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seed
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  种子
    Analytical Study of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Germplasm Seed, Biochemical and Molecular Markers
    芝麻种质资源种子特性、生化和分子标记的分析研究
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    Study on Physiology of Seed Dormancy and Identification Techniqueof Protein RP-HPLC Biochemistry Marker of Rhodiola.L.
    红景天种子休眠生理与蛋白质HPLC生化标记鉴定技术的研究
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    Study on the Propagating Characters and Seed Production Technology of Zoysia Japonica
    结缕草繁殖特性及其种子生产技术的研究
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    Studies on the Conservation, Physiological and Biochemical Mechanism and Genetic Stability in Ultra-Dry Seed of Several Crops
    几种农作物超干种子保存、生理生化机理和遗传稳定性研究
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    Coupling Effects of Water and Fertilizer on Seed Yield and the Yield Performance of 6 Grasses Species
    水肥耦合对6种禾本科牧草种子产量和生产性能的效应
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    Studies on the Conservation, Physiological and Biochemical Mechanism and Genetic Stability in Ultra-Dry Seed of Several Crops
    几农作物超干子保存、生理生化机理和遗传稳定性研究
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    Coupling Effects of Water and Fertilizer on Seed Yield and the Yield Performance of 6 Grasses Species
    水肥耦合对6禾本科牧草子产量和生产性能的效应
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    Analyses on the Current Status of Seed Purity in Main Grain and Oil Crop Hybrids in Sichuan Province and Studies on the Management Countermeasures
    四川粮油作物杂交质量现状分析及管理对策研究
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    Study on the Relationship of Embryo Development, Dormancy and Seed Endogenous Hormones of American Ginseng
    西洋参胚发育和休眠与子内源激素关系的研究
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    Operating rules for the production technology of seed potato
    马铃薯薯生产技术操作规程
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  “seed”译为未确定词的双语例句
    GENETIC VARIATION OF SOYBEAN AGRONOMIC CHARACTERS INDUCED BY SEED IRRADIATION
    辐射条件下大豆主要农艺性状遗传变异的研究
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    STUDIES ON IDENTIFICATION OF SOYBEAN CROSSES Ⅱ. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERFORMANCE OF F_1 AND EFFECTIVENESS OF SELECTION FOR SEED YIELD IN F_4 AND F_5 GENERATION LINES
    大豆杂交组合鉴定研究——Ⅱ.F_1杂种表现与选择效果的关系
短句来源
    GENETIC STUDIES ON SEED PROTEIN CONTENT OF HYBRID PROGENIES IN SOYBEAN
    大豆杂种后代籽粒蛋白质含量遗传研究
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    A STUDY OF CHIEF MEASURES IN HIGHYIELD AND AESTIVAL SEED CORN BY MEANS OF BOLTING
    夏播玉米高产主次措施筛选研究
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    STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLANT TYPEPOPULATION STRUCTURE AND YIELD IN SOYBEANⅡ. SEED DISTRIBUTION IN SOYBEAN CANOPIES
    大豆株型、群体结构与产量关系的研究 第二报 大豆群体冠层的荚粒分布
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  seed
Fitness analysis of seed and vegetative reproduction of clonal tree Symplocos laurina
      
A bottleneck in sexual propagation appeared at the stage from seed to seedling, while in clonal propagation it appeared during the period from an asexual plantlet to a ramet.
      
Based on the growth, wood property of the ortets, and rooting abilities of cuttings, 32 Pinus massoniana clones for pulp use were selected from forests of superior provenance, mixed families, and progeny test of seed orchard by two-step selection.
      
Altitudinal patterns of the flora of seed plants of Dawei Mountain in Yunnan Province, south China
      
Meanwhile, further investigations have also been made to the flora of Dawei Mountain, which has been accounted for in the literature, as Flora Yunnan, The Seed Plant in Yunnan, and so on.
      
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For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was...

For the purpose of comparing the relative effect of various farm manures,field experimentswere carried out for four years at Nanking on a paddy soil;containing organic matter 1.5%,deri-ved from yellowish brown earth.The adsorption of nitrogen by one harvest of rice plant of the medium ripening variety was22—27% for rape-seed cake,17% for green manure,15% for water-logged compost,13% forstable manure,and 4.6—6% for pond mud.For rice of the early ripening variety,the percentageadsorption of nitrogen was 30%,20%,7.3% and 5.7% for the green manure,water-loggedcompost,mixed stable manure of cattle and swine,and grass compost respectively.On the basis of relative effect of various manures on the yield of rice,it was calculated that1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.45 kg N of rape-seed cake,0.55 kg N of greenmanure,0.7 kg N of water-logged compost,and 2.1—2.5 kg N of pond mud.For rice of theearly ripening variety,1 kg N of stable manure was equivalent to 0.38 kg N of gree manure,0.49 kg N of water-logged compost,and 1.19 kg N of grass compost.The liberation of nitrogen from manures proceeded most rapidly for the green manure,rape-seed cake entering the second and then water-logged compost.The liberation of nitrogen fromthe pond mud was so slow that it could hardly be distinguished from the controll treatment.Attention must pay to use nitrogen fertilizers as top-dressing when large amount of green manurehad be applied in order to prevent the lodging of rice plant,and on the contrary the applicationof top-dressing was essential when pond mud was used as the basic dressings.

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N ...

本试验(自1956—1959年)在南京黄褐色母质发育的水稻土(有机质1.5%,全N0.086%,速效P_2O_5 0.008%,速效K_2O 0.0178%)上进行。1.各农肥的肥效如下:(1)氮素肥效折合率约为:中稻:堆(?)肥1斤N(?)菜饼0.45斤N(?)绿肥0.55斤N(?)草塘泥0.7斤N(?)塘泥2.1—2.5斤N。早稻:猪牛(?)肥1斤N(?)绿肥0.38斤N(?)草塘泥0.49斤N(?)青草堆肥1.15斤N。(2)对水稻的氮素吸收利用率约为:中稻:菜饼22—27%,草塘泥15%,绿肥17%,堆(?)肥13%,塘泥4.6—6%。早稻:绿肥30%,草塘泥20%,猪牛(?)肥7.25%,青草堆肥5.7%。2.各农肥在水田中自6月中旬至9月上旬,NH_4-N 的释放量以绿肥最快最大,菜饼的分解速率仅次于绿肥,但在施肥一个半月后释放量达到最高峯。草塘泥兼有迟速效特性,释放速率及释放量都比较平稳,不象绿肥那样猛发,又比堆(?)肥速效成份高,比河泥养分释放快。堆(?)肥释放情况介于草塘泥与河泥之间,后期分解量较高。河泥释放量最差,有时几和对照相近。此外,土壤分析结果指出:在种中熟籼稻的土壤中NH_4-N 在10微克/克土(ppm)以下似难被利用(图1)。3.就植株氮素吸收利用及生长情况可看出:施用绿肥对中稻的营养生长有特别促进作用。如施用量稍多,就会引起先期猛发,徒长茎叶,增加草谷比例,产量并不能提高,因此施绿肥时,配合速效氮肥做面肥或施追肥时应特别注意,在绿肥用量较高时,再用速效氮肥往往有害无益。如直接施用绿肥,则施用量不宜过多,耕翻时也要适当提早,速效肥要看苗施用。草塘泥性平稳,用做基肥时,配合少量化学氮肥做面肥及穗肥均可进一步提高产量。堆(?)肥与河泥性质慢,不论施用于中稻或早稻,均必须增施速效肥料,不然肥效很低。早稻生长初期气温低,农肥养分释放慢,同时早稻生长期短,插秧后20天即进入幼穗分化期,因此分解较快的绿肥,及含速效氮较多的草塘泥用做早稻基肥,效果更为显著。所有农肥增施了速效氮肥做面肥及追肥都有良好增产效果,其中分解愈慢的农肥效果愈大。例如绿肥及草塘泥增施速效氮肥后产量增加48.3%及43.2%,N 素吸收利用率增加1倍及8成,而青草堆肥配合速效氮肥时,产量增加85%,N 素吸收利用率提高近四倍(表13)。4.各农肥单独施用做早稻基肥时,植株每日氮素吸收量皆以抽穗期为最多,若增施速效N 肥后,则每日氮素吸收量最多时期均由抽穗期提前至幼穗分化期,同时产量也显著提高(表5)。

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere...

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere investigated at Nanking,Kiangsu during 1959-1962.(1)Combining ability between different interspecific crosses with special reference toyield,earliness and fibre qualities.(2)Morphological and physiological characters of economic importance in F_1 hybrids.(3)Performance of promising hybrids in field production.(4)Method of producing hybrid seeds with cheaper cost and less labour.Fifty-nine combinations were studied from 1960 to 1962,among which Pong-zai No.1(Upland cotton)×L.S.4923(Sea-island)was the best in yield and earliness.The averageyield of this F_1 hybrid in three years with 178 kg.of seed cotton or 53.7 kg.of lint cotton permow.As compared with the parents it was 94.35% of seed cotton or 82.2% of lint cotton ofthe yield of Delta-upland cotton and 187.17% of seed cotton or 172.74% of lint cotton of theyield of Sea-island L.S.4923.The fibre quality of F_1 hybrids approached Sea-island parent with a mean fibre length of40 m.m.,mean fibre fineness of 7000 meters per gram wt.,and single fibre strength of 4.5g.The methods and procedures for producing commercial hybrid cotton seed were as follows:(1)Hybrid F_0's seed was produced by hand emasculation and pollination which was ofvalue in areas abundant with hand-labor or adapted to transplanting for saving seeds up to4/5.(2)The female parent with recessive markers,was pollinated by hand without emascula-tion.In the thinning of the hybrid progeny all recessive plants were removed,leaving onlythe true F_1's.The recessive characters used for markers were virescent yellow foliage,redstem and hairy petiole of the seedling.The percentage of hybrid seed setting for differentupland cotton varieties ranged from 13% to 78%.Observations on heterosis in the characters of F_1 hybrids of G.hirsutum×G.barbadensewere summarized as follows:Plant Characters Comparison of bybrid with Upland and Seaisland parentsDays from planting to seedling Earlier than either parentDays from budding to flowering Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays from seedling to boll maturity Intermediate nearer to late Sea-island Days of bud development Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays of boll development Longer than Sea-islandDays from seedling to first boll maturity IntermediatePlant height Taller than either parentNumber of monopodia Less than either parent,but approaching Up landNumber of sympodia More than either parentNumber of fruiting points per plant More than either parentPosition of main stem nodes where first fruiting branch appears Lower than either parentInternode length of axis Longer than either parentInternode length of fruiting branch Longer than either parentPetiole length Longer than either parentLeaf area Larger than either parentLeaf lobe index Intermediate,approaching Sea-islandShedding percentage IntermediateDistribution of bolls in different parts of the plant Approaching Sea-island,most bolls setting at middle and upper parts of the plantWeight of seed cotton per boll IntermediateNumber of ovules per boll Approaching Sea-island in a lower numberMotes percentage More than either parentPistil length IntermediateCorolla area and index Larger than either parentSeed index Larger than either parentLint index IntermediateMaturity Intermediate,approaching late Sea-islandFibre length Longer than either parentFibre fineness Approaching Sea-islandYield in seed cotton Approaching Upland,higher than Sea-islandYield in lint cotton Lower than Upland,higher than Sea-islandProduction of dry matter More than either parentProduction of dry matter per square meter of leaf area More

1959—1962年试验证明,海陆杂种一代具有早熟、丰产、优质的特性。海陆杂种一代的籽棉产量接近陆地棉,而显著高于海岛棉。成熟期较海岛棉早,比陆地棉偏迟。生育特性一般介于两亲之间,不同程度的偏向于海岛棉,有的特性超过两亲范围以外。纤维细长,强度高,可以制成高挡纺织品。在江苏各地示范试种结果良好。在制种技术方面研究证明,采用具有某一隐性指示性状,进行不去雄杂交(人工辅助授粉),杂交率达70%,每工作日可制种6—8斤。

This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances...

This paper deals with the genetic behaviour and breeding practice of the interspecific hybridsbetween G.hirsutum and G.arboreum obtained in 1944 and 1952.The main results are pre-sented as follows:1.The pollen grains of the Asiatic cotton germinate slowly on the stigma of the Uplandcotton.The growth of pollen tubes is slow and their female and male gametes are incom-patible at fertilization.Generally only a few ovules were fertilized within a boll.Owing tothe fact that the production of the nutritive substances was inadequate to meet with the re-quirement of the normal development of the boll,it is difficult to obtain hybrids.In orderto promote the boll setting,pollinated maternal pollen grains ware applied on the stigmatawhich had been pollinated with paternal pollen grains several hours before.In this way,wegot the interspecific hybrids. 2.The interspecifie hybrids between these two species are physiologically abnormal.Thehybrids are highly sterile,either by selfing or by back crossing.The pollen grains of theUpland or Asiatic cotton may germinate on the stigma of the F_1 hybrids and the growing rateof their pollen tubes is also normal.Abnormality of the ovules may be the main cause forabortion.Most of the hybrid ovules have no embryo sacs.Occasionally a few ovules fertilized,but aborted during the development of embryoes.The chromosome number of the pollen mothercells of the F_1 hybrid,in general,is 39,or occasionally 52.The chromosome behaviour isirregular in meiosis,forming not only quartets,but also micronuclei.The percentage ofapparently well developed pollen grains is only 7.1% most of which are inviable too.The back-crosses either with the Upland or the Asiatic cotton as recurrent parent with F_1 hybrids aspollen parents are also with difficulty,because their pollen grains are highly abortive.3.The suitable concentration of sucrose in agar medium for artificial germination ofcotton pollen grains varies with cotton species:G.arboreum,34-35%,the Upland cotton,37-40%,and the Sea Island cotton,37-39%.4.By treating the mixed solution of 38% sucrose and a small amount of vitamin B1 onthe stigma of the F1 hybrid,the fertilization and development of the ovules may be promoted.The formation of the abcission layer of the stalk may be inhibited by the treatment of 5 p.p.m.2, 4-D linolin paste.By using the forementioned treatments,the fruiting percentage of theF_1 hybrids backcrossed with the Upland cotton rise up to 4.19%,even though there is only afew bolls with one mature seed,quite a number of them are seedless.Alternatively,by meansof repeated pollination,the fruiting percentage was 0.19%,and seeds are obtained.By usingG.arboreum L.as recurrent parent in backcrosses with the F_1 hybrids,the fruiting percentagerises up to 9.16%,but no seed has ever been obtained.5.For the purpose of improving the lint length and Ginning percentage,it is importantto choose the recurrent parent in the backcross with the F_1 hybrid.It may be ineffective forincreasing the number of backcrosses.6.The range of segregation of the lint length and ginning percentage of the backcrossprogeny,is wider in using F_1 hybrids as female parent than as males.Thus,it should beconcerned for selection of higher lint length and gining percentage.7.In the progeny of the interspecific hybrid of 1944 Combination,individual plants withgood economic characters were observed,such as lint length 41.3 mm.,ginning percentage 41.9%,hairiness,disease resistant,and early maturity,etc.By applying repeated selection of in-dividual plant,four desirable new strains were obtained:“Long Fibre No. 2,”“NankingCotton No.25,”“1003-7,”and “5161-2.”The characteristics of the “Long Fibre No.2”areearly maturity,long lint,single boll weight 5.28g.,fibre length 36 mm.,ginning percentage 31%,lint index 5.22g.,seed index 11.48g..The corresponding characters of the other varieties are:“Nanking Cotton No.25”:5.54g.,30-32 mm.,37-39%, 6.51g.,10.04g;“1003-7”:5.8g.,31,5mm.,38.6-39.18%,6.56g.,10.48g.;“5161-2”:5.20g.,30.31 mm.,39-39.7%,6.80g.,10.76g,respectively.

1.对陆地棉与中棉的杂种第一代和克服杂种第一代的不孕性进行研究,初步找出了不孕的原因和克服办法,为创造种间杂种,丰富育种材料,提供了可能。2.种间杂种遗传基础复杂,与具有优良性状多的陆地棉品种回交,获得许多超越亲本性状的新类型,可以选育出丰产、优质、抗病性强等的新品系。3.杂种第一代花粉母细胞染色体数,在同一花蕾上就有所不同,说明受精卵细胞在分裂的过程中已不正常,每一细胞的染色体数也不尽相同。

 
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