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rape
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  油菜
    STUDY ON THE PARASITIC FUNGI ON SCLEROTIA OF SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM IN RAPE
    油菜菌核病菌(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)菌核上寄生真菌研究
短句来源
    EFFICENCY ANALYSES OF INTEGRETED BIOCONTROL OVER RAPE APHIDS
    天敌对油菜蚜虫的综合控制作用分析
短句来源
    CONTROL EFFECTS OF 5% PHORATE SOME PESTS DAMAGING SEEDLING OF RAPE
    5%甲拌磷对油菜苗期害虫的防治效果
短句来源
    Path Coefficiency Analysis of the Yield Losses of Rape Caused by Rape Aphids
    油菜蚜虫危害损失的通径分析
短句来源
    STUDY ON FIELD POPULATION DYNAMIC STATE OF RAPE APHID AND CONTROL MEASUREMENT IN LATE STAGE
    油菜蚜虫田间种群动态和后期防治的研究
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  “rape”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Weed Control in Rape with ZJ0273 10% SC
    10%丙酯草醚悬浮剂防除油菜田杂草试验
短句来源
    Effects of Clethodim 12% EC on the Control of Grassy Weeds in Rape Field
    12%烯草酮乳油防除油菜田禾本科杂草田间药效试验
短句来源
    When rape seeds dipped with two strains, SC-bYM3-1 and DA-bYb1-4 at the same time or one by another, we found that fluctuation of the two bacteria were obviously different from that by one strain, and the amount were apparently lower than that of each bacteria.
    同时或先后浸种接种两种细菌SC-bYM3-1与DA-bYb1-4,结果显示:两株内生细菌的消长变化趋势与单独接种有很大差别,其数量也明显低于单独接种;
短句来源
    the result showed that the residue of ethametsulfuron in rape field soil were 0.82ng/g, 3.03 ng/g, 6.71 ng/g and 8.14 ng/g after 140 days at the employment dosage were 15g/hm~2, 22.5g/hm2, 30g/hm2 and 37.5g/hm2. respectively.
    结果表明施用剂量为15g/hm~2、22.5g/hm~2、30g/hm~2、37.5g/hm~2时,药后140天的残留量分别为0.82ng/g、3.03ng/g、6.71ng/g、8.14ng/g。
短句来源
    An investigation of the spatial pattern of Plutella xylostella (Linne) on rape seed was made in four counties in the western part of Inner Mongolia in 1988 and 1990. Is,m*/m, C, CA,Taylor methods and Iwao's m*-m method were adopted to analyze the findings, meanwhile a comparison of accuracy of different sampling methods was made.
    1988年、199O年我们在内蒙古自治区的四个旗县进行了油菜籽上菜蛾Plutellaxylostella(Linne)分布型调查. 后采用Iσ、m/m、C、C_A、Taylor方法、Iwao方法进行分析,并对不同取样方法的精确度进行了比较.
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  rape
Rape (Brassica napus L.) was shown to be an appropriate sentinel plant, sensitive to phenanthrene, which can be used for testing the efficiency of phenanthrene degradation in soil.
      
Biological testing with the use of sensitive rape plants can be applied for estimation of the efficiency of phyto/bioremediation of PAH-polluted soils.
      
The Formation of Artificial Nitrogen-Fixing Symbioses with Rape (Brassica napusvar.
      
The treatment of rape plants grown in nonsterile soil with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (auxin-like growth-promoting substance) or their inoculation with the bacterial association Micrococcussp.
      
led to the formation of paranodules on the rape roots.
      
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Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks...

Chinese rape, varieties of Brassica campestris and B. chinensis and many cruciferous crops including radishes, but except varieties of B. oleracea, are generally affected by a mosaic disease, causing serious losses amounting occasionally to a death rate of over 90%, while an infection rate of over 30% is not uncommon. The symptoms involved were vein-clearing, yellow or green veinbanding, typical mosaic, rugosity of leaf lamina, dwarfing and rosetting. They may appear in different combinations. Flower stalks may not come out or are shortened, deformed and twisted. Flowers appeared pale yellow and become abortive, or forming only small and twisted seed pod, which are sometimes spotted with black necrosis, and bearing small and deformed seeds. When the winter temperature is low, diseased plants may succumb first, forming missing hills. Late infections may result only in vein-banding of the upper leaves and partial abortion of the seeds. On several varieties of radish, mostly of the green type, which apparently are more resistant, only fine mottling appears on the leaves while infected. On varieties of B. napella, another oil-bearing group, the symptoms are entirely different (plate 1, fig. 5), appearing as systemic bright yellow spots on the leaves. Necrotic flecking can eventually be found at the center of these spots. Necrotic streaks and spots develop on the flower stalks and seed pods. Dwarfing and distortion occur on leaves, stalks and pods, and death may even be resulted from severe infections. However, this species showed certain degree of resistance to the disease in the form of late infection and the lower incidence of the disease. The viruses from different host plants are cross-inoculable, although some strains do not infect B. napella. None of them can infect the cabbage group by sap inoculation. 3 viruses were identified: differentiated by their physical properties and the host reactions they induced (Tables 1 and 2 for the viruses 1 and 2): 1. Thermal inactivation below 70℃. 2. Producing necrotic local lesions only on N. tabacum var, "Nungling 400" …… virus 1 2. Producing necrotic local lesions and systemic mottling on the same host……virus 2 1. Thermal inactivation above 90℃., necrotic local lesions on N. glutinosa…… virus 3 The first two viruses can be subdivided into 2 strains each by their ability to infect B. napella. Virus 1 is considered to be a strain of Brassica virus 2 or the Turnip mosaic virus; from the type, it differs in not infecting the cabbage group. Virus 2 is identified as a strain of Cucumis virus 1 or the Cucumber mosaic; virus; from the type, it differs in having lower thermal inactivation point (55℃.), lower dilution end point (1: 1,000—3,000); and shorter longevity invitro (2 days), in producing local lesions on tobacco, and in that the typical strain of Cacumis virus 1 gives only a partial protection to this strain on tobacco. The 3rd virus was less studied. It shows affinity to Nicotiana virus 1 or the tobacco mosaic virus. A limited test showed that the first virus was the only virus found present in the field in 1957. An analysis of 17 isolates of virus from the Chinese rape, exhibiting various syndromes of symptoms in the field, gave an Unanimous result in host reactions, indicating that these isolates belong to a single virus. Virus 1 was found to be easily transmitted by sap, by aphids, including peach aphid (Myzus pcrsicae), false cabbage aphid (Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae), and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii). In insect relationship, the virus belongs to the nonpersistent group, a single feeding will enable an active transmission of about 20 minutes. Peach aphid seems to be an effective vector that 2 or more viruliferous aphids per plant are capable of 100% transmission. The virus is not seed-transmitted. Fresh residue of diseased plant in the soil may cause occasional infection of the replanted plants. The virus can infect several cruciferous weeds, but, among them, only Rorippa montana (wall.) Small grows all the year round and possesses a perennial crown. It is also foundto be commonly infected in the nature. Rubbing with infected sap or using aphid as vector, the virus from this weed can easily be transmitted to the Chinese rape, producing the typical mosaic symptoms. This weed, therefore, seems to be capable of beoming a source of inoculum for the primary infection of the Chinese rape.

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子...

南京及华东地区的油菜与十字花科蔬菜普遍发生花叶病。病原病毒經抗性(失毒温度、稀释終点、体外保毒期)測定和寄主反应測定,认为可以分作三大类型:分别为芸苔病毒2号,黄瓜病毒1号与烟病毒1号的株系。前两种病毒都能为害油菜、大白菜、白菜、芥菜、蘿卜等,但不为害甘蓝型的蔬菜,并都能引起菠菜和茼蒿的花叶,和在烟上引起局部枯斑。第一型在烟农特400号和心叶烟上不引起花叶,而第二型在烟和心叶烟上都能引起系統性花叶。第一型不为害心叶烟,而第三型可在心叶烟上引起小枯斑。第一型与凌立、楊演的油菜花叶病毒相近似,而和范怀忠、柯冲从十字花科蔬菜中所分离出的分离物1号最为相象。与裘維蕃、王祁楷在白菜上所发現的孤丁病毒的差别,在于不能侵害甘蓝类的蔬菜。第二型病毒与范怀忠、柯冲的分离物3号相近似,但与典型的黃瓜花叶病毒仍具有一定的差异。这些病毒在油菜上所引起的症状却沒有明显的差別。1、2两个类型的病毒都有一部分能为害早生朝鮮型的油菜,引起系統性黄斑及枮斑,病重的也能早期死亡。大田中的油菜病株的病毒,大多属于第一型病毒。病毒主要由桃蚜和蘿卜蚜传染,病毒系非持續性的,蚜虫一次吸毒后,传病期不超过20分钟。两个以上的桃蚜传病率就可达100%。种子不传病。殘留在土壤內的新鮮病根,可以传病。蔊菜在自然情况下可以感染病害。病株上病毒可由蚜虫传至油菜而誘发典型的花叶病,且具有終年生长及終年发病的特性,可能成为初期发病的病毒来源。

The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants...

The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19 families. Beside the rape plant, peanut, soybean, and sunflower, the majority of the hosts are vegetables and herbaceous ornamental plants. In the host range, there are 13 species not hitherto reported; however, there are also 5 species of familiar plants which have been listed as hosts in other countries are not affected in China. No definite period of dormancy appeared to be necessary for the production of apothecia, but the temperaure reguirement for the sclerotial germination was found very narrow. They germinated best in moderately cool temperature (around 15℃.) in moist sand., The sclerotia raising from single spore cultures germinated very slowly and meagrely, while those from the parent mass culture germinated rather quickly and abundantly, a phenomenon pointing to the facultative heterothallic nature of the fungus. The ascospores have been found to germinate under a wide range of conditions. They germinated quite well on dry slide under high relative humidity. It may thus be justified to assume that the ascospores can be carried in a viable condition to a considerable distance by wind. Precentages of their germination under a temperature range of 5—30℃. exceeded 50% in less than 24 hours, being highest at 5—10℃. The pH range for mycelial growth was found to be pH 3—9, with an optimum around pH 5—8. High relative humidity (over 85%) and a supply of pectinase from diseased tissues were necessary for its infection. Flower petals of the rape plant have been found most susceptible to attack by the ascospores, while sound leaves were resistant to attack unless they had been chilled. A sudden drop of temperature, poor drainage, and especially lodging of the rape plants during their blooming stage have been observed to be predisposing under natural conditions. Ordinary, there are two crops of apothecia in a year, one in the Autumn and the other in the next Spring, the second crop should be considered as the major one. A rotation of rice with the rape plant and a big scale control campaign in vast area will materially reduce the source of infection, and thereby decrease incidence of the disease. Since the infection is dependent chiefly upon the number of sclerotia that will persist in the soil and the production of apothecia in the blooming period, epedemics may be forecasted on the basis of weather conditions prevailing at various times of the year. The facts that abundant Summer rainfall promotes decay of the sclerotia, and abundant rainfall in the the Autumn increases their number, may be considered as criteria for long term forecasting. Abundant rainfall in the early Spring and cold wind during the blooming period which promotes the germination of the sclerotia, the infection of either the ascospores or the mycelium, and the lodging and susceptibility of the host, may be based for short term forecasting.

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和...

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和的相对湿度中,并不需要一层水膜也能发芽。因此,推论它有一定距离的气流传播可能性。菌絲的要求介于两者之间,它对酸硷的适应范围很广(pH3—9,最适为pH5—8)。它对温度的要求和对子囊孢子发芽的相同。其侵染及生长最主要的条件为高湿度(相对湿度高于85%)及足够的果胶酵素。4.油菜易感的阶段为花期。花冠最容易感染,衰老的叶片及受冻后的嫩叶也容易感病。通过这些桥梁,进而侵染莖稈。春季的寒流,后期的漬水和倒伏,造成发病的小气候;鼓励子囊孢子的发芽与侵入和菌絲的侵染与发展。因此,是此病猖獗的关键。5.子囊孢子是此病主要的而且是首次侵染源。菌核每年产生两次子囊盘,一次在深秋,是次要的;一次在早春,是主要的。菌核的潛伏埸所为:本田、种子间、花园、菜圃、打谷埸及堆肥中。水旱轮作可以消灭菌核;大面积联防可以减少侵染源。6.夏季的雨量丰富,使田间的菌核数下降;相反,深秋的雨量丰富,使菌核数增加;因此,前一年的夏季和秋季的雨量,可以用作长期测报的根据。本年早春的雨量丰富,促进菌核的发芽;花期的寒潮,后期田间渍水,植株倒伏,都使寄主易感,并鼓励子囊孢子的发芽侵入及菌絲的侵染与发展,是造成当年猖獗的主要原因,因此可以用为短期测报的依据。

Field and laboratory investigations on the overwintering forms of five species ofaphids, the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, the English grain aphid, Macrosiphumgrandrium (Kirby), the turnip aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis), the greenpeach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii(Fonsc.) were carried out during 1955--1962 in Chungking, Szechuan. Under natural conditions, the cotton aphids lay overwintering eggs on certain de-ciduous woody plants, such as...

Field and laboratory investigations on the overwintering forms of five species ofaphids, the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, the English grain aphid, Macrosiphumgrandrium (Kirby), the turnip aphid, Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis), the greenpeach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the black citrus aphid, Toxoptera aurantii(Fonsc.) were carried out during 1955--1962 in Chungking, Szechuan. Under natural conditions, the cotton aphids lay overwintering eggs on certain de-ciduous woody plants, such as the cotton-rose, Hibiscus mutabilis L., and the shrubbyalthaea, Hibiscus syriacus L. This species, however, will remain in parthenogenetic formsthoroughout the winter season on the herbaceous plant, such as the hollyhock, Althaearosea (L.). The English grain aphid, the turnip aphid and the black citrus aphid gene-rally continue their parthenogenetic generations in winter on their particular host plants.It seems more complicate in the case of the green aphid, those bred on winter growingvegetable crops, such as the various species of crucifers, the lettuce and spinach, usuallyreproduce asexually in winter; but a few sexuparae, sexual females and males may alsoappear on peach leaves. As the sexual females would not lay any overwintering eggwithout mating, and the males usually appear later on peach tree than the sexual females,hence the females are usually incapable of laying eggs before the falling of the peachleaves. Under experimental conditions, when the turnip aphid bred on old yellowing leavesof unhealthy plants of rape at a certain low temperature would produce a few sexualfemales and eggs, but no sexual male was observed. Some results were obtained fromfield investigations on the Chinese cabbage. The English grain aphid when bred arti-ficially on ears of wheat plants, which were sown early in August and reached headingand milky stage early in winter, produced a few males, but no sexual female or eggwas observed. Insectary breeding tests proved that inoculation of the cotton aphids ontohollyhock from field cotton, cotton-rose and shrubby althaea produced parthenogeneticoffspring; when the cotton aphids inoculated onto shrubby althaea twigs, cultured intap water, produced sexual offspring. These results were quite similar to those obtainunder natural conditions. The writer considers that the temperature, the photoperiod and the kinds and growthconditions of host plants will bring a combined effect on the reproduction of sexualforms in aphids, but the effect will be various in different species. Therefore, in thesame locality, different species of aphids may have different overwintering forms becauseof their different reactions to the environmental factors. Moreover, in one districtwhere the environmental conditions are fundamentally alike, under a definite low tem-perature, a species of aphid may either reproduce parthenogenetically or produce sexualforms in winter, depending essentially upon the different nutrient conditions in the dietobtainable by the species from its host plants.

在重庆地区的自然条件下,棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover在冬季既可以在落叶木本植物如木芙蓉Hibiscus mutabilis L.、木槿 Hibiscus syriacus L.上产生两性世代的雄蚜和产卵雌蚜,并产卵过冬;也可以在宿根草本植物如蜀葵 Althaea rosea(L.)上继续以孤雌胎生世代的有翅或无翅胎生雌蚜繁殖过冬。麦长管蚜 Macrosiphum granarium(Kirby)、菜缢管蚜 Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae(Davis)和桔二岔蚜Toxoptera aurantii(Fonsc)通常都继续以孤雌胎生世代繁殖过冬。桃蚜 Myzus persicae(Sulzer)在十字花科蔬菜、莴笋Lactuca sativa var.angustana Irish、菠菜 Spinacia oleracea L.等冬季作物上可以继续营弧雌胎生世代繁殖,但在桃树上Prunus persica Stokes 可以出现少数两性世代的产卵雌蚜和雄蚜。由于雄蚜的出现时期较晚,将近在落叶以前,而产卵雌蚜不经交配通常均不能产卵,因此在桃树落叶前产卵雌蚜常未及产卵而随...

在重庆地区的自然条件下,棉蚜Aphis gossypii Glover在冬季既可以在落叶木本植物如木芙蓉Hibiscus mutabilis L.、木槿 Hibiscus syriacus L.上产生两性世代的雄蚜和产卵雌蚜,并产卵过冬;也可以在宿根草本植物如蜀葵 Althaea rosea(L.)上继续以孤雌胎生世代的有翅或无翅胎生雌蚜繁殖过冬。麦长管蚜 Macrosiphum granarium(Kirby)、菜缢管蚜 Rhopalosiphum pseudobrassicae(Davis)和桔二岔蚜Toxoptera aurantii(Fonsc)通常都继续以孤雌胎生世代繁殖过冬。桃蚜 Myzus persicae(Sulzer)在十字花科蔬菜、莴笋Lactuca sativa var.angustana Irish、菠菜 Spinacia oleracea L.等冬季作物上可以继续营弧雌胎生世代繁殖,但在桃树上Prunus persica Stokes 可以出现少数两性世代的产卵雌蚜和雄蚜。由于雄蚜的出现时期较晚,将近在落叶以前,而产卵雌蚜不经交配通常均不能产卵,因此在桃树落叶前产卵雌蚜常未及产卵而随落叶从桃树上消失。从接种饲养试验的结果证明:麦长管蚜在提早至8月播种,至冬季已进入乳熟期的小麦Triticum aestivum L.穗上,可以产生少数雄蚜,但未见产卵雌蚜。菜缢管蚜在生长衰弱的油菜 Brassica napella Choix的黄脚叶上,可以产生少数产卵雌蚜及卵,但未见雄蚜。在田间瓢儿白Brassica chinensis var

 
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