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church
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  教会
    On the Imperial Church System of Germanyin 10~(th)~11~(th) Centuries
    论10~11世纪德意志的帝国教会体制
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    the other is the war between royalty and church power.
    二是以王权为代表的世俗权力与教会权力的冲突与斗争。
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    The Way the Relationship Between the Church and the State Was Perceived and Regulated by the Medieval Canon Law in Western Europe
    中世纪西欧教会法对教会与国家关系的理解和规范
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    English Church: From Dual Taxation to Single Taxation
    英国教会:从双重纳税义务走向单一纳税义务
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    Brest Church Union
    布列斯特教会合并
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  “church”译为未确定词的双语例句
    The Exploration on the Relationship between the Orthodoxy Church and the State Political Power of the Soviet Union during Stalin Administration, 1924-1953
    斯大林时期苏联东正教会与国家政权关系问题初探(1924-1953年)
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    5. positive Church commercial elites.
    5.一些产业精英向商业精英的转化; 6.外来移民所形成的商业精英
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    The Study of the Relation between the Orthodox Church and State Power in Russia
    俄罗斯东正教会与国家政权关系研究
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    Study on Modern American Catholic Church
    当代美国天主教会研究
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    Feudal Royal Sovereignty and the Christian Church in the Prophase of Medieval Britain
    中世纪前期的英国封建王权与基督教会
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  church
Nondeducibility of the uniformization principles from Church's thesis in intuitionistic set theory
      
A constructive arithmetical theory is an arbitrary set of closed arithmetical formulas that is closed with respect to derivability in an intuitionsitic arithmetic with the Markov principle and the formal Church thesis.
      
Semigroups presented by one relation and satisfying the Church-Rosser property
      
This paper is devoted to the study of semigroups presented by a single defining relationA=B and satisfying the Church-Rosser property.
      
The reunion and closest cooperation between the science and Church is the last chance for the man to get the True Science and Life!
      
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AbstractTwo separate systems of law and court,canon law exercised by church court and common law exercised by king's court,existed in medieval England.Both of the two legal systems had their own definitions of competence which shaped rough boundaries between them. However,between the two definitions there were some overlapped jurisdictional areas where disputes occurred.When dealing with matters of property,the common law court insisted on bringing patronage and advowson(the right to recommend candidates...

AbstractTwo separate systems of law and court,canon law exercised by church court and common law exercised by king's court,existed in medieval England.Both of the two legal systems had their own definitions of competence which shaped rough boundaries between them. However,between the two definitions there were some overlapped jurisdictional areas where disputes occurred.When dealing with matters of property,the common law court insisted on bringing patronage and advowson(the right to recommend candidates to benefices)within the sphere of royal justice,and thus limited the church's ability to control its own property.Dispute also occurred in cases of sanctuary and benefit of clergy.The church claimed the sanctity of consecrated places and consecrated persons which meant secular jurisdiciton could not extend to church places and criminal clerics.Although the church succeeded in protecting its special legal status and seriously blocked the Crown's jurisdiction on criminal cases,these privileges could only be enjoyed within a certain limits put by lay authority. Neither the Crown nor the church had totally put their own definition into practice.But,as the King's power increased the competence of church court was more and more defined by king's court.

英国中世纪教会法庭与国王法庭的权力关系刘城12—13世纪的英国,在宗教法以及教会法庭司法审判权初步形成的同时,国王法庭的司法审判权也扩展到了全国各地,并逐渐发展起普通法。在此之后直至16世纪宗教改革,宗教法与普通法这两种法律、教会法庭与国王法庭这两个...

In 16th century the religious reform stated by Henry the Vlll of England marked the beginning of the movement for national independence and the establishment of an autocracy. In this movemment Henry Vlll's personnal experience, character, and will played a certain role in controlling the stuation. The case of his divorce from Queen Catherine led to his break with the Roman Pope , whereas his belief in Romman Catholism only resulted in the separation of the monarchical power from the church , instead...

In 16th century the religious reform stated by Henry the Vlll of England marked the beginning of the movement for national independence and the establishment of an autocracy. In this movemment Henry Vlll's personnal experience, character, and will played a certain role in controlling the stuation. The case of his divorce from Queen Catherine led to his break with the Roman Pope , whereas his belief in Romman Catholism only resulted in the separation of the monarchical power from the church , instead of reform in Roman Catholism. After his death, the reformists refused to announce his death was an action against his " will", which turned out to be a stimulus to the English national development, therefore it was of progressive significance.

16世纪英国国王亨利八世的宗教改革掀开了英国要求民族独立、建立专制王权运动的序幕。在这场运动中,亨利八世本人的个人经历、性格和意志对左右局势起了一定的作用。他与凯瑟琳王后的解除婚姻案引发了与罗马教廷的决裂,而他的天主教信仰又使英国的宗教改革运动仅仅处于使王权与教会分立而不是改革天主教教义的程度。他死后,改革派发动的“秘不发丧”,是对他的“意志”的一种反动,其结果却是对英国民族发展的一种推动,因而具有进步意义

Using the Corpus iuris canonici as a foundation, the author discusses the relationship between the church and state in medieval Western Europe. Legal representatives of the medieval canon and the popes of that time and place believed that the temporal and spiritual authorities should each have their own respective sphere of influence; while the former was responsible for the management of state affairs, the latter was responsible for religious affairs. The canon lawyers believed this theory to be of...

Using the Corpus iuris canonici as a foundation, the author discusses the relationship between the church and state in medieval Western Europe. Legal representatives of the medieval canon and the popes of that time and place believed that the temporal and spiritual authorities should each have their own respective sphere of influence; while the former was responsible for the management of state affairs, the latter was responsible for religious affairs. The canon lawyers believed this theory to be of benefit for a benign relationship of cooperation between the church and the state. In order to clearly demarcate these two spheres, the canon lawyers defined the canon law as an independent legal system, in spite of the fact that it was very difficult to make such a political distinction between temporal and religious authority.

本文依据中世纪西欧《教会法大全》讨论当时教会与国家的关系。中世纪的教会法学家和教皇们有一种二元论的政治理论 ,认为世俗政权和以教皇为首的教会领导机构应该有各自不同的势力范围 ,前者负责国家的治理 ,后者负责宗教事务。他们以为这一理论有利于教会和国家保持良好的合作关系。为了划分清楚教会和国家的权威范围 ,教会法学家把教会法界定为独立的法律体系。在复杂的现实政治中 ,对世俗权力和宗教权力做这种区分是极为困难的。

 
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