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cervical
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  颈椎
    Applied anatomy of vascularized mandibular flap transposition for the bone grafting fusion of upper cervical vertebral body
    带血管蒂下颌骨瓣转位上颈椎融合术的应用解剖
短句来源
    EXPERIMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF POSTERIOR STRUCTURES ON THE CERVICAL SPINE STABILITY
    颈椎后部结构对颈椎稳定作用的实验研究
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    Study on the maturation of cervical vertebra for 208 cases Shanghai adolescents growth
    上海地区208名儿童颈椎骨成熟度的研究
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    Eeffect of cervical flexion extension motion on the foramen area
    下颈椎屈伸运动对椎间孔面积影响的实验研究
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    The anatomical measurements of cervical intervertebral discs
    颈椎椎间盘的解剖学测量
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  “cervical”译为未确定词的双语例句
    A New Model of the Experimental Cervical Spondylosis in the Rabbit
    一个新的实验性颈椎病动物模型
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    Applied anatomical study on newborn cervical trachea
    新生儿气管颈段的应用解剖学研究
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    Aim To explore effects of P2X3 receptor on myocardial ischemic nociceptive signaling in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons.
    目的观察心肌缺血致心肌痛伤害性剌激后颈上神经节(superior cervical ganglion,SCG)细胞P2X3受体在心肌痛伤害性信息传递中的作用。
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    Objective Learning the distribution of HPV types in different age groups and various cervical lesions provided datum for HPV molecule epidemiology of Shenzhen area.
    目的了解深圳地区各年龄段与不同生殖道疾病女性感染人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)基因类型分布状况,为深圳地区HPV分子流行病学研究提供依据。
短句来源
    Results HPV genotyping by reverse dot blot hybridization revealed that 140 positive samples were found in 801(17.5%) women cervical swabs and the detected rates of lowrisk HPV and high-risk HPV were 16.9% and 2.6%,respectively. HPV types 16 and 58 were the most frequent type in all specimens,and HPV types 59,33,11 and 18 followed by.
    结果HPV阳性检出率为17.5%(140/801),其中高、低危型检出率分别为16.9%(135/801)与2.6%(21/801),高危型中主要为HPV16,58感染,低危型中主要为HPV11感染。
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  cervical
Differential diagnosis of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen
      
The aim of the present research is to study the mechanism of cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen and its differential diagnosis with cervical spondylosis.
      
Fifteen cases with cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen were healed by the diagnostic treatment.
      
Diagnostic treatment led to short-term alleviation of the symptom in 20 cases with cervical spondylosis confirmed by operation, the results of which was far from satisfactory and operation was undertaken finally in all the 20 cases.
      
Diagnostic treatment was propitious to differentiate cervical nerve compression syndrome of the external intervertebral foramen from cervical spondylosis.
      
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The subclavian artery of 122 Chinese children(male 54,female 68 with abody length of 50—120cm) was studied.It was found that branches arisingdirectly from the subclavian artery were 3 to 6 in number,among which the4-branch type was comparatively more than the other types(39.3%).These branches consisted of the vertebral,the thyro-cervical trunk,thecosto-cervical trunk and the internal mammary artery.The thyro-cervical trunkwas composed of the inferior thyroid,the ascending cervical,the...

The subclavian artery of 122 Chinese children(male 54,female 68 with abody length of 50—120cm) was studied.It was found that branches arisingdirectly from the subclavian artery were 3 to 6 in number,among which the4-branch type was comparatively more than the other types(39.3%).These branches consisted of the vertebral,the thyro-cervical trunk,thecosto-cervical trunk and the internal mammary artery.The thyro-cervical trunkwas composed of the inferior thyroid,the ascending cervical,the suprascapularand the transverse scapular artery.The transverse cervical artery arose morefrequently from the thyro-cervical trunk(total 66.0%;45.5% independently,20.5% together with the suprascapular artery)than as a direct branch of thesubclavian artery(total 33.6%;29.1% independently,4.5% together with thesuprascapular artery).This observation on the transverse cervical artery coinsides with the des-cription of the English authors but does not agree with that of current text-books in which it is stated that the transverse cervical artery arises directlyfrom the subclavian artery.In about 1/3 of the cases(31.1%) branching was symmetrical whereas inabout 2/3 of the cases(68.9%) it was asymmetrical.

1.锁骨下动脉,左侧起于主动脉弓的非常固定,右侧起于头臂干的时有变异,较常见的是成为主动脉弓的第四枝向右过脊柱与食管之间而后经路与一般的相同,这种变异本材料中有3.3±1.6%。血管周径右侧粗的居多。2.锁骨下动脉分枝,个体差异很大,分枝数变动于3—6枝之间,本材料中以四个独立枝的居多为总数的39.3±3.1%,四枝中含有椎动脉、甲状颈干、胸廓内动脉、肋颈干等四个独立枝,而甲状颈干由甲状腺下、颈升、颈浅、肩胛上、颈横等五枝组成的为代表型,为总数的32.7±3.0%。3.锁骨下动脉分枝类型在个体上的分布,变动性很大,有31.1±4.1%是对称型,有68.9±4.1%是不对称型,对称型中以第Ⅱ型之第1分型为多,居总数的16.4±3.3%,不对称中以左侧Ⅱ型右侧Ⅲ型的较多见,为总数的10.6±2.7%,其次是左侧Ⅲ型右侧Ⅱ型的为总数的9.0±2.5%。4.椎动脉两侧起于锁骨下动脉的居多,占总数的92.2±1.7%,左侧椎动脉直接起于主动脉弓的也较常见,本材料中有5.7±1.4%。血管周径两侧等粗的较多,为42.7±3.4%,右侧粗的较少为17.6±3.6%,本动脉向上进入第六颈椎横突孔的为最多,占总数的82.4±2...

1.锁骨下动脉,左侧起于主动脉弓的非常固定,右侧起于头臂干的时有变异,较常见的是成为主动脉弓的第四枝向右过脊柱与食管之间而后经路与一般的相同,这种变异本材料中有3.3±1.6%。血管周径右侧粗的居多。2.锁骨下动脉分枝,个体差异很大,分枝数变动于3—6枝之间,本材料中以四个独立枝的居多为总数的39.3±3.1%,四枝中含有椎动脉、甲状颈干、胸廓内动脉、肋颈干等四个独立枝,而甲状颈干由甲状腺下、颈升、颈浅、肩胛上、颈横等五枝组成的为代表型,为总数的32.7±3.0%。3.锁骨下动脉分枝类型在个体上的分布,变动性很大,有31.1±4.1%是对称型,有68.9±4.1%是不对称型,对称型中以第Ⅱ型之第1分型为多,居总数的16.4±3.3%,不对称中以左侧Ⅱ型右侧Ⅲ型的较多见,为总数的10.6±2.7%,其次是左侧Ⅲ型右侧Ⅱ型的为总数的9.0±2.5%。4.椎动脉两侧起于锁骨下动脉的居多,占总数的92.2±1.7%,左侧椎动脉直接起于主动脉弓的也较常见,本材料中有5.7±1.4%。血管周径两侧等粗的较多,为42.7±3.4%,右侧粗的较少为17.6±3.6%,本动脉向上进入第六颈椎横突孔的为最多,占总数的82.4±2.5%,尚有10.2±2.1%进入第五颈椎横突孔。5.胸廓内动脉,独立由锁骨下动脉起始的占82.4±2.4%共同干中以与甲状颈干同干的为多,占11.0±2.0%,与肩胛上同干的5.7±1.5%,起点居前斜角肌内侧的为98.8±0.6%,位于后方及外侧的较少。6.甲状腺下动脉由甲状颈干起始的非常固定,为94.3±1.4%,有少数起于锁骨下动脉或椎动脉,本动脉有时完全缺如,或特别细弱而不能达及腺体,此时主要由甲状腺最下动脉或本侧甲状腺上动脉代替之。7.颈升动脉的起始,变动性大,有41.0±3.1%起于甲状颈干,有29.1±2.9%起于颈横动脉,15.1±2.2%起于甲状颈干,有8.6±1.7%起颈浅动脉,4.5±1.3%起于肩胛上动脉,少数有双枝存在。8.肩胛上动脉的起始,变动性较大,有37.7±3.1%起于甲状颈干,有30.8±2.9%起于锁骨下动脉。20.5±2.5%与颈横动脉同干起于甲状颈干,还有的起于胸廓内或与颈横动脉同干起自锁骨下动脉的。起点位于前斜角肌内侧的居多,有60.6±3.1%,居后方的较少见,由前斜角肌内侧起始的都过臂丛神经的浅面,反之则穿过或过臂神经丛的下方。9.颈横动脉的起始,各国人间的差异很大,本材料中以起自甲状颈干的为多,占45.5±3.1%,起自锁骨下动脉的有29.1±2.9%,与肩胛上动脉同干起于甲状颈干的20.5± 2.5%,还有的与肩胛上同干起自锁骨下动脉或起胸廓内动脉的。起点居前斜角肌内侧的篇多。10.颈浅动脉由颈横动脉起始的67.2±3.0%,由甲状颈干起始的27.0±2.8%,还有的起于肩胛上动脉或锁骨下动脉。11.肋颈干是锁骨下动脉分枝中非常固定的一枝,本材料中有90.9±1.8%,有少数颈深动脉与最上肋间动脉不成干而独立起始的,肋颈干两侧起点左侧位第一段的有81.1±3.5%,右侧位第二段的有93.5±2.2%,颈深动脉多过第一肋骨上面而最上肋间动脉多过第一肋骨前面分布,仅有少数过肋骨下面或后面的,其分布区域以第一、二肋间隙的为最多见。综合观察材料中,除椎动脉起于锁骨下动脉右侧较多见,(其侧差12.3±3.5%),及胸廓内动脉起始于锁骨下动脉者右侧多于左侧者(侧差18.8±4.7%)外,其它部分男女性差及左右侧差均不显著。

The phrenic and accessory phrenic nerves of 180 cadavers of Chinese children were studied.It was found that the highest rate of the accessory phrenic nerve may be up to 73.8%.There is no significant difference between the two sides or the two sexes.The branches of the accessory phrenic nerve vary from 1—4,among which the single branch type is the most common one (76.1%).They have their origin from C_3 to C_(4—6).A few of them may arise from the ansa hypoglossi and supra- scapular nerve.Accessory nerve,therefore,is...

The phrenic and accessory phrenic nerves of 180 cadavers of Chinese children were studied.It was found that the highest rate of the accessory phrenic nerve may be up to 73.8%.There is no significant difference between the two sides or the two sexes.The branches of the accessory phrenic nerve vary from 1—4,among which the single branch type is the most common one (76.1%).They have their origin from C_3 to C_(4—6).A few of them may arise from the ansa hypoglossi and supra- scapular nerve.Accessory nerve,therefore,is more related to the brachial plexus rather than the cervical plexus.It was found that there is a close relationship between the origin of the accessory phrenic nerve and its positional and connectional relation with its main trunk.The nerve originated from the brachial plexus and its branches is located at the lateral side of the main trunk and usually forms a lower connection with it.That comes from the cervical plexus and its branches is usually located at the medial side of the main trunk and forms a higher connection (above the subclavian vein,35.9%) with it.The accessory nerve comes from the lower part of the cervical plexus and upper part of the brachial plexux is at first located at the lateral side and,finally,after crossed over anteriorly or posteriorly,joins the medial side of the main trunk (posterior to the subclavian vein, 7.8%).Based upon the number of branches,the phrenic and accessory nerves can be grouped into 5 types.The tirst type that is with the phrenic nerve proper alone,(43.1%) and the second type that is 1 phrenic nerve and 1 accessory phrenic nerve (43.3%) are the standard types in the Chinese.

(一)本文共研究了180具(360侧)童尸的膈神经与副膈神经。其中男尸100具,女尸80具。尸龄都在2—8岁左右。(二)膈神经主要起源于第4,5颈神经或第4颈神经。性差与侧差不显著。在与锁骨下静脉关系中,超大多数(95.8%)经过静脉之后,与一般解剖学教本所记述者相符合。(三)副膈神经的出现率在180具尸体中高达73.8%,比国内资料为高(如按侧数计则为56.9%)。亦无显著性差与侧差,因而非常值得外科学家们的注意。(四)各侧副膈神经的支数并不一致。少者仅有一条,多者可达四条。但以一条为最多,占76.1%;三条以上者少,仅占3.4%。副膈神经在三条以上者,在现有文献中甚为罕见。(五)副膈神经的起源从第3到第5、6颈神经都有,且有少数发自舌下神经襻及肩胛上神经。其中与锁骨下神经以一共同干发自第5、6或第5颈神经者为数最多,占42.0%,与国内外资料多相符合;但在起始范围上又比其他资料为广泛。同时说明副膈神经与臂丛的关系要比与颈丛的关系更为密切。(六)副膈神经与膈种经主干的位置关系可分三类:多数位于主干外侧(83.6%),少数位于主干内侧(8.8%)及先在主干外侧,交叉后到主干内侧(7.6%)。副膈神经与膈神经迟...

(一)本文共研究了180具(360侧)童尸的膈神经与副膈神经。其中男尸100具,女尸80具。尸龄都在2—8岁左右。(二)膈神经主要起源于第4,5颈神经或第4颈神经。性差与侧差不显著。在与锁骨下静脉关系中,超大多数(95.8%)经过静脉之后,与一般解剖学教本所记述者相符合。(三)副膈神经的出现率在180具尸体中高达73.8%,比国内资料为高(如按侧数计则为56.9%)。亦无显著性差与侧差,因而非常值得外科学家们的注意。(四)各侧副膈神经的支数并不一致。少者仅有一条,多者可达四条。但以一条为最多,占76.1%;三条以上者少,仅占3.4%。副膈神经在三条以上者,在现有文献中甚为罕见。(五)副膈神经的起源从第3到第5、6颈神经都有,且有少数发自舌下神经襻及肩胛上神经。其中与锁骨下神经以一共同干发自第5、6或第5颈神经者为数最多,占42.0%,与国内外资料多相符合;但在起始范围上又比其他资料为广泛。同时说明副膈神经与臂丛的关系要比与颈丛的关系更为密切。(六)副膈神经与膈种经主干的位置关系可分三类:多数位于主干外侧(83.6%),少数位于主干内侧(8.8%)及先在主干外侧,交叉后到主干内侧(7.6%)。副膈神经与膈神经迟早必将合并为一,但连结点之高低不一;多数属于低位连结(锁骨下静脉之下),占56.3%;其次属于高位连结(锁骨下静脉之上),占35.9%;中位连结者(锁骨下静脉之后)最少,占7.8%。(七)统计材料证明,副膈神经的起源与主干之间的连结关系及其位置联属有一定的规律性。其中起源于臂丛及其属支者,都位于主干外侧,并多成低位连结。起源于颈丛及其属支者,大都位于主干内侧,并多成高位连结。起源于颈丛下部及臂丛上部者,则似倾向于中位连结,且先在主干外侧,交叉后再到主干内侧。(八)副膈神经之与锁骨下静脉有关系者,绝大多数经过静脉之前。副膈神经与静脉的关系,也有多种不同形式。(九)根据膈神经与副膈神经的支数多少,可归纳成五个类型:第一型一支,即膈神经本身。第二型二支,即膈神经与副膈神经各一支。第三型三支,即膈神经一支,副膈神经二支。第四型四支,即膈神经一支,副膈神经三支。第五型五支,即膈神经一支,副膈神经四支。五型中以第一型(占43.1%)与第二型(占43.3%)最多,均可列为国人之标准型。各型的一般情况及若干变异特例,均用图表加以说明。

The position of the subclavian artery in the neck and the origin of its branches in 90 sides of 74 Chinese cadavers were observed and analysed. In the neck,the subclavian artery ascends about 2.19 cm above the upper border of the clavicle and about 1.05 cm medial to the middle-point of the clavicle. The origin of the vertebral artery,the thyrocervical trunk and the internal mammary artery (except 1 case) is very constant,arising from the first (or medial part) of the subclavian artery; the costo-cervical...

The position of the subclavian artery in the neck and the origin of its branches in 90 sides of 74 Chinese cadavers were observed and analysed. In the neck,the subclavian artery ascends about 2.19 cm above the upper border of the clavicle and about 1.05 cm medial to the middle-point of the clavicle. The origin of the vertebral artery,the thyrocervical trunk and the internal mammary artery (except 1 case) is very constant,arising from the first (or medial part) of the subclavian artery; the costo-cervical trunk may arise from any one of the three parts,on the left side more often from the second or middle part (62.5%) and on the right side more often from the first part (73.3%);the transverse cervical artery may also arise from any one of the three parts,more often from the first part (64.66%),as a branch of the thyro-cervical trunk. 18 types Were observed in the pattern of branching of the thyro-cervical trunk.Type Ⅰ with the artery divided into the inferior thyroid artery,ascending cervical artery,superficial cer- vical artery and suprascapular artery and type Ⅱ into inferior thyroid ascending cervical,transverse cervical and suprascapular artery occurred more often than other types (type Ⅰ 18.00% and type Ⅱ 26.00% respectively). The supra-scapular artery arising from the thyro-cervical trunk or from the internal mammary artery in most cases passes above the suprascapular ligament;that arising from the third part of the subclavian artery or from the axillary artery in most cases passes below the ligament. On the left side the inferior thyroid artery more often passes in the front of the inferior laryngeol nerve,on the right side it passes in front and behind the nerve in almost equal num- bers.

根据90例(男:76例,女:14例)尸体锁骨下动脉及其部分分支之统计,有以下之初步结果:1.锁骨下动脉于颈部,高出锁骨上缘之平均距离为2.19厘米,及该点(锁骨上缘之点)至胸锁关节之距离平均长度为2.18厘米。2.锁骨下动脉移行为腋动脉时,并非在锁骨之中点通过,而在其中点之内侧平均距离为1.05厘米处通过。3.椎动脉、甲状颈干及胸廓内动脉(1例除外)均由锁骨下动脉之第一段发出;肋颈干在三段中均可发出,但左侧以第二段,右侧以第一段为多;颈横动脉同样可由三段中发出,但以第一段发出者为多见。4.甲状颈干分支类型共计18型,以第一、二型最多,应为标准型。5.肩胛上动脉起于甲状颈干或胸廓内动脉者,多在肩胛上韧带之上经过;起于锁骨下动脉第三段或腋动脉者,多在韧带之下经过。6.甲状腺下动脉行经喉下神经之前方者较后方为多,以左侧为甚,右侧前后之出现率几相等。

 
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