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massacre
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    The position and role of poor scholars in the Song Dynasty's imperial massacre
    论寒人在刘宋宗室内乱中的地位和作用
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    The crime was made to become the bloody sharp weapen to maintain and arrogate all power to themselves and massacre the opposite faction.
    其中军事将领战败连及家属的规定主要适用于曹操统治时期,降敌罪在曹魏一代广泛存在,犯此二罪者一般要连及到其母亲、妻子、女儿等,且一般采取诛杀的惩罚方式;
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    The position and role of poor scholars in the Song Dynasty's imperial massacre
    论寒人在刘宋宗室内乱中的地位和作用
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    The crime was made to become the bloody sharp weapen to maintain and arrogate all power to themselves and massacre the opposite faction.
    其中军事将领战败连及家属的规定主要适用于曹操统治时期,降敌罪在曹魏一代广泛存在,犯此二罪者一般要连及到其母亲、妻子、女儿等,且一般采取诛杀的惩罚方式;
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  massacre
These processes are demonstrated through the presentation of a study that explores the cognitive structure of perceptions of China both before and after the massacre.
      
The massacre set the Chinese government in a clear symbolic struggle against freedom and democracy.
      
The Tiananmen Square massacre of June 1989 interrupted this transitional process and sent perceptions of China shooting back toward balanced, cold war stereotypes.
      
This article looks at some points raised by the Cullen Report, the Government inquiry into the massacre, particularly the emerging details about the background of the killer, Thomas Hamilton.
      
The massacre of sixteen children and their teacher in Scotland, at the Dunblane Primary School, earlier this year, shook the world.
      
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In the emperor Qianlong's reign, the Qing government had set off a long-out debate on "Hongxi Massacre" which overseas Chinese were murdered in Hongxi by the Netherlandish colonialists. From this very slow reaction, it is not difficult to find their attitude and policy in dealing with foreign affairs.

清朝政府围绕荷兰殖民主义者残杀华侨的“红溪惨案”,展开了旷时一年多的辩论。从迟缓的反响中,可以探索清廷处理对外事务的态度和政策。

Scholar-officials in both the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty and the modern China opposed Christianity.Generally speaking,There were no essential differences between their anti-christianity ideology.However,in modern times when China was indulged in wanton massacre by the Great Powers,social situation changed profoundly.With the emergence of church authorities as well as the agreement of anti-Christianity among government officials,girdles and the ordinary people,Scholar-officials in modern China...

Scholar-officials in both the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty and the modern China opposed Christianity.Generally speaking,There were no essential differences between their anti-christianity ideology.However,in modern times when China was indulged in wanton massacre by the Great Powers,social situation changed profoundly.With the emergence of church authorities as well as the agreement of anti-Christianity among government officials,girdles and the ordinary people,Scholar-officials in modern China became quite different from those in the late Ming Dynasty and early Qing Dynasty in their anti-Christianity ldeology.

无论在明末清初还是在教案风起云涌的近代 ,士大夫一直是倡导反基督教思想、制造反教言论的主力军。总体说来 ,明末清初士大夫与近代士大夫的反基督教思想 ,其深层内容并无二致 ,二者都以儒家的世界观表现出种族反教、邪说反教、纲伦反教和经验反教的特征。但在列强肆虐的近代中国 ,随着教会权威的形成和官、绅、民反教共识的达成 ,近代士大夫的反教思想又呈现出别异于明末清初士大夫的特质。

Mongolian aristocrats conquered the country primarily by military conquests and national wars.They were conquerors in the eyes of the people they had conquered.But after they conquered the country,they could never expect to govern the country well only by ways of massacres and suppressions.They had to solve the problem of economy and the problem of ideological and cultural rule.They had to adapt themselves to the economy and culture of the advanced regions and to adopt the political and economic system...

Mongolian aristocrats conquered the country primarily by military conquests and national wars.They were conquerors in the eyes of the people they had conquered.But after they conquered the country,they could never expect to govern the country well only by ways of massacres and suppressions.They had to solve the problem of economy and the problem of ideological and cultural rule.They had to adapt themselves to the economy and culture of the advanced regions and to adopt the political and economic system that conformed to the conquered country.The backward conquerors were finally conquered by the advanced economy and culture,otherwise they could never maintain their violent rule.

恩格斯曾经指出:“在长期的征服中,比较野蛮的征服者,在绝大多数情况下,都不得不适应征服后存在的比较高的‘经济情况’:他们为被征服者所同化,而且大部分还不得不采用被征服者的语言。”蒙古贵族得天下主要靠的是军事征服、民族战争,对于被征服的民族和人们来说,他们是征服者。但在他们得天下之后,要完成“治天下”的任务,却不能只靠屠杀与镇压,还要着重解决经济问题和思想文化统治的问题。他们必须适应先进地区的经济与文化,采取适合当地情况的政治经济制度。落后的征服者最终被先进的经济文化所征服,否则就难以维持自己的暴力统治。

 
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