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vegetable
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  蔬菜
    National Vegetable Research Station:《Annual Report》1980
    英国国家蔬菜研究站1980年研究工作简况
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    DYNAMIC STUDIES OF TRIFLURALIN RESIDUE IN SOIL AND DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVITY OF SOME VEGETABLE CROPS
    氟乐灵在土壤中的残留动态及几种蔬菜对其敏感度的测定
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    A BASIC INVESTIGATION OF VEGETABLE DISEASES IN BEIJING AREA
    北京蔬菜病害的基本调查
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    A CHECKLIST OF NATURAL ENEMY ON VEGETABLE PESTS IN BEIJING
    北京蔬菜害虫天敌名录
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    CONTROL VEGETABLE PESTS WITH B.T. EMULSION
    复方B·t乳剂防治蔬菜害虫
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  “vegetable”译为未确定词的双语例句
    Recovery rate was influenced significantly by both soil type and habitat. The recovery rate in sandy loam, sandy and loam soils was 77.8% , 54.5% and 18.2% respectively, and that in the soils of vegetable gardens, orchards, cereal fields and non-cultivated lands was 48.9% , 40% , 30% and 20% respectively.
    供检土样线虫检出率为34.6%,其中沙壤土检出率77.8%,沙土54.5%,壤土18.2%,粘土为0; 菜地土样检出率48.9%,果园40%,大田30%,未耕地20%。
    STUDY ON DISTINGUISHING LARVAL INSTARS OF THE VEGETABLE LEAFMINER Liriomyza sativae (DIPTERA: AGROMYZIDAE)
    美洲斑潜蝇Liriomyza sativae幼虫分龄研究
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    The Classification of Potential Fire Behavior to Main Vegetable Types in the North Slope of the Middle Qinling Mountain
    秦岭中段北坡主要植被类型潜在火行为划分
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    Fuzzy Cluster Analysi of Aphid Number in Spring Cruciferae Vegetable Fields
    春季十字花科菜田桃蚜数量动态的模糊聚类
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    Structure and quantity dynamic of arthropod communities in vegetable fields
    菜田节肢动物的类群结构与数量动态
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  vegetable
The results show that fertilizer and soil are important factors determining the aerosol particle over agricultural fields, and vegetable fields in suburban Beijing contribute significantly to the aerosol particle.
      
The stems of the vegetable plant garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.) were shown to contain emodin (in its aglycone and glycoside forms) and chrysophanol.
      
Rastitel'nyi belok: Novye Perspecktivy(Vegetable Protein: New Prospects), Braudo, E.
      
Direct determination of phosphorus in vegetable oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry
      
An approach to the practical implementation of the standard method of the direct determination of phosphorus in vegetable oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with automated sample injection was proposed.
      
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The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19...

The Sclerotinia disease of the rape plant is widely distributed in 19 provinces in China. It is more prevalent and destructive in the Yang-Tze Valley and the South-Eastern coastal provinces. These regions are characterized by the concurrence of the relatively cool temperature (around 15℃.), the abundant rainfall (month average exceeds 100 mm.), and the susceptible stage of the host plant (usually during the blooming period). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been found attacking 71 species of economic plants of 19 families. Beside the rape plant, peanut, soybean, and sunflower, the majority of the hosts are vegetables and herbaceous ornamental plants. In the host range, there are 13 species not hitherto reported; however, there are also 5 species of familiar plants which have been listed as hosts in other countries are not affected in China. No definite period of dormancy appeared to be necessary for the production of apothecia, but the temperaure reguirement for the sclerotial germination was found very narrow. They germinated best in moderately cool temperature (around 15℃.) in moist sand., The sclerotia raising from single spore cultures germinated very slowly and meagrely, while those from the parent mass culture germinated rather quickly and abundantly, a phenomenon pointing to the facultative heterothallic nature of the fungus. The ascospores have been found to germinate under a wide range of conditions. They germinated quite well on dry slide under high relative humidity. It may thus be justified to assume that the ascospores can be carried in a viable condition to a considerable distance by wind. Precentages of their germination under a temperature range of 5—30℃. exceeded 50% in less than 24 hours, being highest at 5—10℃. The pH range for mycelial growth was found to be pH 3—9, with an optimum around pH 5—8. High relative humidity (over 85%) and a supply of pectinase from diseased tissues were necessary for its infection. Flower petals of the rape plant have been found most susceptible to attack by the ascospores, while sound leaves were resistant to attack unless they had been chilled. A sudden drop of temperature, poor drainage, and especially lodging of the rape plants during their blooming stage have been observed to be predisposing under natural conditions. Ordinary, there are two crops of apothecia in a year, one in the Autumn and the other in the next Spring, the second crop should be considered as the major one. A rotation of rice with the rape plant and a big scale control campaign in vast area will materially reduce the source of infection, and thereby decrease incidence of the disease. Since the infection is dependent chiefly upon the number of sclerotia that will persist in the soil and the production of apothecia in the blooming period, epedemics may be forecasted on the basis of weather conditions prevailing at various times of the year. The facts that abundant Summer rainfall promotes decay of the sclerotia, and abundant rainfall in the the Autumn increases their number, may be considered as criteria for long term forecasting. Abundant rainfall in the early Spring and cold wind during the blooming period which promotes the germination of the sclerotia, the infection of either the ascospores or the mycelium, and the lodging and susceptibility of the host, may be based for short term forecasting.

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和...

1.油菜菌核病在我国的分布共有19省,而以长江流域及东南沿海各省为主。它的分布区域决定于較低的温度(15℃左右)、充沛的雨量(月平均超过100毫米)及寄主易感阶段(一般为花期)三者的密切配合。在秦岭以南的早春和深秋以及松花江流域的夏季,其配合是符合于这种情况的,因此发病較为普遍而严重。秦岭以北,包括华北与西北,上述三方面的配合基本上是不协調的,因此菌核病很少发生。2.它在我国的寄主共有19科71种,除油菜、花生、大豆及向日葵等油料作物外,主要为害蔬菜及草本观赏植物,因此花园菜圃是此菌潛伏埸所之一。在我国所发现的寄主中,有13种是未經报导过的,但也有5种常見的寄主在我国尙未见其被害。3.Sclerotinia sclerotiorum的各个发育阶段对于外界条件的要求是不一致的。菌核不需要休眠,但它发芽的要求很严格,只有继續在低温高湿的土壤中约一月左右才能盛发。它从单子囊孢子菌系所产生的菌核发芽率很低,而且发芽很缓慢,说明此菌是一个较弱的(己廾)宗配合菌类。子囊孢子发芽的要求最宽,它有耐干耐寒的能力。在5—30℃之间,24小时内的发芽率都能超过50%,而在5℃或10℃的温度下发芽率最高,而且发芽最快。它在接近饱和的相对湿度中,并不需要一层水膜也能发芽。因此,推论它有一定距离的气流传播可能性。菌絲的要求介于两者之间,它对酸硷的适应范围很广(pH3—9,最适为pH5—8)。它对温度的要求和对子囊孢子发芽的相同。其侵染及生长最主要的条件为高湿度(相对湿度高于85%)及足够的果胶酵素。4.油菜易感的阶段为花期。花冠最容易感染,衰老的叶片及受冻后的嫩叶也容易感病。通过这些桥梁,进而侵染莖稈。春季的寒流,后期的漬水和倒伏,造成发病的小气候;鼓励子囊孢子的发芽与侵入和菌絲的侵染与发展。因此,是此病猖獗的关键。5.子囊孢子是此病主要的而且是首次侵染源。菌核每年产生两次子囊盘,一次在深秋,是次要的;一次在早春,是主要的。菌核的潛伏埸所为:本田、种子间、花园、菜圃、打谷埸及堆肥中。水旱轮作可以消灭菌核;大面积联防可以减少侵染源。6.夏季的雨量丰富,使田间的菌核数下降;相反,深秋的雨量丰富,使菌核数增加;因此,前一年的夏季和秋季的雨量,可以用作长期测报的根据。本年早春的雨量丰富,促进菌核的发芽;花期的寒潮,后期田间渍水,植株倒伏,都使寄主易感,并鼓励子囊孢子的发芽侵入及菌絲的侵染与发展,是造成当年猖獗的主要原因,因此可以用为短期测报的依据。

During 1957 and 1958,a survey of the virus diseases of cucurbit crops was carried out inPeking.Not only the symptoms of the naturally infected plants were described,but also thesamples of the diseased plants were collected and proceeded to routine diagnosis.The mosaicdisease of vegetable marrow(Cucurbita pepo L.var.)was very severe in this district.Theessential causal factor of this malady was revealed to be the Muskmelon Virus(=Marmormelonis Raeder et al.)which evidently caused the systemic infection...

During 1957 and 1958,a survey of the virus diseases of cucurbit crops was carried out inPeking.Not only the symptoms of the naturally infected plants were described,but also thesamples of the diseased plants were collected and proceeded to routine diagnosis.The mosaicdisease of vegetable marrow(Cucurbita pepo L.var.)was very severe in this district.Theessential causal factor of this malady was revealed to be the Muskmelon Virus(=Marmormelonis Raeder et al.)which evidently caused the systemic infection of watermelonand hada lower thermal death point(55-62℃).In the case of the mosaic disease of squash(Cucurbitamoschata var.melonaeformis,Makino),a similar virus was isolated,however,it differed fromthe above strain by not attacking watermelon,although having the same thermal resistance.From the specimens of the mosaic disease of cucumber plants,all isolates were pertain-ing to the Cucumber Mosaic Virus(CMV=Marmot cucumeris Holmes)group,consisting oftwo or more distinct strains,except a peculiar entity was isolated from a specimen of theautumnal cucumber plant.This entity,having a higher thermal death point(85℃),did notattack Nicotiana glutinosa L.,but did systemically infect N.tabacuum L.and N.sylvestris L.and caused local necrotic spots on Datura stramonium L.It was tentatively considered as anew strain and named Autumnal Cucumber Mosaic Virus(ACMV).All isolates from variousmelons were demonstrated to be the same entity as that obtained from the vegetable marrow,namely the Muskmelon Virus(MMV).A virus isolated from Luffa cylindrica Roem.was shown to have distinct properties butclose to MMV.Owing to its rather restricted host range among cucurbits,it was possibly adistinct strain of the Muskmelon Virus.

从1957到1958年,在北京都区进行了瓜类作物花叶病毒的调查研究。在记述病作物症状的同时,还采集了各类花叶病株的标样,进行了病毒的常规鉴定。西葫芦的花叶病是一个严重的病毒病,鉴定的结果证明其毒原主要为典型的甜瓜花叶病毒(MMV),而且能侵染西瓜而产生系统性花叶症。在南瓜的花叶病标样中分离到的也是甜瓜花叶病毒,但是这个株系不同于典型的甜瓜花叶病毒,因为它们都不侵染西瓜。从黄瓜花叶病标样中分离出来的病毒全属于黄瓜花叶病毒种羣(GMV),其中可能有不同的株系,而秋黄瓜上却分离出了一个毒原,不侵染心叶菸,系统侵染普通菸和毛叶菸,在蔓陀蘿叶上产生局部枯斑而具有较高的致死温度(85℃)。作者认为这可能是一个新单元,称之为秋黄瓜花叶病毒(ACMV)。所有在甜瓜,哈密瓜及绞瓜上分离出来的毒原都是属于典型甜瓜花叶病毒的,但梢瓜(即白瓜)上的毒原都是黄瓜花叶病毒(CMV),没有广州报告的白瓜花叶花病毒。丝瓜花叶病的分离物类似甜瓜花叶病毒,但寄主范围远较狭隘,很可能是一个甜瓜花叶病毒的新株系。

Field evaluation of some newly developed organophosphorus aphicides-acaricides foraphicidal and acaricidal effectiveness was conducted during 1960-1961 in Peking.Two speciesof aphids(Aphis gossypii Glover,Myzus persicae Sulz.)and two species of mites(Tetranychustelarius L.,Tetranychus viennensis Zacher)were tested mainly by randomized block methodwith three replicates.The following results were obtained.1.Dimethoate[0,0-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl)dithiophosphate]possessedhigh aphicidal and acaricidal...

Field evaluation of some newly developed organophosphorus aphicides-acaricides foraphicidal and acaricidal effectiveness was conducted during 1960-1961 in Peking.Two speciesof aphids(Aphis gossypii Glover,Myzus persicae Sulz.)and two species of mites(Tetranychustelarius L.,Tetranychus viennensis Zacher)were tested mainly by randomized block methodwith three replicates.The following results were obtained.1.Dimethoate[0,0-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl)dithiophosphate]possessedhigh aphicidal and acaricidal effectiveness towards both the aphid and both the red spider mitespecies.Both the initial and residual aphicidal-acaricidal effectiveness were equal or superiorto those of Demeton.As Dimethoate possesses outstanding features of high aphicidal andacaricidal effectiveness with moderate persistence and low mammalian toxicity,it is consideredto be especially suitable for controlling pests on fruit and vegetable crops.2.The aphicidal effectiveness of Malathion against cotton aphids was quite satisfactory,but was comparatively lower than that of Dimethoate.Its acaricidal effectiveness was not long-lasting.3.The acaricidal effectiveness of crude Trithion[0,0-diethyl S-(4-Chlorophenylthiomethyl)dithiophosphate]preparations was prominent.Its initial and residual effectiveness against thetwo-spotted spider mites was found to be equal or superior to that of Demeton,and was con-siderably superior to that of Demeton-methyl and Malathion.In addition,its initial and re-sidual effectiveness towards Tetranychus viennensis can also match that of Demeton.Trithionappears to be a promising non-systemic acaricide.4.The high acaricidal effectiveness of AC-3741[0,0-diethyl S-(carbamoylmethl)dithio-phosphate]deserves attention.Preliminary field plot test showed that its acaricidal effective-ness against the two-spotted spider mites was significantly superior to that of Demeton-methyland Malathion,while its residual acaricidal effectiveness was also satisfactory.

1960—1961年在北京对棉蚜、桃蚜、棉红蜘蛛及山楂红蜘蛛进行的田间药效试验表明:(1)乐果对两种蚜虫及两种红蜘蛛的速效或残效均接近或超过E-1059,在食用作物上的残毒期较短(7日),使用范围也较广。(2)马拉硫磷的杀蚜效力也较好,但不如乐果,杀螨效力不强。(3)三硫磷粗制原油的杀螨效力很突出:对棉红蜘蛛的速、残效接近或超出 E-1059,显著超过甲基 E-1059和马拉硫磷;对山楂红蜘蛛的速、残效也接近 E-1059,对两种红蜘蛛的残效都比较持久,但杀蚜效力较差,远不如乐果。(4)AC-3741也具有高度的杀螨效力,对棉红蜘蛛的毒杀效力超出甲基 E-1059和马拉硫磷,残效也较好。

 
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