后在无光条件下飼以充足养分能产生大量夏孢子堆;并在培养后40—50天仍能继續形成新鲜孢子堆,部分菌絲从叶段切面生出。經三苯基四唑化氯染色,质壁分离测定及切片鏡检观察証明寄主細胞在培养中存活的时限为10天左右。这些資料说明小麦锈菌具有一定腐生能力,作者对“绝对寄生性”的概念以及过敏反应的生物学基础作了評論。不同碳源中葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖及甘油对叶段上孢子堆的形成都有极明显的促进作用;氮源以蛋白腖为佳,无机氮亦可代替。培养过程中夏孢子堆有时变黑而死亡,試驗証明这是由于酚类物质經多元酚酶作用而氧化,产生对菌具有更強毒性的醌类物质,最后形成黑色素。这一过程可以被还原性的抗坏血酸抑制。叶段上所产生夏孢子在合成培养基上能形成白色小菌落,对碳氮源的要求大体与叶段培养相同。飼标記葡萄糖(G_1~(14)及G_(1~6)~(14)标記)后测定証实锈菌及病組織葡萄糖酵解的HMP趋势較強,健組織则EMP趋势較強。病組織有机酸含G~(14)的量显著高于健組織;病健組織間叶綠素、醣及氨基酸中G~(14)的含量則无差异。抗、感病品种間醣的含量似无明显差异,酚的绝对含量与抗...

感染叶锈菌(Puccinia triticina)的小麦病叶段經消毒后在无光条件下飼以充足养分能产生大量夏孢子堆;并在培养后40—50天仍能继續形成新鲜孢子堆,部分菌絲从叶段切面生出。經三苯基四唑化氯染色,质壁分离测定及切片鏡检观察証明寄主細胞在培养中存活的时限为10天左右。这些資料说明小麦锈菌具有一定腐生能力,作者对“绝对寄生性”的概念以及过敏反应的生物学基础作了評論。不同碳源中葡萄糖、果糖、蔗糖及甘油对叶段上孢子堆的形成都有极明显的促进作用;氮源以蛋白腖为佳,无机氮亦可代替。培养过程中夏孢子堆有时变黑而死亡,試驗証明这是由于酚类物质經多元酚酶作用而氧化,产生对菌具有更強毒性的醌类物质,最后形成黑色素。这一过程可以被还原性的抗坏血酸抑制。叶段上所产生夏孢子在合成培养基上能形成白色小菌落,对碳氮源的要求大体与叶段培养相同。飼标記葡萄糖(G_1~(14)及G_(1~6)~(14)标記)后测定証实锈菌及病組織葡萄糖酵解的HMP趋势較強,健組織则EMP趋势較強。病組織有机酸含G~(14)的量显著高于健組織;病健組織間叶綠素、醣及氨基酸中G~(14)的含量則无差异。抗、感病品种間醣的含量似无明显差异,酚的绝对含量与抗病性无相关,但抗病品种受病后酚类物质增加,感病品种則相反。感病組織中去氫酶活性及抗坏血酸含量則較抗病組織为高。对抗锈机制的理論也作了討論。

This account is given to state the results of studies on an entomogenous fungus—Spicaria fumoso-rosea—which is commonly found underground, infecting the pupae of the parasitic flies, Crossocosmia tibialis Chao, that have devastated the Chinese oak silk-worms, Antheraea pernyi Guén-Méneville of the Northeastern China, especially in the Liaoning Province, during the recent years. This fungus is hitherto unrecorded in China and the percentage of parasitism in nature is from 3.4 to 20.3% and sometimes even...

This account is given to state the results of studies on an entomogenous fungus—Spicaria fumoso-rosea—which is commonly found underground, infecting the pupae of the parasitic flies, Crossocosmia tibialis Chao, that have devastated the Chinese oak silk-worms, Antheraea pernyi Guén-Méneville of the Northeastern China, especially in the Liaoning Province, during the recent years. This fungus is hitherto unrecorded in China and the percentage of parasitism in nature is from 3.4 to 20.3% and sometimes even higher. This paper implies such data as: (1) the description of this fungus with some distinguishable and indespensable morphological characters for identification, that, as for the convenience of reference and comparison, are illustrated in figures and tables attached to the text; (2) certain environmental factors requisite for the development of the fungus, such as the culture temperature (20-24 C), the soil moisture (15-55%) and the relative humidity (98-100%) which is necessary to the germination of the spores; and (3) some experiments conducted for the selecting culture media and the methods of isolation and inoculation. From the viewpoint of utilization, the present fungus appears to possess some good qualities suitable for application, namely, (1) being easily cultured on potato, sweet potato, horse or sheep manure and even humus media; (2) with high infectivity, from 10-100 % after artificial inoculation; and (3) with a rather wide scope of hosts, such as both larvae and pupae of Lucania separata (Walker), pupae of Pyrausta nubilalis Hübner (in one case, accidentally inoculated by nature in the laboratory), pupae of Carposina niponensis Walsingham, and various flies. Some rather small-scaled plot-tests of inoculating the larvae of the parasitic flies (dropping down from the silk-worm cocoons attached on the oak branches) were made, indicating that the percentage of infection being 72.98%, as spore-powder dusted on that ground surface and contaminating the larvae by their crawl; whereas only 40.24-43.98%, when powder dusted at 3 or 5 cm. deep in soil.

在辽宁省发現一种寄生于柞蚕寄生蝇蛹体上的食虫菌,鑑定为赤色穗状菌[Spicaria fumoso-rosea (Wize) Vassilijevsky],是我国首次詳細观察記载。此菌容易培养,在馬鈴薯、甘薯块上,以及馬、羊粪混和腐植土上都可以生长发育良好。致病力強,自然寄生率为3.4—20.3%;接种感染寄生率为10—100%。此菌除寄生于柞蚕寄生蝇蛹外,还可寄生于粘虫、苹果食心虫及家蝇等。本菌孢子发芽所需相对湿度为98—100%,在98%以下不能发芽;土壤绝对含水量15—55%时发生良好,尤以35%为最适宜。最适温度为20—24℃。小区接种試驗結果:在地面撒菌粉让寄蝇蛆爬行钻入,寄生率为72.98%;在土深3与5厘米处撒菌粉,寄生率为40.24%和43.98%。

This paper deals with the control of European corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hub.) by using trichogrammatid parasites (Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura and T.ostriniae Pang et Chen) in 1974 at Zhou County of Shantung Province.The aimsof this study were to ascertain the suitable time and frequency of parasite releases,the number of parasites released per unit area,and the effect of supplementary treatment with pathogenic microbes.Attention was also paid to the influences of the mode of crop planting,crop vigor,and...

This paper deals with the control of European corn borers (Ostrinia nubilalis Hub.) by using trichogrammatid parasites (Trichogramma dendrolimi Matsumura and T.ostriniae Pang et Chen) in 1974 at Zhou County of Shantung Province.The aimsof this study were to ascertain the suitable time and frequency of parasite releases,the number of parasites released per unit area,and the effect of supplementary treatment with pathogenic microbes.Attention was also paid to the influences of the mode of crop planting,crop vigor,and the density of host eggs upon the effectiveness of the control.The results showed that the effectiveness in corn borer control was obvious,the percentages of parasitized host eggs in the treated fields generally amounted to 70-90%,and the rates of control reached to 60-80%.The suitable number of parasites released each time per mu was 10,000 which would bring forth a rate of parasitism about 80%.The time of release was important in influencing the rates of parasitism which ranged from 82.6% at the initiative stage of host oviposi-tion to 34.8% at the peak of ovipovsition.The effective frequency of parasite release was decided by the duration of host ovipositing activity and the time required to complete the development of the parasites at the prevailing field temperatures.For each host generation releases of three to four times would be enough.The growth status of the corn crop also contributed to the success of this control measure and the vigorous corn plants usually yielded the better results.After parasite releases the residual corn borers could be furhter eliminated by the application of Bacillus thuringiensis and Beauvcria bassiana if necessary.

本文系1974年在山东省邹县进行赤眼蜂防治玉米螟的研究结果。重点是摸索放蜂时间、次数、数量和蜂菌配合的防治效果,同时还探明了玉米的不同播种方式、长势及玉米螟落卵量的不同与放蜂效果的关系。研究结果表明:利用赤眼蜂防治玉米螟效果明显,卵寄生率一般可达70—90%,防治效果达60—80%。赤眼蜂每次放逢量一般以1万头为宜,寄生率可达80%左右,蜂量再多似无必要。放蜂时间要掌握在卵初期,防治效果可达82.6%,若在卵盛期放蜂,防治效果降低34.8%。放蜂的次数主要根据玉米螟全卵期的长短和赤眼蜂在当时的田间温度下发育一代所需时间而确定,一般放蜂3—4次即可。玉米的长势与赤眼蜂寄生率的关系极为密切,长势好的地块赤眼蜂的寄生率明显高于长势差的地块。以蜂灭卵,以菌扫残(幼虫),蜂菌配合可明显提高防治效果。

 
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