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wheat     
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  小麦
    Cloning of a cDNA fragment of resistance-related gene and the candidate for the stripe rust resistance gene Yr10 from wheat
    小麦抗条锈病相关基因cDNA片段及Yr10候选基因的克隆
短句来源
    The biochemical mechanism of wheat resistance to aphids and G protein expression in insect cell lines、purification and activity assays
    小麦抗蚜生化机理和G蛋白在离体昆虫细胞系中表达、纯化及活性测定
短句来源
    Cloning, Characterization, Mapping and Expression Analysis of Powdery Mildew Resistance Relative Genes in Wheat
    小麦白粉病抗性相关候选基因克隆、特征分析、定位及表达研究
短句来源
    Isolation and Characterization of Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene Homology Sequence and Study on Molecular Marker
    小麦抗白粉病基因同源序列的分离鉴定及分子标记的研究
短句来源
    Free Radical Mechanism of Wheat Resistance to Stripe Rust
    小麦抗条锈性的自由基分子机理
短句来源
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    PRELIMINARY STUDY ON THE WHEAT MITE,PENTHALEUS SP. IN YAHAN, SZECHWAN
    雅安地区圆蜘蛛(Penthaleus sp.)的初步研究
短句来源
    THE BIOLOGY OF THE ROUND WHEAT MITE(PENTHALEUS SP.)AND BROWN WHEAT MITE(PETROBIA LATENS(MLLER))
    园蜘蛛(Penthaleus sp.)及长腿蜘蛛(Petrobia latens(Müller))的生物学研究
短句来源
    INHIBITION OF MAIFENGNING B_3(BACILLUS SP. ,A BIOLOGICAL FUNGICIDE) TO WHEAT SHARP EYESPOT (RHIZOCTONIA CEREALIS)
    生物农药丰宁B_3对小纹枯病菌的抑制作用
短句来源
    A STUDY ON ECOLOGICAL HABITS OF BAD WEEDS LITHO SPERMUM ARVENSE IN WHEAT FIELDS OF THE NORTH JIANGSU PROVINCE
    苏北田恶性杂草家公的生态习性研究
短句来源
    Occurence and Integrated Control of Wheat Sharp Eyespot
    类纹枯病发生规律及其综合防治技术与应用
短句来源
更多       
  冬小麦
    A STUDY ON INDEX OF SPRING ABUNDANCE AND PREDICTION OF WINTER WHEAT YELLOW DWARF DISEASE
    冬小麦黄矮病春季流行指标与预测预报的研究
短句来源
    LOCATING GENE FOR YELLOW RUST RESISTANCE IN THE WINTER WHEAT VARIETY YUANDONG 96
    冬小麦“原冬96”抗条锈病基因分析
短句来源
    MONOSOMIC ANALYSIS OF YELLOW RUST AND LEAF RUST RESISTANCE GENE IN WINTER WHEAT CULTIVAR BEIJING 837
    冬小麦北京837抗条锈病基因的定位研究
短句来源
    CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENES FOR LEAF RUST RESISTANCE IN WINTER WHEAT CULTIVAR BEIJING 837
    冬小麦品种北京837抗叶锈病基因的染色体定位研究
短句来源
    LOCATION OF GENES IN WINTER WHEAT CULTIVAR Fr81-10 CONFERRING RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW AND YELLOW RUST
    冬小麦Fr81-10抗条锈和白粉病基因的定位研究
短句来源
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  小麦的
    Nucleotide Sequence Analysis of the Genome of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus GAV and the Movement Protein-mediated Resistance in Transgenic Wheat
    大麦黄矮病毒GAV基因组全序列分析及运动蛋白基因介导的抗病毒小麦的研究
短句来源
    WHEAT YIELD LOSS IN RELATION TO DENSITY OF ARMYWORM(Mythimna seperata)LARVAE AND WHEAT DEVELOPMENT STAGE
    粘虫(Mythimna seperata)为害小麦的产量损失和幼虫密度及生育期的关系
短句来源
    A Study on the Population Situation and Harm of Cotton Bollworm to Wheat
    一代棉铃虫种群动态及危害小麦的研究
短句来源
    A PRELIMINARY STUDY ON RHIZOCTONIA CEREALIS AND R.SOLANI INVADED WHEAT
    麦、稻纹枯菌侵染小麦的研究初报
短句来源
    Compared to no treatment, the dressing gained advantages of 1 000grain weight, per ear weight, and 37.36% -48.06% wheat yield.
    小麦的千粒重、单穗重、小区产量均较高,小麦增产 37.36%-48.06%。
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      wheat
    Etiolated wheat coleptiles were inhibited 100 and 40%, respectively, at 10-3 and 10-4 M.
          
    The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed germination and root elongation and the CODcr of the mother liquor scraps.
          
    The toxicity of MSG wastewater to the test crops was in the order of tomato >amp;gt; Chinese cabbage >amp;gt; wheat, indicating that tomato was the most sensitive to the wastewater, and could be considered as an ideal toxic bioindicator.
          
    The initial stage of amino acid metabolism was intensified in germinating wheat seeds with exogenous glutamine and proline.
          
    The strain formed extracellular phenol oxidases during surface growth on a liquid medium in the presence of guayacol and copper sulfate, as well as during submerged cultivation in liquid medium containing wheat bran and sugar beet pulp.
          
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    Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity...

    Pleonomus canaliculatus Falderm. is one of the most destructive soil-inhabitinginsects to wheat in Honan. It causes considerable losses to the crop in spring bycutting the underground part of the stems, causing withering and death of the plant.The life history, distribution, host plants, morphology and rearing methods of theinsect are given in this paper. The overwintering adults become active in spring. Eggs are laid in the topsoil about the plant. They hatch in 5-8 weeks and the larvae grow to maturity inat least 15 months. Pupation takes place during late August up to mid-septemberand the pupal stage requires about 2 weeks. The young adults remain and overwinterin their pupal cells. Fall plowing to a depth of 6 to 9 inches soon after the harvest of summer cropswill destroy a great number of pupae and young adults by breaking up their cells inthe soil. The larvae are thus turned up and exposed to the predators. Rotation ofcrops by using sesame or legumes instead of millet preceding wheat, and summerfallow of the land are found to be helpful to lessening the infestation. Control may be effective by dusting γ-BHC (at,1.5 to 2.5 kgs of 0.5% γ-BHC permow mixed with 3 parts of dry soil or sand) into the top soil by means of a tripodhand-driller between the rows just before the activity of wireworms in spring.

    1.沟金针虫需2年以上完成一代生活史。越冬成虫2月下旬出土,3月中旬至4月中旬为活动盛期,产卵在1至2寸表土内,卵于5月初孵化,卵期为5至8星期。老熟幼虫8月下旬开始化蛹。9月中旬起羽化,蛹期约2星期。成虫羽化后即行越冬。 2.越冬幼虫2月底至3月中旬开始向表土活动(10厘米处地温8—12℃左右),3月中旬及4月全月是为害盛期(80%以上幼虫集中在1至2寸之表土内),8月至12月表土之幼虫密度极小(仅有虫1.2—6.8%),不致为害成灾。 3.沟金针虫之天敌除一种壁虱(Cheyletus sp.)和一种蜘蛛及蚂蚁外,尚有寄生菌2种,具中一种经鉴定为冬虫夏草(Cordyceps sp.)之一种。 4.小麦整地时适当深犁(5—7寸)并精耕细作能毁杀大部分蛹体及成虫,并可将幼虫翻上来供鸟类捕食(9,10月间97%老熟幼虫,在5—7寸土内化蛹及羽化,同时88%幼虫分布于1—7寸土内)。此外以芝麻与豆类为小麦前作及夏季休间结合翻耕曝晒亦能减少虫害损失。 5.沟金针虫在河南的主要为害期系在春季,所以早春於麦行间耩666毒土或毒沙以毒杀向表土上升之幼虫是值得继续研究的。

    The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host...

    The headblight or scab of wheat caused by Gibberella zeae (Schw.) Petch.has in recent years become more prevalent in the rice-wheat growing area ofEastern China with two heavy epidemics in 1952 and in 1954.It was reportedfrom this area that wheat varieties showed marked differences in their susceptibilityto headblight and that native varieties in general were less susceptible than theimproved ones.It was also reported that the degree of susceptibility appeared tobe related to the stage of host development.In 1952,varieties with earlier date ofheading were generally less susceptible than those which headed late. Varietal tests for the headblight resistance were made in Nanking in 1952and 1954.In 1952,235 varieties and hybrids were studied for their resistance toscab under natural conditions in the field.Great differences were found in theirdegree of infection,although none of them was immune.The percentages of in-fected heads ranged from 0.9 to 89.1 with most of them having 10 to 40% infec-tion.No definite correlation was seen between the percentage of infection andthe date of heading or of maturing.In 1954,tests on varietal resistance to scabwere again made with 40 varieties and hybrids including those being relatively lesssusceptible in the previous test.Attempts were made to induce epidemics in thefield by means of artificial inoculation.Results indicated that both mycelial andconidial suspensions were similarly effective for artificial inoculation.The averagepercentages of infected heads in the inoculated plots ranged from 4.2 to 77.7 incontrast to the uninoculated plots where the average percentages of infected headsbeing only trace to 7.1 with one variety not infected. From the experimental results obtained in 1952 and 1954,it was found thatrelative stability in resistance to headblight existed among different wheat varie-ties,although there was great variation in varietal resistance due to the effect ofenvironmental factors.Two hybrids,"5201" and "5204",were found to be muchmore resistant than all other varieties tested in both years.Hybrid "5204" gave ??0.9% of infected heads in 1952 and 3.4% in 1954,and hybrid "5201" gave5.5 and 9.0% of infected heads in the respective years.Both hybrids also possessother desirable characteristics such as early maturity,relative high yield,stiffystems,and high resistance to the stripe rust. Greenhouse studies were made in 1954 with two susceptible varieties ofwheat for testing their susceptibility to headblight at six different stages of deve-lopment from shooting to hard dough.Results indicated that the plant was sus-ceptible at all these stages of development with a tendency of being more heavilyinfected toward maturity.It was also observed that temperature had obvious effecton the degree of infection.Plants inoculated at flowering stage were more heavilyinfected when kept at 25℃ after inoculation than when kept at 15℃.However,the inoculated plants kept at 25℃ during the day and at 15℃ at night resultedin a degree of infection similar to those kept at 25℃ all the time.

    (一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后...

    (一)小麦赤微病在苏、浙、皖的稻麦两熟地区经常严重发生,1952及1954年两度猖獗流行,造成苏南及浙江地区小麦生产上的严重损失。通过调查,发现各地小麦品种对病害的反应确有显著差异。地方品种,一般发病较轻,而改良品种如“2905”、“2419”、“玉皮”、“矮立多”等,常常严重地感染病害。(二)1952年在自然情况下,观察此较235个小麦品种结果,虽没有一个品种不发病,但品种间的发病率相差极大,自0.9%至89.1%,而不同品种感染程度的轻重与抽穗期及成熟期的早迟关系不大。(三)1954年大田人工接种结果,效果显著,供试40个品种接种区的最高发病率达77.7%,而自然感染区的最高发病率只有7.1%。在接种试验中,初步证明:(1)大量有效的病原体与适合病害发生的气候因子同是病害流行的主要条件;(2)接种方法,用菌丝体接种与用分生孢子接种的效果,并无多大差别;(3)品种的抽穗先后,与发病轻重无一定关系。(四)温室试验指出,小麦自抽穗至糊熟各期麦穗被害率相似,但小穗的被害率在抽穗期最低,开花以后,有愈近成熟感染程度愈重的趋势。(五)开花期接种后的小麦,置於25℃的麦穗被害率和置於15℃的相似,但前者的小穗被害率此后者高。日间25℃和夜间15℃交替的变温处理,发病情形与始终置於25℃的相近。(六)不同小麦品种对于赤微病具有相对稳定的抵抗性或感染性。“5201”及“5204”等杂交系,在自然感染和人工接种情形下,发病都很轻微,并且具有早熟、丰产、秆硬和高度抵抗条锈等优良特性。

    Following a series of experiments conducted in East China Agricultural Re-search Institute (Nanking) during the past years,the "red arsenic",a well-knownraw-drug (containing approximately 90% of As_2O_3,9% of AS_2S_2 and 1% of mis-cellaneous substances),is found to be acceptable as seed disinfectant for the controlof cereal smuts.This raw-drug is not only excellent in effectiveness,but alsoeasily obtainable in this country. Incidence of infection of wheat bunt in the plots receiving 3 different treatments,namely,red...

    Following a series of experiments conducted in East China Agricultural Re-search Institute (Nanking) during the past years,the "red arsenic",a well-knownraw-drug (containing approximately 90% of As_2O_3,9% of AS_2S_2 and 1% of mis-cellaneous substances),is found to be acceptable as seed disinfectant for the controlof cereal smuts.This raw-drug is not only excellent in effectiveness,but alsoeasily obtainable in this country. Incidence of infection of wheat bunt in the plots receiving 3 different treatments,namely,red arsenic (inoculated seed grains dusted at the rate of 0.05 % by weight),copper carbonate (0.3%),ethyl mercury phosphate (0.05%),during the last 4years,averaged 0.2%,1.4% and 2.7%,respectively against 44.8% in the control.The corresponding figures for the flag smut of wheat were respectively 3.1%,0.8%,5.0% against 20.5%; for the covered smut of barley,0.9%,1.1%,0.9% against1.6%; for the kernel smut of oats,6.8%,3.1%,0.5% against 41.4%.The resultsmake us believe that this native raw-drug is not inferior,in some cases even su-perior,to other fungicides now extensively manufactured and considered efficientin preventing the various cereal smuts.But in the control of the covered smut ofbarley,as we have already shown elsewhere,another native raw-drag,sulphur ismore effective.In the last 3 years,field experiments were carried out to studywhether arsenic gives beneficial effect on the germination of seed and on the yieldof grain.Arsenic was applied as dust to the clean seed wheat following thestandard hot water treatment.Data showed that the number of seedlings in asingle 12-ft.row ranged 368-400 from treated seed as compared with 362-386 fromuntreated seed.Yield of grain also increased 4.7 to 23.6 per cent.It is,there-fore,evident that this fungicidal dust,when properly used,is at least not injuriousto seed wheat.The following points,however,must be borne in mind when thearsenic treatment is put into practice: (1) The dosage should not be higher than0.05 per cent and lower than 0.005 per cent by weight of seed grain.Otherwise, ??it would be either injurious to seed germination or ineffective for disease control.(2) Arsenic can be applied only to thoroughly dried seed grain. Seed wheat con-taining 24% of moisture when treatment was made, lost its vitality in a very fewdays, while that with less than 12% moisture can be stored for one month withoutspoilage. (3) Arsenic reduced germination of seed grain after storage at the highertemperatures. Under laboratory conditions, seeds, treated during hot summer whenthe air temperature ranged between 31 and 35℃, largely lost their germinativecapacity within half a month, but seeds, treated in cooler season when air tempera-ture dropped below 22℃, germinated as untreated ones after being stored for 3months or longer. (4) The relative humidity during storage played the most im-portant role in causing arsenic injury to the seeds. Seeds of wheat containingproper moisture (around 12%) dusted with arsenic at correct rate (0.05% byweight), failed to germinate after being stored for 5 days at temperatures above30℃ under 100% r.b.; but there was little or no injury after a storage period ofover 7 months at 37℃ under 18% r.h. (5) The length of storage period is alsoa factor in causing arsenic injury, and at the same time affecting the efficiency ofthe treatment. Seeds dusted with arsenic at a dosage of 0.05% during mid-summer(July of 1953) retained their germinative capacity within 0.5 month, but no seedsgerminated after 2.5 months' storage. On the other hand, almost complete controlof disease was obtained from thoroughly infested seed grain dusted with 0.0125%of arsenic and stored for 60 days, but similarly treated seeds which were sownimmediately, gave 45.15% infection as compared with 72.77% in the check plot.Consequently, the proper method of using arsenic against cereal smuts is to dustthoroughly dried seed grain at the rate of 0.05-0.0125% by weight and to storetreated seeds under cool (below 25℃) and rather dry (around 80% of r.h.) con-ditions for a period of about one month. According to the results obtained from experiments conducted under bothlaboratory and field conditions, it is found that there is no synergism nor antago-nism between arsenic and such filling materials as ashes, slake lime, talc, charcoalpowder, and calcium phosphate; and that neither soil temperature nor soil moistureact as factors influencing the germination of treated seeds.

    (一)用紅砒粉末作為種子消毒處理藥劑,對於幼苗感染性的小麥腥黑穗、小麥稈黑穗及燕麥堅黑穗等,有極良好的防治效果。但對大麥堅黑穗及條斑病,則不見功。(二)紅砒使用得法,對於麥種絕對無害;而且對於大麥、小麥的清潔種子,有積極的增產作用;惟對於燕麥還未能肯定。(三)紅砒粉末的拌種用量,當以種子重的0.025—0.05%為準簧僦?.005%,仍有殺菌效果。(四)為了增大藥物的容積,使得微量的紅砒粉末能够均勻週到地沾着每一麥粒,可用滑石粉、木灰末、甚至消石灰、草木灰或過磷酸鈣來稀释。(五)麥種拌砒後,須經一定期間的貯藏後播種,方顯出其强大的殺菌防病效果珉S拌隨種,則效果较少。至貯藏期間的久暫,則當因季節和用量等等而異。大致可以一個月為度。(六)紅砒使用不得其法,易起藥害。而藥害有無的關键,主耍在於拌砒後貯藏中的濕度,其次才是温度。如充分乾燥,在酷暑的氣候條件(37℃)下,貯藏7個月,尚??無妨礙。至於播種時的地温土濕,則關係極微。(七)紅砒的藥害與麥種處理當時的含水量有密切關係.含水量多,極為蝛U;含水量在12%以下,即安全無礙。(八)在自然狀况下用紅砒處理麥種,應當避去炎夏季節。又麥種拌砒前,必須充分晒乾。拌砒後...

    (一)用紅砒粉末作為種子消毒處理藥劑,對於幼苗感染性的小麥腥黑穗、小麥稈黑穗及燕麥堅黑穗等,有極良好的防治效果。但對大麥堅黑穗及條斑病,則不見功。(二)紅砒使用得法,對於麥種絕對無害;而且對於大麥、小麥的清潔種子,有積極的增產作用;惟對於燕麥還未能肯定。(三)紅砒粉末的拌種用量,當以種子重的0.025—0.05%為準簧僦?.005%,仍有殺菌效果。(四)為了增大藥物的容積,使得微量的紅砒粉末能够均勻週到地沾着每一麥粒,可用滑石粉、木灰末、甚至消石灰、草木灰或過磷酸鈣來稀释。(五)麥種拌砒後,須經一定期間的貯藏後播種,方顯出其强大的殺菌防病效果珉S拌隨種,則效果较少。至貯藏期間的久暫,則當因季節和用量等等而異。大致可以一個月為度。(六)紅砒使用不得其法,易起藥害。而藥害有無的關键,主耍在於拌砒後貯藏中的濕度,其次才是温度。如充分乾燥,在酷暑的氣候條件(37℃)下,貯藏7個月,尚??無妨礙。至於播種時的地温土濕,則關係極微。(七)紅砒的藥害與麥種處理當時的含水量有密切關係.含水量多,極為蝛U;含水量在12%以下,即安全無礙。(八)在自然狀况下用紅砒處理麥種,應當避去炎夏季節。又麥種拌砒前,必須充分晒乾。拌砒後,必須貯置高燥處所。

     
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