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american     
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  美国
     The Chinese Story in the Western Context——On the Writing of Chinese Culture in the Chinese American Literary Texts
     西方语境的中国故事——论美国华裔英语文学的中国文化书写
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     Studies on Adaptive Mechanisms of American Black Walnut with Different Genotypes to Drought Stress
     不同基因型美国黑核桃对干旱胁迫的适应机制研究
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     Political Interaction: Interest Groups and American Government's Policy Making
     政治互动:利益集团与美国政府决策
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     The History of American Educational Technology and Its Paradigm Evolution
     美国教育技术学的历史与范式演变
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     Research into the History of American Educational Technology
     美国教育技术发展史研究
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     Comparative Study of Chinese and American Foreign Trade System
     中对外贸易体制比较研究
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     The Activities of American Presbyterian Church (North) in South China (1837-1899)
     北长老会在华南的活动研究(1837-1899)
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     Review and Comparison of the Chinese, American and Japanese Test Standards on Elastic--plastic Fracture Toughness J_(Ic)
     中、、日三国的J_(Ic)测试标准的比较
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     International Lens Design Conference and the Visitor's Impressions of Some American Institutes
     国际透镜设计会议及访情况简介
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     Cross Cultural Comparison of Creative Thinking between Chinese and American Students Using Torrance Test
     《托兰斯创造性思维测验》(TTCT)的测试和中学生的跨文化比较
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  美国的
     American Security Strategy and Its Security Concept Since Cold War
     冷战以来美国的安全战略和安全观
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     AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY PATTERN AND PROCESS.
     《美国的对外政策——模式与过程》
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     THE REFORMS AND VIBRANCE OF AMERICAN ENTERPRISES
     美国的企业改革与搞活
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     American Civil Airport Management
     美国的民用机场管理
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     American Aviation Laws
     美国的航空法律体系
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  美式
     Ruin Analysis for Erlang(2) Risk Process and American Put Option
     Erlang(2)过程的风险分析与美式看跌期权
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     Pricing high-dimension American option by LSSVM-Monte Carlo
     LSSVM-Monte Carlo定价高维美式期权
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     5. The difference of“the”between Britain English and American English;
     5.英式英语与美式英语中,定冠词“the”用法的差异;
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     Yamaha DS250 American Type Motorcycle Born
     雅马哈DS250美式摩托车亮相
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     Differences Between American And British English
     美式英语与英式英语的差异(英文)
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  american
Pricing of perpetual American and Bermudan options by binomial tree method
      
In this paper, we consider the binomial tree method for pricing perpetual American and perpetual Bermudan options.
      
Explicit formulas for the optimal exercise boundary of the perpetual American option is obtained.
      
One review is made by Chinese authors, another is from American scientists.
      
Calculating the American options in the default model
      
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In this paper, a survey is made over the existing theories of seismic forces onstructures. It is found that all the theories fall into one of the following cate-gories: 1) the so-called "statical theory" which considers the structure subject toan equivalent constant acceleration; 2) theories based upon simulated simplified ground motions; 3) theories based upon recorded actual ground motions; 4) theories based upon random impulses. Critical comments have been given to the above theories, especially to thefourth...

In this paper, a survey is made over the existing theories of seismic forces onstructures. It is found that all the theories fall into one of the following cate-gories: 1) the so-called "statical theory" which considers the structure subject toan equivalent constant acceleration; 2) theories based upon simulated simplified ground motions; 3) theories based upon recorded actual ground motions; 4) theories based upon random impulses. Critical comments have been given to the above theories, especially to thefourth one. The writer further gives a brief but cpmplete description of the responsespectra of the structure and on this basis, all the theories are co-related. Computations made by G. W. Housner for major American earthquakes dis-close that the acceleration spectra for damped system are flat curves withoutoutstanding peak value. For this reason, the writer deems that for certain typeof structures, variation of the acceleration spectral value for different modes of vibration will be small, and may be taken approximately as a constant. As aresult, the seismic forces reduce to this constant spectral acceleration times the.mass of the structure. It is suggested to use this method for estimatingthe base shear but make proper adjustment in its distribution along the height ofthe structure. It is also proposed to tie up this spectral acceleration to the earth-quake intensity scale. Finally, the writer stresses that further development of the theory of seismicforces on structures depends upon researches along following lings: 1) strong-motion program; 2) dynamical properties of structures and materials; 3) effectsof foundation conditions; 4) vertical and torsional seismic forces; 5) co-relationbetween seismic forces and earthquake intensity.

本文回顾了关于建筑物地震力的理论的发展过程,对于现行的几种理论进行了评论;认为在我国目前条件之下,可以采用一种基于动力原则的地震力系数;最后对今后的研究方向提供了一些意见。

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following...

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere investigated at Nanking,Kiangsu during 1959-1962.(1)Combining ability between different interspecific crosses with special reference toyield,earliness and fibre qualities.(2)Morphological and physiological characters of economic importance in F_1 hybrids.(3)Performance of promising hybrids in field production.(4)Method of producing hybrid seeds with cheaper cost and less labour.Fifty-nine combinations were studied from 1960 to 1962,among which Pong-zai No.1(Upland cotton)×L.S.4923(Sea-island)was the best in yield and earliness.The averageyield of this F_1 hybrid in three years with 178 kg.of seed cotton or 53.7 kg.of lint cotton permow.As compared with the parents it was 94.35% of seed cotton or 82.2% of lint cotton ofthe yield of Delta-upland cotton and 187.17% of seed cotton or 172.74% of lint cotton of theyield of Sea-island L.S.4923.The fibre quality of F_1 hybrids approached Sea-island parent with a mean fibre length of40 m.m.,mean fibre fineness of 7000 meters per gram wt.,and single fibre strength of 4.5g.The methods and procedures for producing commercial hybrid cotton seed were as follows:(1)Hybrid F_0's seed was produced by hand emasculation and pollination which was ofvalue in areas abundant with hand-labor or adapted to transplanting for saving seeds up to4/5.(2)The female parent with recessive markers,was pollinated by hand without emascula-tion.In the thinning of the hybrid progeny all recessive plants were removed,leaving onlythe true F_1's.The recessive characters used for markers were virescent yellow foliage,redstem and hairy petiole of the seedling.The percentage of hybrid seed setting for differentupland cotton varieties ranged from 13% to 78%.Observations on heterosis in the characters of F_1 hybrids of G.hirsutum×G.barbadensewere summarized as follows:Plant Characters Comparison of bybrid with Upland and Seaisland parentsDays from planting to seedling Earlier than either parentDays from budding to flowering Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays from seedling to boll maturity Intermediate nearer to late Sea-island Days of bud development Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays of boll development Longer than Sea-islandDays from seedling to first boll maturity IntermediatePlant height Taller than either parentNumber of monopodia Less than either parent,but approaching Up landNumber of sympodia More than either parentNumber of fruiting points per plant More than either parentPosition of main stem nodes where first fruiting branch appears Lower than either parentInternode length of axis Longer than either parentInternode length of fruiting branch Longer than either parentPetiole length Longer than either parentLeaf area Larger than either parentLeaf lobe index Intermediate,approaching Sea-islandShedding percentage IntermediateDistribution of bolls in different parts of the plant Approaching Sea-island,most bolls setting at middle and upper parts of the plantWeight of seed cotton per boll IntermediateNumber of ovules per boll Approaching Sea-island in a lower numberMotes percentage More than either parentPistil length IntermediateCorolla area and index Larger than either parentSeed index Larger than either parentLint index IntermediateMaturity Intermediate,approaching late Sea-islandFibre length Longer than either parentFibre fineness Approaching Sea-islandYield in seed cotton Approaching Upland,higher than Sea-islandYield in lint cotton Lower than Upland,higher than Sea-islandProduction of dry matter More than either parentProduction of dry matter per square meter of leaf area More

1959—1962年试验证明,海陆杂种一代具有早熟、丰产、优质的特性。海陆杂种一代的籽棉产量接近陆地棉,而显著高于海岛棉。成熟期较海岛棉早,比陆地棉偏迟。生育特性一般介于两亲之间,不同程度的偏向于海岛棉,有的特性超过两亲范围以外。纤维细长,强度高,可以制成高挡纺织品。在江苏各地示范试种结果良好。在制种技术方面研究证明,采用具有某一隐性指示性状,进行不去雄杂交(人工辅助授粉),杂交率达70%,每工作日可制种6—8斤。

The common description of the accessory meningeal artery in the textbooks of ana-tomy is either too brief or inaccurate, and some current misconceptions and contradic-tions have not yet been cleared up. Our investigation is based on the results of 57 dissections of 33 cadavers with thefollowing conclusions: 1. Frequency of occurrence: The accessory meningeal artery is found in 50 sidesof 32 cadavers, i.e. in 87.7% of the dissections and 97.0% of the cadavers. 2. The accessory meningeal artery often originates...

The common description of the accessory meningeal artery in the textbooks of ana-tomy is either too brief or inaccurate, and some current misconceptions and contradic-tions have not yet been cleared up. Our investigation is based on the results of 57 dissections of 33 cadavers with thefollowing conclusions: 1. Frequency of occurrence: The accessory meningeal artery is found in 50 sidesof 32 cadavers, i.e. in 87.7% of the dissections and 97.0% of the cadavers. 2. The accessory meningeal artery often originates from the middle meningeal artery(the 2nd class 70% and the 4th class 8%), and less frequently originates from themaxillary artery (the 1st class 16%) or from both of them (the 3rd class 6%). 3. The accessory meningeal artery often passes medial (type P 50%) or lateral(type S 28%) to the posterior division of the mandibular nerve (or the inferior dentalnerve and the lingual nerve). Usually the artery courses forwards and upwards intothe pterygospinous foramen. 4. In most cases, the main trunk of the accessory meningeal artery does not passthrough the foramen ovale. 5. The accessory meningeal artery distributes principally to the lateral and medialpterygoid muscle, tensor veli palatini muscle, parts of the sphenoid bone, and the man-dibular nerve. In addition, its small ramus passes through the accessory foraminum ornotch of the foramen ovale into the middle cranial fossa, and supplies the dura materanterior to the foramen ovale. Some possible racial differences between the Chinese and American materials arediscussed.

一般常用的中外文解剖学书籍对硬脑膜副动脉的描述过于简略或不够正确,某些流行的错误概念和矛盾没有得到及时的澄清。调查了33具尸体57侧。观察结果: (1)出现率:在32具尸体的50侧找到硬脑膜副动脉,占调查尸体数97.0%,占调查侧数87.7%。 (2)类型统计:按主干的起始点和行径分类型。凡主干起于土颌动脉者列入第一类(Ⅰ),起于硬脑膜中动脉者列入第二类(Ⅱ),两干分别起始者列入第三类(Ⅰ—Ⅱ)和第四类(Ⅱ—Ⅱ);凡主干行经下颌神经后股或舌神经和下齿神经外侧者为浅型(S),行经这些神经内侧者为深型(P),两干分别走神经内外侧者为浅深型(SP)和浅—深型(S—P),主干沿下颌神经后缘入卵圆孔后部者为卵圆孔型(O)。统计结果见表2和表3。按起点分类,以第二类(Ⅱ)为最多(70%);按行径分型,以深型(P)为最多(50%);把起点和行径结合起来分类型,以ⅡP类型为最多(40%)。 (3)与卵圆孔和翼棘孔的关系:硬脑膜副动脉虽常有细小分支进入卵圆孔供给下颌神经颅内段,但主干极少有进入卵圆孔的。多数硬脑膜副动脉的主干或深干进入翼棘孔, 少数则有分支进入翼棘孔。 (4)分支分布:硬脑膜副动脉分支分布于翼外肌、翼内肌、张腭...

一般常用的中外文解剖学书籍对硬脑膜副动脉的描述过于简略或不够正确,某些流行的错误概念和矛盾没有得到及时的澄清。调查了33具尸体57侧。观察结果: (1)出现率:在32具尸体的50侧找到硬脑膜副动脉,占调查尸体数97.0%,占调查侧数87.7%。 (2)类型统计:按主干的起始点和行径分类型。凡主干起于土颌动脉者列入第一类(Ⅰ),起于硬脑膜中动脉者列入第二类(Ⅱ),两干分别起始者列入第三类(Ⅰ—Ⅱ)和第四类(Ⅱ—Ⅱ);凡主干行经下颌神经后股或舌神经和下齿神经外侧者为浅型(S),行经这些神经内侧者为深型(P),两干分别走神经内外侧者为浅深型(SP)和浅—深型(S—P),主干沿下颌神经后缘入卵圆孔后部者为卵圆孔型(O)。统计结果见表2和表3。按起点分类,以第二类(Ⅱ)为最多(70%);按行径分型,以深型(P)为最多(50%);把起点和行径结合起来分类型,以ⅡP类型为最多(40%)。 (3)与卵圆孔和翼棘孔的关系:硬脑膜副动脉虽常有细小分支进入卵圆孔供给下颌神经颅内段,但主干极少有进入卵圆孔的。多数硬脑膜副动脉的主干或深干进入翼棘孔, 少数则有分支进入翼棘孔。 (4)分支分布:硬脑膜副动脉分支分布于翼外肌、翼内肌、张腭肌、蝶骨大翼颞下面、下颌神经等结构,此外,还常有一小分支经卵圆孔附属小孔或小切迹入颅中窝,供给卵圆孔前硬脑膜。最后,对常用解剖学书籍的扼要描述作了建议;讨论了可能有人种差异的问题;并建议采用名词“翼肌脑膜动脉”。

 
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