By establishing the effect function of buyer and seller of water rights transaction for the transaction mode of water rights option and the bargaining mode of water rights, these two transaction modes are analyzed and proved to be both balanced.
The technology of mobile agents applied in electronic commerce can provide characterizing services to consumers and companies,such as exploring intelligent resources and bargaining in the virtual market in the Internet.
The theory of nontraditional gains of RTAs argues except traditional gains such as trade creation, improved terms of trade, realization of economies of scale, increased competition and more investment, RTAs can also bring some nontraditional gains such as time consistency, signaling, insurance, bargaining power, coordination device and security benefits under certain conditions.
Furthermore, The article advances a model called multi objects bargaining, which can keep away from the dependency of the utility function for the traditional multi object decision model and bargaining theory model.
Obwohl es inzwischen eine breite Palette an Fragestellungen gibt, auf die Bargaining-Modelle angewendet werden, lassen sich aufgrund der schlechten Datenlage immer noch wenig direkte überprüfungen dieser Theorie finden.
And on the other hand, working time as an object of policy is shifted from the level of company bargaining to the level of individual negotiations between employee and superior.
Trade unions usually achieve the internal legitimacy of their rank-and-file and effectiveness of the bargaining system as a whole through substantive improvements of the living and working conditions of their members.
The key question of this paper therefore focuses on how unions are able to equally maintain effectiveness and legitimacy of the collective bargaining institution.
In the paper, this question will be dealt with by the example of collective bargaining in an exposed branch of the Austrian industry.