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skull     
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  颅骨
     Skull System Study of Mechanical Virtual Human of China and Its Applications of Maxillofacial Bone Defects
     中国力学虚拟人颅骨系统研究及其在颌面骨缺损修复中的应用
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     STRESS DISTRIBUTION ON THE SKULL A STUDY BY THE PHOTOELASTIC TECHNIC
     应用光弹性方法研究颅骨在受力后的应力分布
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     Experimental study on the enhancement of rat skull defects' repair by induced osteogenesis
     诱导成骨修复大鼠颅骨缺损
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     Aneurysmal bone cyst of the skull: Report of 4 cases
     颅骨动脉瘤样骨囊肿——附四例报告
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     The Prosthesis of Skull: A RePort of 75 Cases
     75例颅骨修补术体会
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     Neuro-vascular Region of Lateral Skull Base: Imageo-anatomic Study by Multi-slice CT and High Field MR
     (侧)底神经血管区:多层面CT和高场强MR影像解剖学研究
短句来源
     Studies on Clinical and Biological Behaviors and Anatomic Comparative Surgical Approaches of Median Skull Base Tumor
     中间底肿瘤临床生物学行为及手术入路解剖比较研究
短句来源
     Endoscopic Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: The Study of Anatomy and Its Clinical Application
     内镜经鼻底肿瘤手术应用解剖学与临床研究
短句来源
     RADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE SKULL BASE DEVELOPMENT
     底发育的x线研究
短句来源
     AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY CAUSED BY7.62mm BULLETS IN DOGS Ⅰ.COMPARISON OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PENETRATING CRANIOCEREBRAL, TANGENTIAL BRAIN AND SKULL INJURIES
     7.62 mm弹脑火器伤实验研究——Ⅰ、脑贯通伤、脑切线伤和骨切线伤的比较
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  头骨
     The body length of the specimen was 447 cm,body weight 715 kg and length of skull 71 cm. The vertebral formula was C7+T10+L11+Ca18=46.
     该标本体长447 cm,体重715 kg,头骨长710 mm,脊椎式C7+T10+L11+Ca18=46。
短句来源
     There are 352~353 skeleton bones of the hedgehog including 48 skull skeletons,43~44 vertebrae,(The vertebral formula is C 7T 15 L 6S 3C y12-13 ),15 pairs of ribs,5 sternebrae,47 bones in each fore limb,48 bones in each hind limb,and 36 teeth,[The dental formula is 2(I32,C11,P32,M33)=36]. There is no baculum in the hedgehog.
     结果表明,普通刺猬全身骨骼有352~353枚,其中头骨48枚,脊椎骨43~44枚,椎式为C7T15L6S3Cy12-13,肋骨15对,胸骨5枚,前肢骨每侧47枚,后肢骨每侧48枚,牙齿36枚,齿式为2(I32,C11,P32,M33)=36,无阴茎骨。
短句来源
     The radioactivity percent of 95 Zr in the shell and muscle of Nassarius semiplicatus was 68.7% and 31.30% respectively,while the radioactivity percent was 22.80%,12.64%,34.82%,10.31%,4.48%,11.55% and 3.71%,respectively in the fill,fin,viscera,skull,skin,vertebra and muscle of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris.
     半褶织纹螺螺壳和螺肉的放射性百分比分别为 6 8.7%和 31.30 % ; 大弹涂鱼的鳃、鳍、内脏、头骨、皮、脊柱和肌肉等组织的放射性百分比分别为 2 2 .80 %、12 .6 4 %、34.82 %、10 .31%、4 .4 8%、11.5 5 %和 3.71% .
短句来源
     So the age of Niviventer confucianus can be defined according to X 2, X 7 and X 8 of the skull. In addition, X 4, X 5 and X 6 are stable in all age group of the species, and can be used for the classification.
     回归方程表明 ,社鼠的年龄仅与头骨的颅基长X2 、上裂齿长X7、门齿孔长X8有关 ,而颧宽X4、眶间宽X5、齿隙长X6在各年龄组相对较稳定 ,可以作为分类的指标
短句来源
     ON THE SKULL OF DICERORHINUS CHOUKOUTIENENSIS WANG FROM CHOUKOUTIEN LOCALITY 20
     周口店第20地点的周口店犀(Dicerorhinus choukoutienensis Wang)的头骨
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  头颅
     2. There were 15 cases with brain contusion, 14 cases with brain hemorrhage and 10 cases with skull fracture by CT of the head.
     2.头颅CT:脑挫裂伤15例,脑出血14例,颅骨骨折10例。
短句来源
     Results In 94 patients, the skull CT in 67 of them were positive, the abnormal rate of CT was 71.28%, and the most common one was encephalatrophy (32.98%).
     结果  94例中 67例头颅CT阳性 ,CT异常率 71.2 8% ,其中脑萎缩最常见 (3 2 .98% )。
短句来源
     The CT skull scan showed HIE in 107 cases, which was 97.3% of the total. And 3 cases, that is 2.7% of the total, showed normal.
     头颅CT结果为HIE者107例,占97.3%,3例(2.7%)头颅CT结果正常。
短句来源
     There were 6 cases abnormal signals after skull MRI checking.
     头颅MRI检查显示6例有异常信号。
短句来源
     Methods 52 clinical diagnosis HIE neonnatus case undertake skull's CT scan,comparing the clinical grading to the CT grouping.
     方法:对52例临床诊断为HIE患儿进行头颅CT扫描,对其临床分度和CT分型进行比较分析。
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      skull
    The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skull Bone Development in the Ribbed Newt Pleurodeles waltl(Urodela: Salamandridae)
          
    The Bony Skull of the Siberian Salamander Salamandrella keyserlingi (Amphibia: Urodela: Hynobiidae) and the Role of Thyroid Horm
          
    Bony Skull of the Smooth Newt Triturus vulgaris (Amphibia, Urodela: Salamandridae) and the Role of Thyroid Hormones in Its Ossif
          
    The role of thyroid hormones in the bony skull development in the common frog (Rana temporaria, Ranidae)
          
    Role of heterochronies in the morphogenesis of amphibian skull bones: An experimental study
          
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    The pterion of 400 Chinese adult skulls, 252 males and 148 females, wasstudied. It was found that the epipteric bone was rather common. When cal-culated according to A. J. P. von Broek's classification which includes epiptericumanterius, epiptericum posterius, in addition to the most common epiptericumtypicum, the frequency was 42% in terms of number of skulls ed 27% interms of number of sides. The fronto-temporal suture type, however, was smallin number (3.0% in terms of the number of skulls...

    The pterion of 400 Chinese adult skulls, 252 males and 148 females, wasstudied. It was found that the epipteric bone was rather common. When cal-culated according to A. J. P. von Broek's classification which includes epiptericumanterius, epiptericum posterius, in addition to the most common epiptericumtypicum, the frequency was 42% in terms of number of skulls ed 27% interms of number of sides. The fronto-temporal suture type, however, was smallin number (3.0% in terms of the number of skulls and 1.75% in terms of thenumber of sides), due to the presence of a frontal process of the temporalbone. Both the epipteric bone and the fronto-temporal suture were found to bemore common in the female than in the male. Various theories regarding theorigin of these alterations are introduced and discussed.

    检查了400个中国成人头颅的翼上骨及额颞缝,以侧为单位计算,发现翼上骨的数目为216侧合27%,以头颅为单位计算,发现翼上骨的数目两侧者48例(两侧同型及非同型)一侧者120例共168例合 42%,男女分开计算,以侧为单位,男性23%,女性33.8%,以头颅为单位,男性35.71%,女性52.7%,女性占多数。额颞缝以侧计算共14例合1.75%,以头颅数计算,两侧者2例一侧者10例共12例合3%。我们这个工作承张鋆教授的指导特此志谢。

    This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower molars...

    This paper is a description based on the Sinanthropus materials including5 teeth and two fragments of humerus and tibia recovered since the restorationof the Choukoutien excavation in 1949.The teeth of Sinanthropus are much bigger than those of modern man.Theleft medial upper incisor bears well-developed basal tubercle on the lingualsurface.The upper first and second premolars are robust in size and theirchewing surfaces are covered with wrinkles of special patterns.The crowns ofthe first and second lower molars are characterized by their lowness in relationto their lengths and breadths.Pronounced cingulum is present on the buccalsurface of the crown.The humeral shaft is almost identical with that of modern man.Thetibial shaft is slender and its anterior border is blunt.The walls of the tibiaare extraordinarily thick and its medullary cavity is very narrow.The results of the study of Sinanthropus pekinensis by the present authorsand others clearly show that the upper extremity bones of Sinanthropus arealmost identical with those of modern man;the lower extremity bones are definitely human in form and appearance,but possess also some primitive cha-racters.The teeth and skulls possess many primitive features.The cranialcapacity is considerably smaller than that of recent man.It is due to labour,and the operations of the hands that the upper extremity is differentated fromthe lower one.The differentiation of the extremities is followed by the deve-lopment of the brain and the brain case.These results further enrich Engels'theory of the transition from ape to man and testify to the truth that“labour(?)eated man himself”.

    1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前...

    1.本文系根据1949年北京解放后迄今在周口店中国猿人化石产地发掘而得的及由过去发现的碎骨中清理而得的中国猿人化石,加以研究,计有单独的牙齿5枚(左上内侧用齿,右上第一及第二前臼齿,左下第一和第二臼哲各1枚),肱骨及胫骨干各一小段,而胫骨化石是在周口店首次发现的新材料。2.中国猿人的牙齿有大小两种头型,大型为男性,小型为女性,本标本中的上门齿,下第一及第二臼齿属大型,所以是男性的,上第一及第二前臼齿属小型,所以是女性的。3.中国猿人的牙齿,无论其齿冠或齿根,都远较现代人或尼安德特人为硕大和粗壮。4.上内侧门齿齿冠舌面的基部有很发达的底结节及由其延伸而来的指状突, 舌面两侧增厚且向内捲而使舌面成为铲形?莞氤莨诘某ぶ嵩谝恢毕呱隙蝗缦执说某莞氤莨诘某ぶ岢梢欢劢恰?.上第一前臼齿的齿冠和齿根都大而粗壮。齿冠的唇面有三角形隆起,但其尖端偏向前方。唇结节较舌结节为大和高,嚼面的唇半大于舌半,具有特殊型式的纹理。齿根极宽,部分分为唇舌两枝。6.上第二前臼齿稍较上第一前臼齿为小,舌结节不如第一前臼齿的倾向前方。唇舌两正中(?)互相连续而将嚼面分为前后两半。唇舌两结节的大小和高度约等。齿冠唇面三角形隆起的尖端并不偏向前方而在正中位置。齿根仅在尖端分为唇舌两枝。7.下第一及第二两臼齿大小相似。齿冠硕大,但其高度若与其长度和宽度相比,则相对极为低矮。齿冠唇面有明显的扣带,两臼齿全属五结节齿型,以前内结节为最高和最大。齿根极为粗壮,分为前后两枝,前枝较短而直,后枝则较长而明显向后倾斜。前枝末端分叉,后枝末端则为单独一尖端。8.肱骨干完全具有现代人的形式,唯一真正与现代人的不同之点在共髓腔较小和骨壁较厚,此外其三角肌粗隆特别发达。9.胫骨细长,前缘较为圆钝,中段的横切面呈圆钝的三稜形。胫骨干中央大部为海棉骨质所填充,髓腔极小。中国猿人的胫骨较苏鲁人稍细,但两者颇为相似。10.过去及本文对于中国猿人化石研究的结果,明显指出中国猿人的上肢骨与现代人极为相似;下肢骨虽已具有现代人的形式,但又有若干明显的原始性质;而牙齿及过去发现的头骨,则远较现代人为原始,脑量也远在现代人之下,说明了最初是由于劳动,由于手的使用而使手足发生了分化,脑子随着发展了起来,头骨和牙齿的形态发生了改变,这种结果进一步充实了恩格斯从猿到人的理论,阐明了“劳动创造人类”的真谛。

    1. 570 pterions of 281 Chinese adult sku- lls and 4 young skulls have been observed. We found 439 cases(77.02%)of the spheno-parietal suture type, 115 cases (20.17%) of the epipt- eric bone type, 14 cases (2.46% )of the fronto- temporal suture type, and 2 cases (0.35%) of the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid art- iculating at one point type. 2. The cephalic index and the length-auri- culovertical height index obtained according to the measurement of the maximum length, the maximum breadth and the...

    1. 570 pterions of 281 Chinese adult sku- lls and 4 young skulls have been observed. We found 439 cases(77.02%)of the spheno-parietal suture type, 115 cases (20.17%) of the epipt- eric bone type, 14 cases (2.46% )of the fronto- temporal suture type, and 2 cases (0.35%) of the frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid art- iculating at one point type. 2. The cephalic index and the length-auri- culovertical height index obtained according to the measurement of the maximum length, the maximum breadth and the auriculovertical heig- ht of 196 skulls with same type of pterions (i. e. 170 skulls of spheno-parietal suture type,23 skulls of epipteric bone type and 3 skulls of fronto-temporal suture type). It is the author's opinion that there might be a certain relation between the cephalic index and the length-auriculovertical index of the sku- lls and the formation of the varies types of the pterion.

    一、观察了中国成人颅骨281个和未成年的颅骨4个,共285个,计570侧异区。以颅骨数计,蝶顶缝型253个(88.42%),异上骨型90个(31.58%),额顳缝型11个(3.86%),额顶顳蝶四骨交于一点型2个(0.70%);以侧数计,蝶顶缝型439侧(77.02%),异上骨型115侧(20.17%),额顳缝型14侧(2.46%),四骨交于一点型2侧(0.35%)。二、测量了196个左右两侧异区同型颅骨(即蝶顶缝型170个,异上骨型23个和额顳缝型3个)的头最大长、头最大幅和头耳高,并计算出头长幅指数和头长耳高指数,从而初步提出颅骨异区的各类型的形成可能与头长幅指数和头长耳高指数有关。

     
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