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  paulownia
Paulownia taiwaniana, the widely cultivated, commercially important tree, has been suspected of being of hybrid origin at least since its original publication in 1975.
      
(1S)-1-Ethyl-2-Methylpropyl 3,13-Dimethylpentadecanoate: Major Sex Pheromone Component of Paulownia Bagworm, Clania variegata
      
Generally speaking, the thermal conductivity of the carbonization layer is lower than that of the wood material, which is the reason why wardrobes made of paulownia wood are able to protect kimonos from fire.
      
Oxygen is not sufficiently supplied in this type of structure found in paulownia wood.
      
Furthermore, when viewed from the radial section, the vessel structure of paulownia wood is very large and independent, compared to cedar wood (Cryptomeria japonica), which has a thin and continuous tracheids structure.
      
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Both mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) and rod-like virus particles [15×(250~300nm.)] were detected in the paulownia trees infected with witches' broom disease. Some MLO were observed to penetrate the cell wall. Whether this signifies simply a passage through the sieve pores or a destruction of the cell wall remains to be elucidated. The virus could be isolated, concentrated and inoculated into the herbaceous plants Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana glutinosa, Physalis floridama, inducing systemic mosaic symptoms....

Both mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) and rod-like virus particles [15×(250~300nm.)] were detected in the paulownia trees infected with witches' broom disease. Some MLO were observed to penetrate the cell wall. Whether this signifies simply a passage through the sieve pores or a destruction of the cell wall remains to be elucidated. The virus could be isolated, concentrated and inoculated into the herbaceous plants Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana glutinosa, Physalis floridama, inducing systemic mosaic symptoms. Virus particles isolated from these diseased plants could be transmitted back to healthy paulownia seedlings to produce systemic mosaic symptoms. The paulownia witches' broom disease is thought to arise from a joint infection of MLO and virus, the former responsible for the yellow type of symptoms and the latter for systemic mosaic symptoms. Halyomorpha halys Stal was shown to be a vector transmitting the paulownia witches' broom disease.

在泡桐丛枝病病树中检出类菌原体和病毒质粒(15×250~300 nm)。在病叶叶脉筛管细胞中,观察到有些类菌原体似有穿透细胞壁现象,这种现象是否为通过筛孔或破坏细胞壁还有待阐明。这种病毒可以由病树分离、浓缩和接种到草本寄主(心叶烟、普通烟和洋酸浆),并引起系统花叶症状。可从这些病株分离得病毒质粒和回接到泡桐健苗上引起发病。泡桐丛枝病可能系由类菌原体和病毒一起感染所致,丛枝黄化症状可能由前者引起,而花叶症状可能由病毒引起。茶翅蝽(Halyomorpha halys Stal)与传播泡桐丛枝病有关,可能为媒介昆虫。

The larvae of Anoplophora nobilis G. are serious stemborer pest of poplar in shannxi' Gansu and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The adults show slow action and have some regularity, acting by day and resting at night. There are Tow acting peaks during day; one is about 10 a.m, the other is about 6 p. m. Their main actions are taking food, mating and laying eggs. The adults have weakly flying ability, usually only spread to and fro in the woods with the farthest distance within 1190 M. Their action is mainly affected...

The larvae of Anoplophora nobilis G. are serious stemborer pest of poplar in shannxi' Gansu and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. The adults show slow action and have some regularity, acting by day and resting at night. There are Tow acting peaks during day; one is about 10 a.m, the other is about 6 p. m. Their main actions are taking food, mating and laying eggs. The adults have weakly flying ability, usually only spread to and fro in the woods with the farthest distance within 1190 M. Their action is mainly affected by temperature. Usually they act very well between 16.0℃ and 28.0℃, but the irregularty action will be observed when T is above 32.0℃ or below 10.0℃. The adults prefer to oviposit on the trunks of with d.b.h 7-12cm. The oviposition on the trunk rises with the tree age year by year within difinite sizes of the trund or branch. The adults show some specially preference to bite and oviposit on the cultivars of Section Aigeiros and Section Tacamahaca. The different degrees in resistance were observed in Section Leuce to that pest. The insect also has defibite choice to other tree species grown near villages, canals, road-sides, and buildings, Paulownia and heaven tree appear to be more resistant to the pest. The adult mainly uses its antennae and labialpalpus and other sense organs to accurately choose tree-species. Populus X dakuanensis has some chemical messagematter that attracts the pest to bite and oviposit. Paulownia seems to have some repellency to the insect, The findings provide some theoeretical basis for deeply studying and controlling Anoplophora nobilis, specially for using insectresistant tree-species.

黄斑星天牛(Anoplophora nobilis G.)成虫白天活动,晚上静息,在10时和18时左右有两个活动高峰,主要为取食、交尾、产卵。成虫飞翔力不强,通常只在林间往返扩散,最远为1190米。其活动力的强弱主要受温度影响。正常活动范围为16°~28℃,32℃以上,10℃以下,活动失常。成虫多在胸径7~12厘米粗的树干上产卵,其高度随树龄而逐年上升至一定粗度的主、侧枝上。成虫特别嗜 在黑杨派及青杨派树种上取食产卵;白杨派树种上产卵少,表现出不同程度的抗虫性。对其它四旁树种也有一定的选择性,泡桐与臭椿是免疫的。成虫主要通过触角及下唇须等感觉器官来准确地选择树种。

The investigation and identification carried out both in the lab and in the field during the years of 1980-1983 showed that tree species resistant to Anoplophara nobilis Ganglbauer are Populus alba L.cv.pyramidalis/p.alba×p. tomentosa/p,×tomentosa Carr./P.Pekinensis/p.Opera/p.alba L./P.HoPeiosis Hu et Chow/P.davidiana Dode/Robinia psendocacia Linn/Ulmus pumila L/Sa- lix matsudona koiaz.,and these tree species susceptible to Pests are P.×dakna- nensis/P,usbekistanica kom.cv.Afghanica/P.×euramericana(Dode)Guinier/P....

The investigation and identification carried out both in the lab and in the field during the years of 1980-1983 showed that tree species resistant to Anoplophara nobilis Ganglbauer are Populus alba L.cv.pyramidalis/p.alba×p. tomentosa/p,×tomentosa Carr./P.Pekinensis/p.Opera/p.alba L./P.HoPeiosis Hu et Chow/P.davidiana Dode/Robinia psendocacia Linn/Ulmus pumila L/Sa- lix matsudona koiaz.,and these tree species susceptible to Pests are P.×dakna- nensis/P,usbekistanica kom.cv.Afghanica/P.×euramericana(Dode)Guinier/P. simonii Garr/P.cathayana Rehd/Acer negundo L.,but Paulownia fartunei(Se- en)Hemse/Ailanthus ahissima(Mill.)Swingle are immune. The resistant mechanism is that the adults may strickly choose the plant hosts to lay eggs.The pest infective tree species may have some certain information substances which can disolve in water and methanol to induce the adults to lay eggs.The pest-resistant tree species may also apparently show their strong or weak antibiosis which could be closely connected with the ecological conditions.This can provide a basis for establishing a pest re- sistant and mixture forestry.

1980—83年经室内外调查鉴定表明,抗黄斑星天牛的树种有新疆杨 Populus.alba L.cv.Pyramidalis、银毛杨 P.alba×P.tomentosa、毛白杨 P.×tomentosa Carr.、北京杨 P.Pekinensis、合作杨 P.Opera、银白杨 P.alba L.、河北杨 P.hopeiensis Hu et Chow、山杨P.daviana Dode、刺槐 Robinia psendocacia Linn、榆树 Vlmus Pumila L.、旱柳 Salixmatsudona koiaz。感虫树种有:大关杨 P.×daknanensis、箭杆杨 P.usbekistanica kom.cvAfghanica,欧美杨 P.×euramericanc(Dode)Guinier、小叶杨 P.simonii Carr、青杨 P.athayana Rehd.以及复叶槭 Acer negundo L.。泡桐 paulownia fartunei(Seem.)Hemse和臭椿 Ailanthus altissima(Mill)Swingle 免疫。抗性机制主要是成虫产卵对寄主有严格...

1980—83年经室内外调查鉴定表明,抗黄斑星天牛的树种有新疆杨 Populus.alba L.cv.Pyramidalis、银毛杨 P.alba×P.tomentosa、毛白杨 P.×tomentosa Carr.、北京杨 P.Pekinensis、合作杨 P.Opera、银白杨 P.alba L.、河北杨 P.hopeiensis Hu et Chow、山杨P.daviana Dode、刺槐 Robinia psendocacia Linn、榆树 Vlmus Pumila L.、旱柳 Salixmatsudona koiaz。感虫树种有:大关杨 P.×daknanensis、箭杆杨 P.usbekistanica kom.cvAfghanica,欧美杨 P.×euramericanc(Dode)Guinier、小叶杨 P.simonii Carr、青杨 P.athayana Rehd.以及复叶槭 Acer negundo L.。泡桐 paulownia fartunei(Seem.)Hemse和臭椿 Ailanthus altissima(Mill)Swingle 免疫。抗性机制主要是成虫产卵对寄主有严格的选择性,感虫树种可能有某种溶于水和甲醇中的信息物质,引诱成虫产卵。抗虫树种的抗生性也有明显表现,抗性强弱还与生态条件有关。这为营造抗虫树种混交林提供了依据。

 
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