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blight     
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  疫病
    Analysis and QTL Mapping of the Relative Resistant Gene to Phytophthora Blight in Pepper (Capsicum Annuum)
    辣椒抗疫病相关基因的分析及QTL定位
短句来源
    STUDIES ON SCLEROTIAL BLIGHT OF ASARUM HETEROTROPIDES VAR. MANDSHURICUM Ⅱ. INFECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SCLEROTINIA ASARI
    细辛菌核疫病Sclerotinia asari的研究——Ⅱ.侵染与发病规律
短句来源
    ON THE PATHOGEN IDENTIFICATION OF BEAN BACTERIAL BLIGHT
    菜豆细菌性疫病病原细菌的鉴定
短句来源
    Identification and Biological Studies of Phytophthora Causing Blight of Peppers in Gansu
    甘肃省辣椒疫病病原菌鉴定及生物学特性研究
短句来源
    The Results and Analyses of Controlling Tomato Early Blight by Fungicides
    药剂防治番茄早疫病试验结果与分析
短句来源
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  枯萎病
    Study on the control of fusarium wilt and phytophthora blight in cucumber by grafting
    黄瓜嫁接防治枯萎病和疫病技术的研究
短句来源
    The major diseases are Early Blight (Alternaria solani) and Wilting (Fusarium oxysporum).
    调查区域加工番茄的主要病害是早疫病(Alternaria solani)和枯萎病(Fusarium oxysporum)。
短句来源
    Survival, growth, yield and quality of cucumber grafted were studied,and the resistances to fusarium wilt and phytophthora blight were evaluated.
    研究津研4号黄瓜和4种瓜类砧木嫁接的亲和性,及嫁接黄瓜对黄瓜疫病和黄瓜枯萎病的抗性,测定嫁接黄瓜的长势、产量及品质。
短句来源
    The soilborn diseases including eggplant Verticillium wilt and Sclerotinia blight,cucumberFusarium wilt and Sclerotinia rot and pea root rot,were controled with efficiency of 66%-81% by soil treatment with T_(97)(0.6%(w/w))before sowing.
    用 T_(97)培养物(0.6%(w/w))处理土壤,对茄子黄萎病和菌核病、黄瓜枯萎病和菌核病以及豌豆根腐病的苗期病害防治效果达66%~81%。
短句来源
    Outbreak Characters of Broad Bean Blight and Complexed Infection by Pathogens in Yunnan, China
    云南省蚕豆枯萎病发生特点及复合侵染研究
短句来源
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  叶枯病
    Fine and Physical Mapping of Bacterial Blight Resistance Genes Xa22(t) and Xa24(t) in Rice
    水稻白叶枯病抗性基因Xa22(t)和Xa24(t)的精细定位和物理图谱的构建
短句来源
    Methods of labelling the bacterial leaf blight organism of rice with radioisotope p~(32)
    同位素 P~(32)标记水稻白叶枯病细菌的方法
短句来源
    XANTHOMONAS ZINGIBERICOLA N.SP.,THE CAUSAL ORGANISM OF THE BACTERIAL LEAF BLIGHT OF GINGER
    Xanthomonas Zingibericola n.sp.引起的姜细菌性叶枯病
短句来源
    A NEW RECORD OF THE LEAF BLIGHT OF Hemerocallis citrina
    黄花叶枯病新记录
短句来源
    EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CHUANHUA-018 AGAINST LEAF BLIGHT OF RICE
    川化-018对水稻白叶枯病的活性评价
短句来源
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  枯病
    CONTROL OF SHEATH BLIGHT OF RICE BY "K.C.I. 911"
    “苏化911”防治稻紋枯病的研究
短句来源
    STUDIES ON STEM—BLIGHT DISEASE OF COTTON IN SHANGHAI
    上海地区棉花茎枯病的研究
短句来源
    Studies on Gummy Stem Blight of Watermelon:Symptoms and Pathogen.
    西瓜蔓枯病研究 Ⅰ.症状及病原
短句来源
    The application and study of key control techniques for the prevention of stem blight of asparagus:
    芦笋茎枯病防治的关键技术及其应用研究
短句来源
    Studies on the Control of Snow Blight of Spruce
    云杉雪枯病的防治研究
短句来源
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  blight
Effect of methyl jasmonate on arachidonic acid-induced resistance of potato to late blight
      
Methyl ester of jasmonic acid (Me-JA) influences the induced resistance of potato tubers to late blight caused byPhytophthora infestans.
      
In addition, Me-JA reduced the adverse effects of lipoxygenase inhibitors (salicylhydroxamic acid and esculetin) on the induced resistance of potato tubers to late blight.
      
Chitin and chitosan derivatives as elicitors of potato resistance to late blight
      
Water-soluble low-molecular-weight (3-10 kDa) chitosan obtained by enzymatic degradation of high-molecular-weight chitosan, as well as its deaminated derivatives, can be used as elicitors of resistance to late blight in potato.
      
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Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith...

Occurrence of sporadic diseased plant centers during or after the bloomingperiod is considered as reliable indication of the current year's forthcomingoutbreak of late blight in a potato farm. Incubation period of each secondary infection being about 4 days,is ratherconstant during the blight epiphytotic season under Chahar conditions.The timeinterval between the appearance of initial diseased plant centers to final totalblight in a potato field varies greatly,however,not only from locality to localitywith different climatic conditions but also from field to field under similarclimatic conditions.Our data record a range of 18-42 days.Circumstantial eviden-ces indicate that this variation is due,on the one hand,to the rainfall whichinfluences the amounts of sporulation and the frequency of penetration of thepathogene,and on the other hand,to cultural and other factors that determinethe vigor and the rate of aging of the plant itself. Actual counts of lesions formed from secondary infection in the early periodof the spread of the disease in a potato field,reveal that their distribution bearsdirect relation with the direction of the prevailing wind.It is estimated that over90% of spores fall within a rectangle of 800 sq.m.around a diseased plantcenter along the loci of wind directions. On the basis of possible function of absorbed copper ions in the enhancementof plant resistance to late blight,field experiments have been conducted by using0.1 - 0.2% copper sulfate solutions as spray.Results show that spraying 2-3 timesat 7-10 days' interval,started soon after the appearance of diseased plant center,gives remarkable control of late blight and corresponding reduction of loss inyield.The copper sulfate spray,though less effective and stable in comparisonwith the bordeaux spray,has the advantage of being more economical and easierto apply.Further experiments with the pu:pose of modifying and improving themethod are in progress.

從馬鈴薯的開花期起可能在田间出现的晚疫病中心病株是本田當年病害即將大量發生的重要標誌。每次再侵染的潛育期,在張家口壩下地區的氣候下,大約4天。從病害的最初發現到全面枯死所經過的日期囚種種外界環境條件而有很大的差別,我們所觀察到的是18—42天。根據調查资料來推測,一方面,促進病菌孢子形成数量和侵入數量的雨水,另一方面,决定植株衰老速度的栽培條件,是這種差別的主要原因。田間再侵染所形成的病斑之分佈情况說明病菌孢子的傳播与風向有直接的關係。估計90%以土的孢子落在中心病株附近順着風向的800平方米的長方形面積上。根據馬鈴薯地上部吸收銅素以提高共抗病力的可能性,利用0.1—0.2%硫酸銅溶液作為噴射劑,在田间中心病株發現的時期開始每隔7—10天喷射共2—3次,可以顯著地降低晚疫病的為害,提高產量。這個方法在共效驗及穩定性上不如波爾多液,在藥劑費用的節省及施用的方便上則勝之?椒ǖ母牧己吞岣哒谶M一步研究中。

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface of the...

Various factors affect the development of headblight of wheat caused by Gibbe-rella zeae (Schw.) Petch under field conditions.The present investigation carriedout in 1955 and 1956 at Nanking,Kiangsu province,was primarily concerned withthe development of spores of the pathogen and the amount of rainfall in relationto disease development.For the purpose of inducing epiphytoties of the disease,asusceptible variety of wheat to headblight was grown in the inoculated plots.Inoculation was made at the surface of the soil with mycelium cultured on wheatgrain shortly after planting,and an "artificial rain" by frequent spray of water tothe plants was supplied after heading.Investigations were made on the develop-ment and dissemination of ascospores and conidia of the pathogen,the seasonaldevelopment of the disease and the meteorological factors involved. Field observations showed that the headblight fungus on the soil surface inthe inoculated plots produced both kinds of spores with ths ascospores much morepredominant than the conidia.Perithecia and mature ascospores could be formedboth in the fall and in next spring through early summer under conditions ofadequate moisture and warm temperature suitable for their development.It wasindicated by trapping the spores in the air that the ascospores produced on thesoil surface were the chief source of inoculum for primary infection although theconidia formed on the infected spikes were equally important in spreading the di-sease in the field later in the season.The frequency and amount of ascosporesand conidia present in the air depended upon the height in spore trapping.Whilespores were found most frequently and most abundantly at a height of 17 cm.above the ground,much less spores were caught at heights of 33 cm.and up to117 cm.There was a tendency to decrease in the amount of spores with theincrease in height.A comparative survey of the spores in the air in the inoculated ??and uninoculated plots indicated that a great majority of spores could not bedisseminated very far from their source of production.This,together with thefact that comparatively more spoies were trapped on raining days,made it rea-sonable to consider splashing rain as the more important agent than wind forspore dissemination. The amount of inoculum existing in the soil and the rainfall were proved tobe the factors of utmost importance for the epiphytotic of the disease.In 1955,the average percentages of headblight for the inoculated plots with and withoutthe spray of water were 29.4 and 13.4% respectively,in comparison with the neigh-bouring fields where only very few infected heads were observed.In 1956,theaverage percentages for headblight in the four experimental plots:(1) inoculatedand sprayed with water,(2) inoculated and not sprayed,(3) uninoculated andsprayed,and (4) uninoculated and not sprayed,were 42.98,42.05,11.91 and6.26%,respectively.In these four corresponding plots,the average percentagesfor culm rot were 4.27,3.89,3.65 and 2.17%.Although there was no significantdifference in the final percentages of both headblight and culm rot between thesprayed and unsprayed plots either with or without inoculation,probably due tothe continuous heavy rain in the latter part of the wheat-growing season,yethigher percentages were always observed in the sprayed plots than in the un-sprayed ones throughout the period of disease development.Under conditions ofabundant inoculum in the soil and heavy rainfall,increase in percentage of head-blight could reach as much as 32% within a period of two days even when theplants were already near maturity.In 1955,a daily average temperature over20℃ was found to be favorable for the development of headblight,but observa-tions made in 1956 did not show significant effect of the temperature on thedevelopment of disease.

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害...

1.赤霉病菌在土壤表面的病組織上能产生分生孢子及子囊孢子,而以子囊孢子为??主。子囊孢子在播种后入冬前和入春后都能發生,以春夏季發生較多,冬季發生極少。子囊壳形成的多少与成熟程度决定于气温和土湿,較高的温度和潮湿土壤有利于子囊壳的形成和子囊孢子的成熟. 2.春季在麦株附近空气中出現的病菌孢子,前期以子囊孢子为主,后期子囊孢子和分生孢子都有發生。孢子出現的次数和数量以距离地面0.5尺高度的最多,愈高則愈少;孢子發生的数量在雨天或雨后最多。土壤表面形成的子囊孢子和病穗上产生的分生孢子,其傳播似都以雨水的飞濺作用为主,且大部分孢子的傳播距离并不很远。3.在土壤接菌的情况下,苗腐和基腐病的發生并不严重,更少引起植株死亡的現象。秆腐在1955年發生極少,1956年在大田及試驗区內都很普遍。4.土壤內病菌量和雨湿的多少是影响穗腐和秆腐的主要因素,而前者更为重要。在土壤接种喷水、接种不噴水、不接种噴水和不接种不喷水4区,穗腐率分別为42.98,42.05,11.91及6.26%,秆腐率分別为4.27,3.89,3.65及2.17%。5.大量的病菌孢子和連續降雨是促成病害迅速發展的主要条件。20℃以上的日平均温度似有利于病害的發展,但兩年的結果不很一致,可能由于其他因子的影响。

Results of planting large amount of slightly but evidently diseased tubers undernatural field conditions obtained by inoculation during the harvesting time of theprevious year indicate that successive underground secondary infections from plantto plant of the same hill constitute the main feature of the process of formation ofprimary foci of subsequent aerial spread of the late blight in a potato plantation Inspection at the time of emergence revealed that all the sprouts found at theperiphery of and directly...

Results of planting large amount of slightly but evidently diseased tubers undernatural field conditions obtained by inoculation during the harvesting time of theprevious year indicate that successive underground secondary infections from plantto plant of the same hill constitute the main feature of the process of formation ofprimary foci of subsequent aerial spread of the late blight in a potato plantation Inspection at the time of emergence revealed that all the sprouts found at theperiphery of and directly connected with the tuber lesions were blackened and diedunderground.Among the sprouts which were about to emerge,those standing closeto the dead sprouts were also discolored at their basal portion,while those furtherapart still entirely healthy.Dark brown extended lesions can sometimes be seen onthe stems of the weak potato seedlings,but sporangial covering was present onlyon their lower underground portions.The stem lesions did not always reach theextremity of the stem base.Even if they did,they might not be directly connectedwith the tuber lesions. Among a total of 789 hills planted with disesed tubers in Peking and Salintzein 1956,only 9 plants with stem lesions were found,of which 5 wilted and diedrapidly,1 with its lesion healed up.The remainder stayed long enough for thefungus to sporulate on their above-ground portion of the lesions and cause thefoliage infection of the same plant and adjacent plants at the onset of a favorable weather. It is believed that the significance of the weak diseased seedlings with basalstem lesions appeared early in the season consists chiefly in the capacity of givingrise to sporangia which may again infect the underground portion of the stem of ahither to healthy plant.On the stem of a larger plant,the fungous mycelium canonly exist in the cortical tissue spreading upward and downward from the infectioncourt to cause a dark brown stripe of irregular width.Stripe lesions of this typeapparently do nto impair the normal development of the plant,but their above-ground portions serve as a persistent potential source of aerial infection. Observations outlined above together with the results of an experiment ofseedling top inoculations under field conditions lead us to postutate that delayedaerial infection is due on the one hand to the fragility of the diseased seedlingsunder natural field conditions and on the other to the lack of a suitable combinationof moisture and temperature required for sporulation and infection as the springweather is characterized by very low night temperature. It is anticipated that local forcasting service may find it helpful to plant diseasedtubers in a proper field plot for the observation on the development.of the foci ofpotato late blight.

在河北省沙岭子农业試驗站和北京农業大学試驗农場1955和1956两年所进行的病薯栽培試驗,表示土中的重复侵染是中心病株形成过程的基本特征。当挖掘出土初期的病薯时,發現直接与种薯病斑相連的幼芽都在出土之前变黑死去,剛剛露土的幼芽中,靠近已死幼芽的莖基也开始部分变色,距离較远的则仍然健全。在已出土的衰弱幼苗上常常可以看到露在地面的莖基部分也显出暗褐色的病斑,但是沒有孢子囊,而該病斑的地下部分则披有一層孢子囊趺缜o斑并不全是达到莖基的終点,而达到莖基終点的,也不与种薯病斑相連接。1956年在两地播种的789穴病薯中發現了9株这种病苗,其中5株迅速萎蔫而枯死,1株發生莖斑痊愈現象。只有少数出現較晚而維持較长久的弱苗遇到适合气候时能够在地面上形成孢子囊傳染到本株或同穴中其他植株的叶片缙诓∶绲闹饕饔孟匀辉谟谛纬傻叵骆咦幽乙砸鹜ㄖ姓诔沙さ慕≈昵o基的感染。在成株莖部上病菌只能在皮层扩展引致条紋状的暗褐色病斑。这种病斑不严重影响植株的生长發育,但是在露出地面后随时可以形成孢子囊成为空中傳染的經常潜在来源。出土病苗的观察以及幼苗地上部接种試驗結果說明病害延迟流行的原因,一方面是受病的幼苗容易枯死,另一方面是在早期气...

在河北省沙岭子农业試驗站和北京农業大学試驗农場1955和1956两年所进行的病薯栽培試驗,表示土中的重复侵染是中心病株形成过程的基本特征。当挖掘出土初期的病薯时,發現直接与种薯病斑相連的幼芽都在出土之前变黑死去,剛剛露土的幼芽中,靠近已死幼芽的莖基也开始部分变色,距离較远的则仍然健全。在已出土的衰弱幼苗上常常可以看到露在地面的莖基部分也显出暗褐色的病斑,但是沒有孢子囊,而該病斑的地下部分则披有一層孢子囊趺缜o斑并不全是达到莖基的終点,而达到莖基終点的,也不与种薯病斑相連接。1956年在两地播种的789穴病薯中發現了9株这种病苗,其中5株迅速萎蔫而枯死,1株發生莖斑痊愈現象。只有少数出現較晚而維持較长久的弱苗遇到适合气候时能够在地面上形成孢子囊傳染到本株或同穴中其他植株的叶片缙诓∶绲闹饕饔孟匀辉谟谛纬傻叵骆咦幽乙砸鹜ㄖ姓诔沙さ慕≈昵o基的感染。在成株莖部上病菌只能在皮层扩展引致条紋状的暗褐色病斑。这种病斑不严重影响植株的生长發育,但是在露出地面后随时可以形成孢子囊成为空中傳染的經常潜在来源。出土病苗的观察以及幼苗地上部接种試驗結果說明病害延迟流行的原因,一方面是受病的幼苗容易枯死,另一方面是在早期气候下不能得到形成孢子和再侵染所需要的温湿度的配合。建議在各地預测站选擇适当地点播种病薯,以便观察病害中心的發展情况,作为預測預报的根据。

 
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