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migratory flight
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  migratory flight
Features that characterize the migratory stage include: high mobility, sociality, repetitive cycles of feeding (hyperphagia and fattening) and migratory flight.
      
Topographic circumstances at the Alpine pass Col de Bretolet at the Switzerland/France border allow the capture of birds during active migratory flight during the whole night.
      
Nocturnal orientation of robins, Erithacus rubecula: birds caught during migratory flight are disoriented
      
Fat accumulation by blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) is a prerequisite for successful migratory flight in the autumn and has recently been determined to be constrained by availability of drinking water.
      
The changes in body mass are closely related to the changes in flight (P>amp;lt;0.001) and leg muscle mass (P>amp;lt;0.001), suggesting that the skeletal muscles are involved in the protein metabolism associated with migratory flight.
      
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The armyworm is one of the serious pests in our country. In the past two years westudied the general characteristics of reproduction in this migratory insect, such as thegross anatomy of the internal reproductive systems, the sexual scent organs, the nocturnalrhythm of sexual activity, the fecundity and the parthenogenesis, etc. We found thatthe males are provided with the scent brush in the 1st abdominal sternite and the femaleswith sac-like membranes between the 7th and 8th abdominal segments, where the sexualscent...

The armyworm is one of the serious pests in our country. In the past two years westudied the general characteristics of reproduction in this migratory insect, such as thegross anatomy of the internal reproductive systems, the sexual scent organs, the nocturnalrhythm of sexual activity, the fecundity and the parthenogenesis, etc. We found thatthe males are provided with the scent brush in the 1st abdominal sternite and the femaleswith sac-like membranes between the 7th and 8th abdominal segments, where the sexualscent glands are situated. The adults need a sufficient amount of sugar or honey asthe supplementary nutrient for egg-ripening, otherwise, they will soon die. Both the malesand females simultaneously begin their periodic rhythmatic flight activity at 7 p.m. justas the sun sets. The maximum egg number is 1943 in our experiments, while theaverage egg number is about 800--900. Although the parthenogenetic females, whichhad been isolated artificially, would lay their eggs, all the parthenogenetic eggs did nothatch out in out experiments. By considering the related facts existing between migration and reproduction of thearmyworm, we suggest that the nuptial flight may be the initial cause of migration ofthis insect. The characteristics of relationship between the reproductive activity and themigration are as follows. i. Both the males and females are flying simultaneously, andthis is regulated by the internala periodic rhythm; ii. The females accompany the malesto fly away in swarms, presumably each attracting the other by the pheromonal stimulusor other means; iii. The migratory flight takes place just before the copulation and ovi-position. From the study on ontogenetic development it was found that the armywormdo not have diapause in any stage. If the armyworm be subjected in larval or pupalstage to the stimulus of unfavorable factor or factors, the adults necessarily migrate to anew habitat suitable for themselves and their offspring.

粘虫生殖腺在蛹期已经发育完成,但雌蛾卵粒内卵黄尚未沉积,需要取食糖类作为补充营养后,才能发育成熟。羽化时雄蛾已具备成熟的精子。取食后能进行交配活动。 成虫寿命一般约15—20天,羽化后即进行生殖活动。其中产卵期比较长。雌雄蛾均在夜间一定时间内进行飞翔、取食、交配、产卵等活动。在本试验中观察到粘虫一生最大产卵量接近2000粒,孵化率超过90%以上。雌蛾经人为地与雌蛾完全隔离后,能产下不受精卵,产卵量稍低,卵粒不孵化。 按照粘虫飞翔与生殖关系看来,粘虫的飞翔活动在性成熟前表现异常激烈。粘虫的飞翔的特征是:(1)由于粘虫羽化后即进入性活动期,雌蛾需要与雄蛾交配方能进行正常生殖活动,雄蛾强烈地追逐雌蛾,因而粘虫在性成熟时有剧烈的飞翔活动。(2)由于内在的生理周期节律的活动以及外激素或其他方法促使异性互相吸引,所以雌雄蛾同时、同在一起飞翔,在交配前或产卵前大规模飞翔。(3)由于粘虫各个虫期无滞育现象发生,粘虫发育所要求温度变化幅度在5—35℃之间,所以当粘虫在幼期遭受某些不利因子刺激后,在成虫期往往引起特殊的反应,促使成虫进行有利于生存的趋避活动,发生迁飞现象,以便达到粘虫为本身或后代选择适宜的生境区域。

The relationships between flight capacity and ovarian developmental stage, wing-load, lipid and water contents of the macro pterous females is highest at the ovarian developmental stages Ⅰ to early Ⅱ when there are low wing-load, hypertrophic fat body and low water content. The flight is characteristed by changing speed. The flight speed is high in the first 20 minutes and then changes to a cruising speed. After continuous flight for a certain time the insect would use up some of its lipid store and thereby...

The relationships between flight capacity and ovarian developmental stage, wing-load, lipid and water contents of the macro pterous females is highest at the ovarian developmental stages Ⅰ to early Ⅱ when there are low wing-load, hypertrophic fat body and low water content. The flight is characteristed by changing speed. The flight speed is high in the first 20 minutes and then changes to a cruising speed. After continuous flight for a certain time the insect would use up some of its lipid store and thereby vacuoles would occur in the cells of fat body. This indicates that lipids may be the major energy migratory flight of this insect.Brown planthoppers were collected at various points along their migratory routes and their total lipid contents were determented. They showed consistent decrease as the distance from the breeding source increased.

刚羽化的褐飞虱长翅雌虫腹部,仅有少量脂肪体悬浮于腹腔内,当卵巢发育至第Ⅱ发育级时,腹部脂肪体最为丰满,脂肪体因提供卵子发育的营养而逐渐消耗减少。 在卵巢发育至Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级初期时,飞行力最高。此时翅的负荷较少,脂肪体发达,含水量低。持续飞行两小时的个体,其腹部脂肪体细胞内出现明显的空泡,这可能表明其中所含的脂类已被消耗。 根据褐飞虱迁飞途径,定期收集起飞迁出,空中运行和降落的虫源,并测定了脂肪的含量,表明在迁移过程中褐飞虱脂肪含量随迁移距离而明显下降。

The test results showed that the body colour is stable and unchangeable with in generation,namely,their life time is body colour just borr,whether they are natural or laboratory population and whether colony or individual feeding,and whether hosts,cultural condition or developmental nutrient to be the same or not.But the body colour change gradually from green to yellow with the temperature rising and from yellow to green with the temperature reducing in different generations.The Statistical test proved that...

The test results showed that the body colour is stable and unchangeable with in generation,namely,their life time is body colour just borr,whether they are natural or laboratory population and whether colony or individual feeding,and whether hosts,cultural condition or developmental nutrient to be the same or not.But the body colour change gradually from green to yellow with the temperature rising and from yellow to green with the temperature reducing in different generations.The Statistical test proved that the body colour variation is not related to the nutrient,the kind of host,the quality of the light and the cultural condition,and it is only related to the temperature. The summer aphids come from seeding aphids.The body colour of sex apbids and egg colour that just born are green.The dark yellow aphids were observed on the rose of Sharon and on Chinese prickly ash,and their colour is not changed with temperature from haching of zygote to migratory flight.It is indicated that it has revealed the genetic polymorphism in their col ours. The aphid that their body colour is changeable belong to the reaction norm of genotype to environment in ecological genetics. The conclusion and the viewpoint above were proved by the results of the embryology observation and the karyotype analysis of chromosome.

作者对各种不同生境中蚜虫体色进行了观察,并通过胚胎解剖、染色体镜检研究了棉蚜体色规律性变化的原因。试验结果表明,棉蚜体色在世代内稳定不变;在世代间则随温度升高体色由绿渐变至黄。温度降低,体色又由黄渐渐转绿。统计检验证实:棉蚜体色变化与营养、寄主种类、光照光质、栽培条件等无关;仅与温度密切相联;性蚜体色与初产卵卵色均为绿色。木槿、花椒上的深黄色棉蚜,其体色不随温度改变,表明其已构成棉蚜体色变化的遗传多态现象。体色随温度变化的蚜虫在生态遗传学上属于基因型对环境条件的反应规范。

 
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