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slag     
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     Thermal Stress of Slag on Walltube Created by Boiler Load Shift and Theory Reasearch on Fuzzy Online Optimization of Boiler Sootblow
     电站锅炉变负荷引起的水冷壁层热应力和吹灰在线模糊优化运行的基础理论研究
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     Study on Separating Titania from Furnace Slag Containing High TiO_2
     高钛型高炉钛分离研究
短句来源
     Numerical Simulation of As-Cast Structure Formation of Continuous Casting Slab and Optimization Technology of Slag Splashing
     连铸坯铸态组织形成的数值模拟及溅护炉优化技术研究
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     Basic Study on Titanium Enrichment Selectivity in Pentoxide Slag (CMSTA)
     五元(CMSTA)中钛选择性富集的基础研究
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     Experimental Study on Foaming Slag for Steel Refining and Physical and Mathematical Simulation of LF Process
     LF泡沫精炼研究及钢包精炼炉数理模拟
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  炉渣
     Study on Removal of Phosphorus in Wastewater with Natural Minerals and Steel Slag
     天然矿物及冶金炉渣处理含磷废水的研究
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     Study on Separating Titania from Furnace Slag Containing High TiO_2
     高钛型高炉渣渣钛分离研究
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     VISCOSITY AND CONDUCTIVITY DETERMINATIONS OF A TIN-RICH HIGHLY FERRUGINOUS SLAG
     高铁富锡炉渣粘度及电导率的测定
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     A New Type Self-Hardening Sand Mixture Using the Reducing Slag as the Main Bonding Agent
     一种新型自硬砂——炉渣自硬砂
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     X-ray Fluorimetric Analysis of CaO、SiO_2、MnO、TFe、Al_2O_3、MgO、TiO_2 in Slag
     炉渣中CaO、SiO_2、MnO、TFe、Al_2O_3、MgO、TiO_2的X-射线萤光分析
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  矿渣
     STUDIES ON SLAG LIGNIN AND ITS APPLICATION
     矿渣木素的研究与应用
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     ON THE FORMATION AND REACTION OF ETTRINGITE IN SLAG CEMENT
     矿渣水泥中钙矾石形成条件及其作用
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     Study on the Structure of Slag Glass and Its Properties
     关于矿渣玻璃的结构及其特性的研究
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     Experimental Study of Biological Effects of Slag and Cement Dust
     矿渣水泥粉尘生物学作用的实验研究
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     KINETIC STUDY ON HYDRATION OF BLAST FURNACE SLAG CEMENT
     矿渣水泥水化动力学的研究
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  熔渣
     Calculating Models on the Viscosity of MnO-SiO_2, MgO-SiO_2and CaO-Al_2O_3-SiO_2, Slag Systems
     MnO-SiO_2,MgO-SiO_2和CaO-Al_2O_3-SiO_2熔渣粘度的计算模型
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     Interfacial Effect between Molten Steel and Na_2O-Li_2O-SiO_2-B_2O_3 Slag
     熔钢与Na_2O-Li_2O-SiO_2-B_2O_3熔渣间的界面作用研究
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     Experimental Study of CaO-Al_2O_3-CaF_2-MgO-SiO_2 Pre-melted Slag for Molten Steel Deep Desulphurization
     CaO0Al_2O_3-CaF_2-MgO-SiO_2五元预熔渣系钢水深脱硫实验研究
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     Pulverizing problem of pre-melting slag 12CaO·7Al_2O_3 in refining process
     12CaO·7Al_2O_3预熔渣在精炼过程中的粉化问题
短句来源
     Thermodynamic Calculating Model of Nitrogen in CaO-B_2O_3 Slag Melt
     CaO-B_2O_3熔渣中氮的热力学计算模型
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  slag
The penetration has a relationship with the separate distribution of slag on the weld surface.
      
Then, an observation of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and an electronic data systems (EDS) analysis of slag were performed respectively.
      
The separate distribution of slag on the weld pool during welding and the great constriction of arc spots were confirmed by TIG welding with helium shielding gas.
      
The relationship between slag distribution and weld penetration was studied by adding aluminum powder into flux AF305 to change the distribution of slag.
      
During welding, the separate distribution of slag on the weld pool results in the great constriction of arc spots, an increase in arc spot force, and an increase in Lorentz force within the arc and weld pool.
      
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The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter...

The purpose of this series is to make a thermodynamic analysis of the Fe-C system with a minimum of assumptions and to revise the equilibrium diagram of the same system in the light of the results of this investigation. In this paper, the first of the series, activities in liquid Fe-C alloys have been evaluated up to saturation, using Richardson and Dennis' data123 on dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron and Darken and Smith's model~([1]) for carbon dissolved in austenite with certain modifications.A parameter α_c defined as logγc/N_Fe~2 with reference to graphite as the standard state is plotted against N_c for both austenite and Fe-C melt in order to facilitate the evaluation of α_(Fe) by graphical integration. Smith's data~([1]) on equilibrium between austenite and gaseous mixtures (CO_2/CO, CH_4/H_2) are re-treated to yield α_c~γ-N_c~γ curves for 800° and 1000℃ as shown in Fig. 1. On the assumption that L_c~γ the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in austenite, does not chan preciably with temperature, the α_c~γ-V_c~γ curve for 1153℃, the iron-graphite eutectic temperature, is obtained by extrapolation and found to lie above the graphite saturation point. This fact seems to indicate that the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model is reached somewhere around N_c~γ=0.0661 (1.50%) and a point of inflection should occur at this concentration. The above-mentioned assumption has been semi-quantitatively proved in this paper and will be discussed further in another paper of this series.In a similar manner, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for liquid Fe-C alloys are drawn through the experimental points of Richardson and Dennis on equilibrium between CO_2/CO mixed gases and dilute solutions of carbon in liquid iron at 1560° and 1660℃ as shown in Fig. 1. The curves are extended up to N_c~1=0.15 on the basis of Darken and Smith's model using 3600 cals. as the energy of interaction at 1560℃ between carbon atoms in the neighbouring interstitial sites as recommended by Richardson and Dens. Then, a suitable curve is drawn between N_c~l=0.15 and the graphite saturation point for 1560℃ to meet certain requirements, and a corresponding curve for 1660℃ is obtained by extrapolation, assuming that L_c~l, the relative partial molal enthalpy of carbon in liquid iron, does not change appreciably with temperature. Thus, α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 1560° and 1660℃ are completed from low carbon concentrations up to saturation. The activities of carbon in Fe-C melts at 1600℃ with reference to graphite as the standard state are readily obtained at different carbon concentrations by interpolation, from which the reversible electromotive forces of a concentration cell of the type Fe,C|slag, C_2~2|Fe,C(sat.) have been calculated and found to agree fairly well with the experimental values obtained by and as shown in Fig. 2. This agreement may be taken as partial confirmation of the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the limit of application of Darken and Smith's model to liquid Fe-C alloys.From α_c~l-N_c~l curves for 160°and 1660℃, L_c~l is easily calculated to be 3930 cals., and by combining this value with certain other data, the following equation is obtained:C(gr.)=C[%]; AF°=3930-9.21 T,which differs considerably from Chipman's equation AF°=8900-12.10T given in the 1951 edition of the "Basic Open Hearth Steelmaking". It is believed that the present author's equation is more reliable than Chipman's in view of the uncertainties involved in the derivation of the latter especially regarding the evaluation of the enthalpy of solution of graphite in liquid iron.By graphical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation, the activities of iron in Fe-C melts with pure liquid iron as the standard state are obtained at different carbon concentrations and plotted against N_c~l in Fig. 3. The α_(Fe)~l-N_c~l curve thus obtained is independent of temperature. With the aid of Fig. 3 and certain other data, the activities of iron in an Fe-C melt and austenite both saturated with graphite at the eutectic temperature are evaluated with pure γ iron as the common standard state and found to be practically equal as required by the eutectic equilibrium. This fact renders additional support to the choice of N_c~l=0.15 as the inflection point of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves.The shape of the α_c~l-N_c~l curves is briefly discussed from a structural viewpoint.

作者在本文中综合分析了关於液态铁碳合金中碳活度测定的諸家研究结果並比较其优劣. 然后根据Richardson与Dennis用CO_2/CO平衡法的实验数据,用Darken与Smith的统计模型与最少假定,导出了液态鉄碳合金中α′_c与N′_c的关系(α′_c=logγ′_c,/(N_Fe′)~2,标准状态为石墨),并温度对此关系的影响.计算结果符合於(i)鉄液内石墨溶解度的实验数据;(ii)与用电动势法测定液态铁碳合金中碳活度的实验数据;及(iii)奥氏体、铁液、石墨共晶平衡的要求. 根据本文所导出的α′_c-N′_c曲綫,作者算得石墨在鉄液内的溶解热为3930卡;然后依此及其他必需数据,导出下列关系:C(石墨)=C[%],△F°=3930-9.21T. 最后作者从液态铁碳合金结构的观点讨论了图1中α′_c-N′_c曲綫的形状.

This is the first of a series of papers with a view to evaluation activities inliquid blast-furnace-type slags.The purpose of this paper is to present new results of calculation for activities of CaO and SiO_2 in liquid CaO-SiO_2,CaO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 and CaO-MgO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 systems from existing chemical and electrochemi-caldata with certain assumptions The activities of CaO in the above-mentionedsystems with reference to solid CaO as the standard state are plotted against(%CaO)/(%SiO_2).From a comparison...

This is the first of a series of papers with a view to evaluation activities inliquid blast-furnace-type slags.The purpose of this paper is to present new results of calculation for activities of CaO and SiO_2 in liquid CaO-SiO_2,CaO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 and CaO-MgO-SiO_2-Al_2O_3 systems from existing chemical and electrochemi-caldata with certain assumptions The activities of CaO in the above-mentionedsystems with reference to solid CaO as the standard state are plotted against(%CaO)/(%SiO_2).From a comparison of these ~αCaO-(%CaO)/(%SiO_2)curves,a new expression for basicity has been proposed instead of the simple(%CaO)/(%SiO_2)ratio.The activities of CaO in the various systems concerned becomeapproximately equal at the same basicity when the latter is calculated accordingto the new formula.Alumina shows amphoteric behaviour in the new basicityformula in agreement with the general pattern of slag constitution.

在本文中,作者综合分析了关于CaO—SiO_2、CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3及CaO—MgO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3系统熔渣中α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)的测定结果,并加以比较。关于CaO—SiO_2二元系,作者综合了Fulton与Chipman,张禄经与Derge及坂上六郎的实验数据,导出了1600℃时液态渣在整个浓度范围内的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO),分别用β鳞石英及固态CaO为标准状态。根据这样算出的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)以及坂上的CaO侧电动势数据,作者导出了一个经验公式,可以用来从已知的电动势数据与α_(SiO_2)计算α_(CaO)。将这个公式应用于CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3三元系,算出了三元系熔渣内当Al_2O_3=10、20%时的α_(CaO)。然后将二元系和三元系中的α_(CaO)加以比较,导出了一个新的碱度计算公式。在此式中A1_2O_3显示双性,当碱度较高时它属于酸性,因此可以分子比例与SiO_2相加;反之,当碱度较低时它属于碱性,因此须从SiO_2中扣去。如将MgO以重量百分率与CaO相加,这个碱度公式也可以适用于四元系。由于新的碱度公式所根...

在本文中,作者综合分析了关于CaO—SiO_2、CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3及CaO—MgO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3系统熔渣中α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)的测定结果,并加以比较。关于CaO—SiO_2二元系,作者综合了Fulton与Chipman,张禄经与Derge及坂上六郎的实验数据,导出了1600℃时液态渣在整个浓度范围内的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO),分别用β鳞石英及固态CaO为标准状态。根据这样算出的α_(SiO_2)及α_(CaO)以及坂上的CaO侧电动势数据,作者导出了一个经验公式,可以用来从已知的电动势数据与α_(SiO_2)计算α_(CaO)。将这个公式应用于CaO—SiO_2—Al_2O_3三元系,算出了三元系熔渣内当Al_2O_3=10、20%时的α_(CaO)。然后将二元系和三元系中的α_(CaO)加以比较,导出了一个新的碱度计算公式。在此式中A1_2O_3显示双性,当碱度较高时它属于酸性,因此可以分子比例与SiO_2相加;反之,当碱度较低时它属于碱性,因此须从SiO_2中扣去。如将MgO以重量百分率与CaO相加,这个碱度公式也可以适用于四元系。由于新的碱度公式所根据的实验数据并不充分,所以它的能否适用须视应用结果如何而定。Taylor与Stobo由脱硫平衡数据计算了三个熔渣内的α_(CaO),与作者的计算结果不能符合。本文初步分析了造成这个差异的原因。因为这个差异的存在,本文所计算的α_(CaO)只能认为相对的数值,同时图2的α_(SiO_2)曲线也有待将来研究复证或修正。

In the previous paper,a new expression for basicity has been proposed for blast-furnace-type slags.It is the purpose of the present paper to correlate thisbasicity ratio with desulfurization power using the data of Hatch and Chipman,Filer and Darken,and Taylor and Stobo on the distribution of sulfur betweenliquid blast-furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron.For this purpose,theactivity coefficient of CaS in liquid blast-furnace-type slags with reference to solidCaS as the standard state...

In the previous paper,a new expression for basicity has been proposed for blast-furnace-type slags.It is the purpose of the present paper to correlate thisbasicity ratio with desulfurization power using the data of Hatch and Chipman,Filer and Darken,and Taylor and Stobo on the distribution of sulfur betweenliquid blast-furnace-type slags and carbon-saturated iron.For this purpose,theactivity coefficient of CaS in liquid blast-furnace-type slags with reference to solidCaS as the standard state has been evaluated as a function of the basicity andthe sulfur content of the slags from existing equilibrium data.With the activitiesof CaS and CaO known,it has been possible to calculate the“theoretical”sulfurdistribution curve by plotting(%S)/[~αS],converted to(%S)=1.50,againstauthor's new basicity ratio.It has been found that the calculated sulfur distribu-tion curve fits fairly well the experimental data of various investigators on thesulfur equilibria between blast-furnace-type slags and metal.This fact seems toprovide an evidence for the usefulness of the new expression for basicity proposedby the author.

本文讨论了各种碱度计算方法,并提出一个新的计算公式,在这个公式中Al_2O_3显示双性。这个公式应用于Hatch与Chipman,Filer与Darken及Taylor与Stobo的生铁脱硫平衡数据,尚可适用。在本文中,根据Hatch与Chipman,Taylor与Stobo及Fincham与Richardson的实验数据,作者导出了γCaS(固态CaS为标准状况)与渣内硫量及碱度的关系,然后结合前文内算出的α_(CaO)数据,导出了硫分配此与碱度的关系。作者计算的硫分配比—碱度曲线与上述诸家的生铁脱硫平衡实验数据颇为符合。

 
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