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rivers
相关语句
  河流
     Research on Compute Pattern of Ecological Water Demand in Rivers and Its Application
     河流生态需水计算模式及应用研究
短句来源
     MATHEMATICAL MODEL DESCRIBING BOD-DODYNAMICS FOR RIVERS IN NORTHERNCHINA DURING FREEZE SEASON
     描述北方河流封冻期BOD-DO动态的数学模型
短句来源
     FEATURES AND WATER RESOURCES OF RIVERS IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION
     西南区的河流特征与水资源
短句来源
     Application of the System Analysis in the Water Quality Planning of Medium and Small Rivers
     系统分析在中小河流水质规划中的应用
短句来源
     The Estimation and Utilization of the Hydroenergy Resources in the World Rivers
     世界河流水能资源估算及利用
短句来源
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  江河
     The Food Organisms of Fish in the Rivers in Chongqing ──Rotifera
     重庆市江河鱼类饵料生物─—轮虫
短句来源
     Analysis of the Terrestrial NPP Based on the MODIS in the Source Regions of Yangtze and Yellow Rivers from 2000 to 2004
     基于MODIS资料的2000—2004年江河源区陆地植被净初级生产力分析
短句来源
     It has been proved that the system has good combination property and low malfunction, measure resolution is up to 1mm, error is not beyond (±2cm) within the range of water measure, and can be applied to the water lever measurement of rivers and lakes in different environments.
     实践测试证明,本系统综合性能好,故障率低,测量分辨力为1mm,在水位测量范围内误差不超过±2cm,适合各种环境下的江河、湖泊等水体的水位测量.
短句来源
     Since70's20century,with the rapid development of social economy,the utilization level of water resources in Haihe River Basin is in a leading position among7big rivers in China.
     20世纪70年代末以来,随着经济社会的迅速发展,海河流域水资源开发利用程度在全国七大江河中名列前茅。
短句来源
     Analysis of rivers' water quality trend in Hechi prefecture and the countermeasures for prevention and dealing with pollution
     河池地区江河水质趋势分析及其污染防治对策
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  “rivers”译为未确定词的双语例句
     The Study of Water Environment of Rivers and Treatment Methods to Outskirts Unit of Shanghai
     上海市城郊结合部河道水环境研究和整治对策
短句来源
     The Beginning Journey of New China's Regulating Rivers and Watercourses (1949~1957)
     新中国治水事业的起步(1949~1957)
短句来源
     Research on Calculation Methods of the Designed Navigable Stage and Water Stage Forecasting in Tidal Rivers
     感潮河段设计水位方法确定与水位预报研究
短句来源
     The Role of Meltwater Supply to the Rivers in Some Mountains of South Tibet
     西藏南部山区河流的冰雪融水补给作用
短句来源
     DISTRIBUTION OF SUBTERRANEAN RIVERS IN SOUTH CHINA
     中国南方地下河分布特征
短句来源
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  rivers
Mosses cover most of the forest floor of subalpine forests at the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the origin of many important rivers in China.
      
Channel confluences are common in natural rivers and hydraulic engineering, and the flow behavior at confluences becomes very complex because of the interaction between the tributary and the main river.
      
The river and lake water of Transuralia (Ob, Yenisei, and Tom rivers) and the Altai District (Katun River, Teletskoe Lake, and Korbu Waterfall) were studied for the first time using modern enzymatic methods.
      
Ecologically tolerable levels (ETL) of environmental factors have been determined for freshwater ecosystems in Asiatic part of Russia and neighboring countries (basins of Ob, Yenisei, Lena, Amur, and Syr-Darya rivers).
      
The shells of Pearl mussels from the basins of the Solza, Keret', and Umba rivers flowing into the White Sea have been measured to determine the ratio of shell convexity to its maximum height.
      
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The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin...

The natural vegetation of Shantung Province, in the north temperate zone, is of the aestisilvae type. As the natural conditions vary in different parts of this province, the vegetation may be divided into the following four regions: 1. Alluvial plain of the Yellow River: This region is located at the northern part of this province. The saline soil is unfavorable for the growth of most plants. The following plants are characteristic: Tamarax chinensis, Apocynum venetum, Suaeda salsa, S. glauca, Artemisin capillaris, Aeluropus littoralis, Miscanthus sinensis, Phragmites karka, Carex sp. etc.. 2.Western Shantung plain: This region is located at the western part of the province. Most of the land is under cultivation and the soil is rich in calcium. There is no forest. The common trees are Populus tomentosa, P. alba P. davidiana, Ulmus spp. etc., and the herbaceous plants are Cynodon dactilon, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa colonum, Imperata cylindrica, Chenopodium album, Convolvulus chinensis,Xanthium japonicum, Crypi saculeata, Scirpus maritimus etc.. Plants which grow in the lake district largely belong to Phragmites communis, Scirpus maritimus, Zizania latifolia, Euryale ferox, Trapa bispinosa etc.. 3.Central South hilly region: This region has mostly been transformed into farms for a long time. On the hilly region there are still some remnant forests. The important trees are Pinus tabulaeformis, Biota orientalis. Quercus acutissima, Q. variabilis, Betula chinensis, Tilia mongolica etc.. On account of calcareous soil in this region, Biota orientalis is found most extensively. Gramineae leads all other herbaceous plants in abundance. The following species such as Arundinella amomala, Bothriochloa ischaemum, Setaria viridis, Pennisitum flaccidum etc. have a wide distribution. 4. Shantung Peninsula: The common native plants in this region are Pinus densiflora, Quercus dentata, Q. acutissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer mono etc.. Pious densiflora is a native plant which grows all over the hilly region. Herbaceous plants are mostly Thymus serpyllum, Setaria viridis, S. lutescens etc.. Due to the oceanic climate with higher precipitation and humidity, plants enjoy a more vigorous growth than those in other regions. There develops a richer flora, some even with warm temperate elements.

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗...

山东省之位置属于温带,植物分布为落葉闊葉林區,但在鲁中南及膠東區爲丘陵地带,落葉闊葉樹乃與針葉樹成混交林澑鶕∧谥匀粭l件,可将植物分布情况列為四區: 1.黃河冲積平原區:位於北部,為黄河三角州地帶,土壤含鹽分甚重,不宜於植物之生長。樹木只有檉柳、茶棵子等;草本以黄鬚菜、鹼蓬、茵陳蒿,獐毛、芒、蘆葦、黑三稜草等最為砇姟?2.魯西平原區:為西部之黄河冲積平原,多為農田,土壤含鈣甚多。區內無森林,常見之樹木有毛白楊、白楊、山楊、榆等?荼居泄费栏ⅠR唐、芒稷、白茅、藜、旋花、蒼耳、隱花草、荆三稜等。湖泊區域多蘆葦、荆三稜、蒲姜草、芡、菱等。3.魯中南區:為丘陵地區,平緩部分已闢為農田。山區有殘留森林,主要樹種為油松、侧柏、麻櫟、栓皮櫟、堅樺、椴等;土壤石灰質,側柏之繁盛為共特點。草本以禾本科為最多,常見的如野古草、白羊草、狗尾草、白草等,此外如細葉莎草、雞眼草、蚊子草等亦為砇姟?4.膠東區:在山東半島部份,主要樹種為赤松、洋槐、麻櫟、五角楓等,赤松自山麓至山上均有分佈,且為其鄉土,此乃本區之特徵;草本以蚊子草、狗尾草、金狗尾草為最多。在海灘地上少有高大樹木,常見樹種如洋槐、旱柳等均為栽培者,野生木本植物有酸棗、舖地胡枝子等;草本植物多蘆葦、狗尾草等。此區氣候由於受篞笳{節,雨量與溼度亦較高,故植物生長較其他三區繁盛,種類亦較多,亞熱带植物之分布亦多於他處,尤以海邊低地為甚。在自然地理上,秦嶺、淮河一線是中國南北氣候和土壤的重要分界線,也是植物的重要分界線。但是從山東的植物分布上,可以知道這條線並不能絕然的将植物分為南北二部分,因為山東仍是一个過渡的地帶,許多南方植物在魯南及膠東沿海都有分佈,如黄檀、山胡椒、烏桖、厚朴、王蘭、木犀、黄楊、谜葉樹等多种。在另一方面,北方植物分佈至山東為其最南界限者如糠椴、遼珍珠梅、遼磯松、榛等;而赤松、蒙古機、蒙椴等則南达苏北之雲台山。由此可加,山東之植物分佈上,仍在秦嶺、淮河一線之範圍内,如以淮河來作為植物之南北分界線,则并不能完全符合實際情况,尤以膠東沿海低地,南方植物種類繁多,可與淮河流域相此。因此,此一分界线之東端似有北移之必要。山東植物之分佈乃由環境条件综合影響之結果,但在不同地区,各種因素之作用並不一致,由於地形、土壤、温度和水分等之区别而使植物分布不同。本文所举植物種类和分布地點都是從各項资料所得到,作者将其分為四區,並初步提出了這種分区的理由和形成不同分布的原因。但限於材料的不够完全和水平的淺薄,因此本文的內容很不充實, 只能作为令後进一步研究山东植物地理的基础,希望大家提出补充和指出不正确的地方,而使这一项工作能够顺利的完成。

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study...

Since the beginning of the last half century, the science of hydrology through successive steps of development has advanced to the realm of quantitative analysis. Engineers employed empirical methods to compute river discharges from precipitation data in answer to the ever-increasing demands made upon hydrologic analyses for engineering works. Yet for the phenomena of conflux of flows from precipitations, there exist only meager and fragmental quantitative analyses, without, so far, a systematic study of their underlying theories recorded in literature. On account of this, the progress of hydrology in respect to theory as well as to prac- tice has been retarded. By means of hydrodynamic analysis, the author has tentatively made an approach to the establishment of such a scheme of theories, in which he divided the rainfall-runoff phenomena into three parts for separate analyses, i. e., the occurrence of runoff due to rainfall at a surface point, the surface flow, and. the conflux of channel flows. This paper is devoted to the first part, which is, in essence, an analysis of the basic hydrologic phenomena. The theories thus established may be used as a guide for various hydrologic analyses in practice, may be based upon to examine the validity of various methods of hydrologic calculations, and may be further used to develop an approximate yet rational method for computing discharges from precipitation data. In this paper, the author proposes a scheme of underlying theories for analyzing the hydrograph of surface flow due to rainfall at a point, in which the essence of basic hydrologic phenomena is revealed, and this is accompanied with calculations of an example. In the earlier years, R. E. Horton established a theory of correlations of rainfall and runoff from small drainage basins by analyzing the data of Homer's sprinkler experiments. Thereafter, researchers basing upon his theories and methods analyzed the relations between rainfall and runoff by sprinkler experiments or data from natural areas. On account of the fact that Horton's analysis does not begin with an accurate hydrodynamical viewpoint, problems are bound to arise in practice due to defects in the underlying theories. Shortcomings of Homer's analysis on the basis of the author's theories are pointed out and the practical value of sprinkler experiments estimated. A method proposed by E. V. Bodakoff for computing discharges due to storms on small basins has raised wide discussions among the Soviet scholars, many of whom hold different views. The author hereby points out the main shortcomings of Bodakoff's method, and gives a numerical example with results compared with those computed by the author's method, thus showing the limitations of Bodakoff's method in practical applications.

半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根...

半世紀來,水文学在發展的过程中已進入了定量分析的途徑;工程師們曾用各种經驗性的方法依據降水的资料推演河槽裹水流的現象,以应各种工程建設对於水文分析的要求。但是对於降水集流的过程始終祇有一些零星、片面的数值分析,没有一套完整的理論系統,因此阻碍着水文学在理論与应用方面的發展。作者曾用流体力学的分析法初步建立了降水集流的理論系統,把降水集流的过程分為三個階段:雨降地面逕流的產生、地面流、槽流之滙集,分别予以分析。本文便是其中第一階段,亦即最基本水文現象的分析。这些建立了的理論可以用為指導各种水文分析的南針,用為評論各种水文計算法的依據,並可用以創造一种近似而合理的方法,从降水資料推算逕流資料。本文中作者貢献一套理論,以分析地面點上降雨產生逕流的过程,揭發了基本水文現象的本質,最後並列舉实例的計算。早年郝登(R.E.Horton)曾依據郝納(W.W.Homer)的地面流实驗資料建立了一套在小地域內降水和逕流關係之理論,其後学者們根據他的理論和方法,用人工降雨法或流域資料实測法來確定降水和逕流間的關係。郝登的分析並没有从準確的動力学观點出發。在实際分析中發生了欠缺理論基礎的根本問題。这方面作者持着不同的意見。本文中根據作者的理論指出了郝登分析法的癥結所在,並估計了人工降雨实驗法的实用價值之限度。波達闊夫曾建議暴雨逕流之一种計算法,引起了苏联学者的廣泛討論,很多人持有不同的意見。作者於文中指出了波氏等方法發生問題的症結所在;並用实例計算和作者的方法比較,說明了波氏法在实用中的準確限度。

From February 1954 to February 1955, we have continuously studied the morphological changes of the reproductive glands of the Oncomelaniid snails once monthly by dissecting and serial sectioning. The snails used for this study, measuring within the range of 7.1 to 3.0mm., were collected from the banks of Ching-San River, Chungking, Kiangsu.The results of this study show that the reproductive glands of the Oncomelaniid snails, either male or female, exhibit periodic changes with hypertrophic and atro-phic...

From February 1954 to February 1955, we have continuously studied the morphological changes of the reproductive glands of the Oncomelaniid snails once monthly by dissecting and serial sectioning. The snails used for this study, measuring within the range of 7.1 to 3.0mm., were collected from the banks of Ching-San River, Chungking, Kiangsu.The results of this study show that the reproductive glands of the Oncomelaniid snails, either male or female, exhibit periodic changes with hypertrophic and atro-phic phases alternating with each other.From November to May of the following year, the ovary of the female snail is in the phase of hypertrophy. It is large, thick and prominent, containing a large number of eggs in the different stages of development. In June, some of the ovaries become smaller and thinner. From July to August, the ovary enters the atrophic phase, diminishing remarkably in size and containing only a small number of the primary oocytes. Beginning from September, the ovary shows signs of recovery and in October resumes its egg-producing capacity.From experimental and field observations, the female Oncomelaniid snails lay eggs from November to July of the following year, laying a large amount of eggs being laid from February to June, but no eggs at all from August to October. These findings are in agreement with the periodic changes of the ovary as shown above.The periodic changes of the testis, involving both hypertrophic or atrophic phases, appear about 4 months earliec than those of the ovary. From January to April, the testis appears atrophied, but in the vas deferens a large amount of spermatozoa is stored up. From May to August, the testis recovers gradually, being capable of producing spermatozoa, and from September to November it enlarges greatly, producing a large amount of spermatozoa. In December the testis again inclines to atrophy.From the field study, we know that the copulation of the Oncomelaniid snails takes place throughout the year, but more often during spring and autumn. Microscopic sections show that spermatozoa are found present in vasa deferentia every month, and in a greater amount in winter, spring and autumn. This would assure the fertilization of the eggs during the main copulation season.

从1954年2月到1955年2月,我们每月应用外形解剖结合组织切片的方法,观察了日本血吸虫中间宿主——钉螺生殖腺的周期变化。 雌螺卵巢在一年内有一度的周期变化。从11月到第二年5月,卵巢呈丰满而多卵的状态;6月卵巢趋向萎缩;7、8月卵巢萎缩,内仅含有少量的幼稚卵细胞;9月卵巢开始趋向丰满;10月卵巢逐渐恢复丰满的状态。卵巢全年周期变化的过程与镇江地区钉螺的产卵情况基本上相符合。 雄螺精巢在一年内也有一度的周期变化,但较卵巢要提早4个月左右。1—4月精巢呈萎缩状态,但输精管中尚储存有大量精子。5—8月精巢逐渐恢复原状,能产生少量精子,此时输精管中的精子还少。9—11月精巢特别丰满,含有大量精子。12月精巢开始萎缩。在9月以后,输精管中即逐渐储满了精子。输精管内精子储存的情况与南京及杭州地区钉螺的交配情况基本上相符合。

 
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