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physiological
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  生理
    PHYSIOLOGICAL BASIS AND REGULATION OF FLORET DEVELOPMENT IN WHEAT
    小麦小花发育的生理基础及调控研究
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    Genetics Analysis of Physiological Traits Related to Yield in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    水稻产量相关生理性状的遗传分析
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    The Effect of Water, Nitrogen Supply on the Crop Root Physiological Characteristics and Nutrient Uptake
    水、氮供应对作物根系生理特性及吸收养分的影响
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    The Effect of Water and Fertilizer on Crop Production and Its Physiological Mechanism
    农田水肥效应及其生理机制研究
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    Studies on Bases of Morphology and Anatomy with Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics of Resistance to Drought Stress in Brazilian Upland Rice-IAPAR9
    巴西陆稻IAPAR9抗旱的形态解剖学基础与生理生化特性研究
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    Studies on Physiological Mechanism of Genotypic Difference in Cadmium Accumulation and Tolerance of Barley
    大麦镉积累和耐性基因型差异的机理研究
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    THE DISCOVERY AND STUDIES ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RACES OF WHEAT STRIPE RUST VIRULENT TO LOVRIN 10 AND LOVRIN 13
    洛10、洛13致病类群的发现与研究
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    Studies on Mechanism and Application of Haploids Induced by Alien CytoplasmsM. A Morphological and Physiological Comparison of Haploids and Diploids
    外源细胞质诱导小麦单倍体的机理与应用研究——Ⅲ.单倍体与二倍体的比较研究
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    Correlative Study on the Physiological Reaction and Yield Performance of Wheat Varieties Stressed by Water Deficiency
    水分胁迫下不同小麦品种抗性反应与产量表现的相关研究
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    Effects of S-3307 on the levels of endogenous hormones (IAA、ABA、ZT) and some physiological characteristics of rape seedlings:
    S-3307对油菜幼苗内源激素IAA、ABA及ZT含量水平的影响
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  physiological
Absorbing water from soil by roots in vascular plants is an important physiological function and plays an essential role on their water balance.
      
Preliminary study on the characteristics of tactility of wood by physiological index HRV
      
Our aim was to discover the relations among thermal parameters of different kinds of material, human physiological feedbacks, and psychological perceptions.
      
Relationships between xylem embolism and eco-physiological indices in eight woody plants in situ (II): The relationship with pho
      
The variations of these three root parameters in different seasons show different physiological and ecological functions in different growing periods.
      
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The present paper deals with the influence of the intensity and its persistence of nitrogen supply to the formation and development of the organs of rice plant and also with the resulting physiological feature of these influences. Pot culture experiments with paddy soils were conducted in open field. Organic manure and ammonium sulphate were applied at different stages of growth, i.e. tillering, internode elongating and panicle differentiating stage. The results are summarized as follows:1. Experiments...

The present paper deals with the influence of the intensity and its persistence of nitrogen supply to the formation and development of the organs of rice plant and also with the resulting physiological feature of these influences. Pot culture experiments with paddy soils were conducted in open field. Organic manure and ammonium sulphate were applied at different stages of growth, i.e. tillering, internode elongating and panicle differentiating stage. The results are summarized as follows:1. Experiments revealed that various organs of rice plant gave different responses to the status of nitrogen supply, and to the same organs, their responses of nitrogen varies at different stages of growth. At the tillering stage, a strongly intensified and less persistent supply of nitrogen, as in the case of ammonium sulphate, promoted the assimilation of dry matter in leaf blade, and consequently enlarged the leaf areas. Such an effect on the leaf blade, however, terminated after the internode elongating stage, and more accumulation of dry matter was found in the stems. Top dressing of manures, pertinently after the internode elongating stage, gave a moderate but persistent supply of nitrogen at that time and resulted the formation of large and healthy ears. Under theexperimental condition, such treatments have been proved favourable to the growth and yield of rice.2. The influence on the growth of the organs, as resulted by changing the status of nitrogen supply, is mainly induced by the rate of accumulation and translocation of nitrogen in plant. A strongly intensified, but less persistent, nitrogen supply accelerates the rate of translocation of nitrogenous materials, while a less intensified but rather persistent supply of nitrogen retains more nitrogenous materials in leaf blade.3. It is evidently that the demand of nitrogen supplying status of rice plant differs at different growing stages. Under the experimental condition, high yields of rice crops were attained by a slower but persistent rate of nitrogen suppy in the tillering stage; a faster but less persistent rate in the internode elongating stage and also a moderate but persistent rate in the penicle differentiating stage. Since property of soil nitrogen varies in different soil type, the regulation of nitrogen supplying status by fertilization should be different in cach cases.

1.晚稻植株的不同器官对氮素供应状况的反映不同,其中叶片較为敏銳。而同一器官在不同生育时期內影响也不一样谂柙缘奶跫?叶片在分蘖期中,氮素供应強度大、持續时間短比強度小、持續时間长的处理更能促进叶片干物貭累积,增大叶面积。而拔节期以后,影响不明显并略有相反趋势。对于茎稈則在供应強度大及其持續时間短的情况下,不論拔节期或分化期处理都明显地促进其干重的增加。穗粒的形成条件却是強度小而持續时間长的有利于每穗粒数的提高。但是,氮素供应状况的影响显著与否还可能受着基肥水平的制約,在高量基肥的条件下影响极不显著。2.土壤氮素供应状况影响器官生长的原因,初步看来是通过对植株体內氮素累积和运轉速度的影响而发生作用。由于不同生育时期內,叶、鞘、茎、穗本身的生长特点各异,所要求的物貭累积与运轉的強度也各不相同。因此,氮素供应状况对器官生长的影响也就不全相同。3.根据試驗結果,初步认为水稻对土壤氮素供应状况的要求是分蘗初期緩而长,拔节期快而短,穗分化期緩而长。因此,結合不同土壤的供肥特点需要利用有机厩肥或速效化肥等性貭不同的肥料在次数及用量上加以調节。4.初步认为施肥原則掌握的主要內容是根据水稻器官协調生长的需要以調节土壤的氮素...

1.晚稻植株的不同器官对氮素供应状况的反映不同,其中叶片較为敏銳。而同一器官在不同生育时期內影响也不一样谂柙缘奶跫?叶片在分蘖期中,氮素供应強度大、持續时間短比強度小、持續时間长的处理更能促进叶片干物貭累积,增大叶面积。而拔节期以后,影响不明显并略有相反趋势。对于茎稈則在供应強度大及其持續时間短的情况下,不論拔节期或分化期处理都明显地促进其干重的增加。穗粒的形成条件却是強度小而持續时間长的有利于每穗粒数的提高。但是,氮素供应状况的影响显著与否还可能受着基肥水平的制約,在高量基肥的条件下影响极不显著。2.土壤氮素供应状况影响器官生长的原因,初步看来是通过对植株体內氮素累积和运轉速度的影响而发生作用。由于不同生育时期內,叶、鞘、茎、穗本身的生长特点各异,所要求的物貭累积与运轉的強度也各不相同。因此,氮素供应状况对器官生长的影响也就不全相同。3.根据試驗結果,初步认为水稻对土壤氮素供应状况的要求是分蘗初期緩而长,拔节期快而短,穗分化期緩而长。因此,結合不同土壤的供肥特点需要利用有机厩肥或速效化肥等性貭不同的肥料在次数及用量上加以調节。4.初步认为施肥原則掌握的主要內容是根据水稻器官协調生长的需要以調节土壤的氮素供应強度及其持續时間,造成最和諧与最有效的土壤——植物供求关系。

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere...

(The Kiangsu Affiliated Academy of the Chinese,Academy of Agricultural Sciences)Hybrid vigour in cotton has been reported by a number of workers.Most of them dealtwith interspecific hybrids.They were mostly marked with an increase in plant growth,especially in the F_1 crosses of American Upland × Sea-island and American Upland × Egyptiancotton.In order to study the possibility of producing an extra long fibre cotton in the Yang-tze basin and the Hwangho Plain by making use of hybrid vigour,the following problemswere investigated at Nanking,Kiangsu during 1959-1962.(1)Combining ability between different interspecific crosses with special reference toyield,earliness and fibre qualities.(2)Morphological and physiological characters of economic importance in F_1 hybrids.(3)Performance of promising hybrids in field production.(4)Method of producing hybrid seeds with cheaper cost and less labour.Fifty-nine combinations were studied from 1960 to 1962,among which Pong-zai No.1(Upland cotton)×L.S.4923(Sea-island)was the best in yield and earliness.The averageyield of this F_1 hybrid in three years with 178 kg.of seed cotton or 53.7 kg.of lint cotton permow.As compared with the parents it was 94.35% of seed cotton or 82.2% of lint cotton ofthe yield of Delta-upland cotton and 187.17% of seed cotton or 172.74% of lint cotton of theyield of Sea-island L.S.4923.The fibre quality of F_1 hybrids approached Sea-island parent with a mean fibre length of40 m.m.,mean fibre fineness of 7000 meters per gram wt.,and single fibre strength of 4.5g.The methods and procedures for producing commercial hybrid cotton seed were as follows:(1)Hybrid F_0's seed was produced by hand emasculation and pollination which was ofvalue in areas abundant with hand-labor or adapted to transplanting for saving seeds up to4/5.(2)The female parent with recessive markers,was pollinated by hand without emascula-tion.In the thinning of the hybrid progeny all recessive plants were removed,leaving onlythe true F_1's.The recessive characters used for markers were virescent yellow foliage,redstem and hairy petiole of the seedling.The percentage of hybrid seed setting for differentupland cotton varieties ranged from 13% to 78%.Observations on heterosis in the characters of F_1 hybrids of G.hirsutum×G.barbadensewere summarized as follows:Plant Characters Comparison of bybrid with Upland and Seaisland parentsDays from planting to seedling Earlier than either parentDays from budding to flowering Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays from seedling to boll maturity Intermediate nearer to late Sea-island Days of bud development Intermediate nearer to earlier UplandDays of boll development Longer than Sea-islandDays from seedling to first boll maturity IntermediatePlant height Taller than either parentNumber of monopodia Less than either parent,but approaching Up landNumber of sympodia More than either parentNumber of fruiting points per plant More than either parentPosition of main stem nodes where first fruiting branch appears Lower than either parentInternode length of axis Longer than either parentInternode length of fruiting branch Longer than either parentPetiole length Longer than either parentLeaf area Larger than either parentLeaf lobe index Intermediate,approaching Sea-islandShedding percentage IntermediateDistribution of bolls in different parts of the plant Approaching Sea-island,most bolls setting at middle and upper parts of the plantWeight of seed cotton per boll IntermediateNumber of ovules per boll Approaching Sea-island in a lower numberMotes percentage More than either parentPistil length IntermediateCorolla area and index Larger than either parentSeed index Larger than either parentLint index IntermediateMaturity Intermediate,approaching late Sea-islandFibre length Longer than either parentFibre fineness Approaching Sea-islandYield in seed cotton Approaching Upland,higher than Sea-islandYield in lint cotton Lower than Upland,higher than Sea-islandProduction of dry matter More than either parentProduction of dry matter per square meter of leaf area More

1959—1962年试验证明,海陆杂种一代具有早熟、丰产、优质的特性。海陆杂种一代的籽棉产量接近陆地棉,而显著高于海岛棉。成熟期较海岛棉早,比陆地棉偏迟。生育特性一般介于两亲之间,不同程度的偏向于海岛棉,有的特性超过两亲范围以外。纤维细长,强度高,可以制成高挡纺织品。在江苏各地示范试种结果良好。在制种技术方面研究证明,采用具有某一隐性指示性状,进行不去雄杂交(人工辅助授粉),杂交率达70%,每工作日可制种6—8斤。

Experiments were made to study the physiological changes of wheat plants during grain development in different temperatures.The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1.When wheat plants were cultured at the same day temperature (25℃) and different night temperatures (10℃,20℃) from flowering to ripening,the period of grain-filling was prolonged for 10 days by low night temperature treatment. 2.Under low night temperature condition,the area of green leaves increased,the senescence of the lower leaves...

Experiments were made to study the physiological changes of wheat plants during grain development in different temperatures.The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1.When wheat plants were cultured at the same day temperature (25℃) and different night temperatures (10℃,20℃) from flowering to ripening,the period of grain-filling was prolonged for 10 days by low night temperature treatment. 2.Under low night temperature condition,the area of green leaves increased,the senescence of the lower leaves was retarded,the respiratory activities of leaves were lower in the night.All the responses mentioned above favoured the accumulation of dry weight of the plant.Although stems,leaf sheaths,spikes and grains increased on dry weight respectively,yet the accumulation of dry matters was mainly due to the growth of stem from the beginning of flowering to 17th day after flowering.In ripening stage the difference of the dry weight of grains between high and low night temperature treat- ments increased significantly. 3.Since the photosynthetic products were rich in the low night temperature treat- ment,it favoured the growth of late flowered grains.Therefore,low night temperature treatment not only increased the weight of the 1st and 2nd grains,the fertility and the weight of 3rd grains also increased. 4.The soluble sugar content of leaf sheaths,leaves,especially the stem was higher in low night temperature treatment than in high night temperature treatment.During early stage of grain development,the alcohol soluble sugar content of grains was high and the starch content low in the low night temperature treatment.The difference between the two treatments became insignificant as plant grew to ripening. 5.In the milk ripe stage the translocation and distribution of C~(14)-assimilated pro- ducts were changed by local temperature variation (from 5-8℃ to 20-25℃) around the spike,the internode below spike or the feeding leaf.The photosynthetic products translocated to grains was inhibited by low temperature treatment.The effect of in- hibition was greater when the low temperature treatment was around the spike than when the treatment was around the feeding leaf.Treatment of low temperature around the node below spike gave weak effect. 6.The increase of alcohol soluble substances of either supplying,conductive or re- ceiving organ was reduced by low temperature treatment,and the spikes was most sensi- tive to low temperature.The radiactive activity of alcohol soluble part in the grains was about 65% in the low temperature treatment around the spike,but in the untreated plant about 63% of radiactive activity in the grains was in the dilute acid part.It was indicated that the processes of the transformation of sugars to high molecular substances in the grains was inhibited. 7.The physiological considerations of high thousand grain weight in Chinhai pro- vince,the effects of night temperature on the growth of grains,and the possibility to increase grain weight per spike are discussed.

试验研究了温度对小麦籽粒形成过程中生理变化的影响,得到以下结果:1.小麦在开花到成熟处于日温相同(25℃)而夜温不同(20℃,10℃)的条件下,夜温低的处理籽粒灌浆期和成熟期比夜温高的处理延长10天。2.夜温低的处理绿色叶面积大、下部叶片衰亡较慢、叶片夜间呼吸强度低,有利于干物质的积累。因此茎鞘、叶、穗、籽粒和总干重都较高。开花到开花后17天植株干重的主要差异是茎鞘。开花17天以后到成熟,两个处理籽粒干重的差异逐渐增加。3.夜温低的处理,籽粒灌浆的物质来源较丰富,有利于晚开花的籽粒生长。由于灌浆的粒数较多,不仅小穗第一、二粒的粒重增加,第三粒的结实率和粒重也有所提高。4.夜温低的处理,茎、鞘和叶的含糖量比夜温高的处理大,以茎较为显著。籽粒生长前期淀粉含量低而醇溶性糖的含量高,接近成熟时两个处理的差异减小。5.在小麦籽粒灌浆盛期供给旗叶以 C~(14)O_2后;穗、穗下节和饲喂叶的局部温度改变(5—8℃,20—25℃)引起了同化产物运输分配情况发生变化。穗部降温对同化产物输入籽粒的抑制作用最大,饲喂叶次之。穗下节降温到5—8℃的影响不大。穗及饲喂叶降温有较多的放射性物质留存在饲喂叶中。6.不论是供给、输导或接受...

试验研究了温度对小麦籽粒形成过程中生理变化的影响,得到以下结果:1.小麦在开花到成熟处于日温相同(25℃)而夜温不同(20℃,10℃)的条件下,夜温低的处理籽粒灌浆期和成熟期比夜温高的处理延长10天。2.夜温低的处理绿色叶面积大、下部叶片衰亡较慢、叶片夜间呼吸强度低,有利于干物质的积累。因此茎鞘、叶、穗、籽粒和总干重都较高。开花到开花后17天植株干重的主要差异是茎鞘。开花17天以后到成熟,两个处理籽粒干重的差异逐渐增加。3.夜温低的处理,籽粒灌浆的物质来源较丰富,有利于晚开花的籽粒生长。由于灌浆的粒数较多,不仅小穗第一、二粒的粒重增加,第三粒的结实率和粒重也有所提高。4.夜温低的处理,茎、鞘和叶的含糖量比夜温高的处理大,以茎较为显著。籽粒生长前期淀粉含量低而醇溶性糖的含量高,接近成熟时两个处理的差异减小。5.在小麦籽粒灌浆盛期供给旗叶以 C~(14)O_2后;穗、穗下节和饲喂叶的局部温度改变(5—8℃,20—25℃)引起了同化产物运输分配情况发生变化。穗部降温对同化产物输入籽粒的抑制作用最大,饲喂叶次之。穗下节降温到5—8℃的影响不大。穗及饲喂叶降温有较多的放射性物质留存在饲喂叶中。6.不论是供给、输导或接受器官降温,受到低温影响的部分醇溶性物质的分布百分率皆增高;穗部降温的影响最大,饲喂叶次之,穗下节较小。穗部降温籽粒中的放射性约有65%在醇溶性部分,不降温的约有63%在稀酸水解部分;说明了5—8℃的低温阻碍籽粒中糖向淀粉等高分子物质的转化过程。7.本文对青海地区小麦干粒重较高的原因,夜温对小麦茎、鞘、叶和籽粒的生长,每穗粒重和粒数的关系等进行了分析和讨论;并指出改变温度或用其他方法增加粒重提高产量的可能。

 
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