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epidemic
相关语句
  流行
    APPLICATION OF FUZZY CLUSTRING ANALYSIS TO STUDY ON THE EPIDEMIC DYNAMICS OF RICE SHEATH BLIGHT
    模糊聚类分析在稻纹枯病流行动态研究中的应用
短句来源
    A FORECAST OF THE EPIDEMIC TEEND OF WHEAT STRIP RUST IN NIXGXIA IN 1986-2000
    1986—2000年宁夏小麦条锈病流行趋势预测
短句来源
    AN ANALYSIS OF EPIDEMIC COURSE AND STRUCTURE OF OIDIUM HEVEAE
    橡胶树白粉病流行过程和流行结构分析
短句来源
    RELATIONSHIP OF FOREST DISEASE EPIDEMIC TO MANAGEMENT MEASURES
    森林病害流行与经营措施的关系
短句来源
    THE EPIDEMIC FORECASTING AND PATH ANALYSIS ON RICE TRANSITORY YELLOWING
    水稻暂黄病流行预测与通径分析
短句来源
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  “epidemic”译为未确定词的双语例句
    SIMYR—A SIMPLE SIMULATION MODEL FOR EPIDEMIC OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST,PUCCINIA STRIIFORMIS WEST
    SIMYR—小麦条锈病流行的简要模拟模型
短句来源
    A SIMULATION MODEL FOR THE EPIDEMIC OF WHEAT POWDRY MILDEW
    小麦白粉病田间流行的模拟模型——亚系统模型的建立
短句来源
    POSSIBILITY OF PINE WILT DISEASE EPIDEMIC IN SOUTH CHINA
    松材线虫萎蔫病在中国南方林区流行的可能性
短句来源
    An Analysis of the Meteorological Factors Related to Epidemic of Sheat Blight Disease on Early Rice by Using Monadic Integral Regression Method
    用一元积分回归法进行早稻纹枯病流行的气象因素分析
短句来源
    A PATH ANALYSIS OF THE EPIDEMIC OF RICE NECK BLAST AND THE FORECAST MODEL
    稻穗颈瘟流行的通径分析及预测模型
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  epidemic
A mathematical analysis for a diffusive epidemic model with criss-cross dynamics
      
This paper considers an SIRS epidemic model that incorporates constant immigration rate, a general population-size dependent contact rate and proportional transfer rate from the infective class to susceptible class.
      
Two differential infectivity epidemic models with nonlinear incidence rate
      
This paper considers two differential infectivity (DI) epidemic models with a nonlinear incidence rate and constant or varying population size.
      
Stability of an seis epidemic model with constant recruitment and a varying total population size
      
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The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host development.In...

The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host development.In 1952,varieties with earlier date ofheading were generally less susceptible than those which headed late. Varietal tests for the headblight resistance were made in Nanking in 1952and 1954.In 1952,235 varieties and hybrids were studied for their resistance toscab under natural conditions in the field.Great differences were found in theirdegree of infection,although none of them was immune.The percentages of in-fected heads ranged from 0.9 to 89.1 with most of them having 10 to 40% infec-tion.No definite correlation was seen between the percentage of infection andthe date of heading or of maturing.In 1954,tests on varietal resistance to scabwere again made with 40 varieties and hybrids including those being relatively lesssusceptible in the previous test.Attempts were made to induce epidemics in thefield by means of artificial inoculation.Results indicated that both mycelial andconidial suspensions were similarly effective for artificial inoculation.The averagepercentages of infected heads in the inoculated plots ranged from 4.2 to 77.7 incontrast to the uninoculated plots where the average percentages of infected headsbeing only trace to 7.1 with one variety not infected. From the experimental results obtained in 1952 and 1954,it was found thatrelative stability in resistance to headblight existed among different wheat varie-ties,although there was great variation in varietal resistance due to the effect ofenvironmental factors.Two hybrids,"5201" and "5204",were found to be muchmore resistant than all other varieties tested in both years.Hybrid "5204" gave ??0.9% of infected heads in 1952 and 3.4% in 1954,and hybrid "5201" gave5.5 and 9.0% of infected heads in the respective years.Both hybrids also possessother desirable characteristics such as early maturity,relative high yield,stiffystems,and high resistance to the stripe rust. Greenhouse studies were made in 1954 with two susceptible varieties ofwheat for testing their susceptibility to headblight at six different stages of deve-lopment from shooting to hard dough.Results indicated that the plant was sus-ceptible at all these stages of development with a tendency of being more heavilyinfected toward maturity.It was also observed that temperature had obvious effecton the degree of infection.Plants inoculated at flowering stage were more heavilyinfected when kept at 25℃ after inoculation than when kept at 15℃.However,the inoculated plants kept at 25℃ during the day and at 15℃ at night resultedin a degree of infection similar to those kept at 25℃ all the time.

(一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后...

(一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后者高。日间25℃和夜间15℃交替的变温处理,发病情形与始终置於25℃的相近。(六)不同小麦品种对于赤微病具有相对稳定的抵抗性或感染性。“5201”及“5204”等杂交系,在自然感染和人工接种情形下,发病都很轻微,并且具有早熟、丰产、秆硬和高度抵抗条锈等优良特性。

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering...

1. In this study which has been carried on since 1949,attempts were made toanalyse factors involved in the outbreaks of stripe rust of wheat in North Chinawith a view of giving some clues for forcasting.Five periods of the developmentof an epidemic of the stripe rust in this region are recognized:(1) the infectionand divelopment period of the rust on wheat seedlings in the autumn,(2) the over-wintering period,(3) the over-springing period,(4) the development period in thelate spring,and (5) the over-summering period.For each of the above stated peri-ods,the degrees of the stipe rust development are described and the main factorseffecting the development are analysed. 2. In the autumn,if field conditions were favorable for infection,the earlier ??the date of sowing,generally the heavier the wheat crops would be rusted.Therewere little or no stripe rust developed when the date of sowing wes later than thelast part of September although the condition might be varied appreciably withdifferent localities.Besides temperature,the period of high concentration of air-bornespores was the most important factor determining the disease severity in the earlysown wheat fields. 3. The stripe rust organism was capable of over-wintering in the form of dormant mycelium within infected leaves under the weather conditions of North Chinaplain.Heavy infection of wheat seedlings was the prerequisite of over-wintering,which was also influenced by micro-environmental conditions such as air temperat-ure,soil moisture and protection from wind.Air temperature was probably the mostessential factor. 4. The dry weather and the low moisture contents in the soil in the earlyspring were unfavorable to the development of the rust.Under these conditions,the over-wintering rust might be completely killed off or much lessened,while hig-her soil humidity usually favored the overspringing of the rust organism.Furtherdevelopment of the disease appeared to depend on the amount and frequency ofprecipitation.However,in flooded areas where the soil moisture was excessivelyhigh,epidemics might occur under dry weather. 5. The over-wintering inoculum was most important for local epidemics in spring,although long distance air-borne spore might also have some influence on the rustdevelopment in the later part of the wheat growing season. 6. Uredospores of stripe rust were not capable of over-summering on volunteerwheats in North China plain.Stripe rust collections from Elymus chinense andAgropyron spp.were capable to infect certain wheat varietes when inoculated arti-ficially,but under natural conditions these grasses appeared to play little part inthe aestivation of this rust in the vast wheat growing areas of North China.Theresults of spore-trapping indicated that Chang-Chia-Kow region and certain partsof inner Mongolia where spring wheats mature as late as the end of August weremost probably the reservoir of over-summering fungus which serve as the mainsource of autumnal infection. 7. Since there are great diversity of types of farming in North China,i.e.,(1)the dry land,(2) the well and river-irrigated land,(3) the low land and river-irrigated land of the mid-part of Shansi Province,and (4) the autumn floodedland,and as the environmental factors effecting the first four stages of stripe rustdevelopment were varied,consequently,the rust development in each type of landwas obviously different from others.The disease struck most severely in the wellor river-irrigated and the autumn-flooded lands. 8. Based on the foregoing results,the writers suggest that by means of timelyobservations and inspections on the stripe rust development during autumn and onthe amounts of the Survival after over-wintering and over-springing along with theweather forecasting data,it is possible to make fairly accurate forecast of the striperust epidemics in North China.

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条銹菌越夏菌源...

1.华北区小麦条銹病主要的流行区域是井水地、渠澆地及水涝地。2.在秋季田間环境对侵染有利的情况下,小麦播种愈早的發病愈重。播种期晚于一定期限(各地不同,一般是9月下旬)發病就很輕或根本不發病。除温度外,空中孢子在秋季集中时期是决定早播病重的最重要原因。3.条銹菌可在华北北部平原的一般气候条件下以菌絲越冬。越冬的条件有二:首先是麦苗發病严重;其次是小气象适合。后者包括温度、土壤湿度与遮蔽物的有無等,其中起主导作用的是温度。4.春季的土壤湿度愈高,对条锈菌的“越春”愈有利。锈菌越春以后的流行一般是决定于雨水的多寡。但土壤湿度过大时(水涝地),也可以不依賴雨水多寡而在小区域內流行。5.春季菌源是多元的,但本地越冬菌起决定性作用,外地吹来的孢子只在后期起輔助作用。地面發病的严重程度和时期与空中孢子發現日期及濃度成正相关。6.条锈菌不能在华北平原的自生麦上和用抱子形态越夏,禾本科杂草中碱草及綠鬚鵝冠草锈菌用人工接种,虽可以發生枯斑反应或长出少数条锈病斑,但在分类上与小麦条銹菌不同,在大面积上不起越夏桥梁作用。根据秋季空中孢子捕捉和地面調查結??果,北方張家口专区壩土及內蒙古平地泉行政区等晚熟春麦区作为小麦条銹菌越夏菌源基地的可能性最大。7.預測預报应該着重地面的發病檢查,根据冬前秋苗上發生情况和越冬率及越春率等3次發病檢查再参考气象預报,可以真作为短期或較长期的預测預报。

The sorghum aphid; Aphis sacchari Zehntner is insect pest of epidemic properties ofsorghum in the Northeast, Inner Mongoria, Shangtung, and Hopei. Its overwintering hostis Miscanthus sacchariflourus and its alternative summer host is Andropon sorghum. Over-wintering eggs are sometimes laid on sorghum too, but the stem mothers always die outdue to shortage of food. The winged aphids migrate from Miscanthus to sorghum inearly spring. At the beginning of multiplication, the aphid colony is concentrated on...

The sorghum aphid; Aphis sacchari Zehntner is insect pest of epidemic properties ofsorghum in the Northeast, Inner Mongoria, Shangtung, and Hopei. Its overwintering hostis Miscanthus sacchariflourus and its alternative summer host is Andropon sorghum. Over-wintering eggs are sometimes laid on sorghum too, but the stem mothers always die outdue to shortage of food. The winged aphids migrate from Miscanthus to sorghum inearly spring. At the beginning of multiplication, the aphid colony is concentrated on thelower part,Ist to 3rd leaves of sorghum.There are four peaks of the appearance ofwinged aphids in a year. The first peak occurs in the seedling stage of sorghum, thesecond in 6--10 leave stage, the third in 12--16 leave stage, and the fourth in the seedmaturing stage. Cach year there is a total of 16 generations. In the second generation thewinged aphids migrate from the overwintering host to sorghum. The sexuales appear inthe 16th generation and the females lay eggs to pass winter. Many species of naturalenemies were found belonghg to the Coccinellidae, Syrphidae, Chrysopidae, Braconidaeand Ochthiphilidae. The size of aphid population is usually correlated with the culturaland climatic conditions. Destruction of the overwintering. host plant is considered veryimportant to reduce the aphid population in sorghum field. 6%r wettable 666 (1: 150) and parathion emulsion (1: 15000) are the effective insec-ticides used at present hme. Systox emulsion were tested at the growing stage of sorghum.also giving very good result, but the residual effects to higher animals need further investi-gations.

高粱蚜是我国北方高梁产区的大害虫,东北三省、内蒙古、山东、河北等地为其猖撅发生区。经在东北调查及接种试验证明,荻草是它的越冬寄主。夏寄主在东北等地只有高粱,并不寄生玉米等禾本科作物。绝大部分越冬卵产在荻草的地上部叶鞘内及叶背面。高粱蚜在夏寄主高粱上亦能产卵。但在孵化后往往因无食物而死亡。越冬卵量和早春蚜量团荻草生长的场所不同而有差别,一般在土质松软、窝风、向阳条件下者较多;土质板结和夏、秋积水条件下的草甸、坟地处较少。早春迁至高粱后多寄生在基部叶片上,在7月上旬前1—3叶蚜量约为全株蚜量的98%。有翅蚜在全年迁飞中有4次高峰:第1次在高粱出苗后,第2次在6—10片叶时,第3次在12—16片叶时,第四次在高粱成熟前后。无翅蚜也有一定迁移能力,同样是扩散蔓延的重要因素,田间测定24小时迁移距离为1—3.3米。在室外饲育观察全年共繁殖16代,第2代出现有翅蚜,第16代出现性蚜,平均每个胎生雌蚜产仔47头,一般70—80头,最多者达180多头;平均温度15℃时,发育期间为13天,21℃时8—9天,23℃时6—7天。卵于4月下旬杏花开放前后孵化。5月下旬榆钱成熟时开始向高粱植株上迁飞,7月中旬至8月中旬是为害高峰期,8...

高粱蚜是我国北方高梁产区的大害虫,东北三省、内蒙古、山东、河北等地为其猖撅发生区。经在东北调查及接种试验证明,荻草是它的越冬寄主。夏寄主在东北等地只有高粱,并不寄生玉米等禾本科作物。绝大部分越冬卵产在荻草的地上部叶鞘内及叶背面。高粱蚜在夏寄主高粱上亦能产卵。但在孵化后往往因无食物而死亡。越冬卵量和早春蚜量团荻草生长的场所不同而有差别,一般在土质松软、窝风、向阳条件下者较多;土质板结和夏、秋积水条件下的草甸、坟地处较少。早春迁至高粱后多寄生在基部叶片上,在7月上旬前1—3叶蚜量约为全株蚜量的98%。有翅蚜在全年迁飞中有4次高峰:第1次在高粱出苗后,第2次在6—10片叶时,第3次在12—16片叶时,第四次在高粱成熟前后。无翅蚜也有一定迁移能力,同样是扩散蔓延的重要因素,田间测定24小时迁移距离为1—3.3米。在室外饲育观察全年共繁殖16代,第2代出现有翅蚜,第16代出现性蚜,平均每个胎生雌蚜产仔47头,一般70—80头,最多者达180多头;平均温度15℃时,发育期间为13天,21℃时8—9天,23℃时6—7天。卵于4月下旬杏花开放前后孵化。5月下旬榆钱成熟时开始向高粱植株上迁飞,7月中旬至8月中旬是为害高峰期,8月中旬后部分迁回荻草,9月中旬出现性蚜交尾产卵。捕食和寄生性天敌中主要的有各?

 
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