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surgical     
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  手术
     Studies on Clinical and Biological Behaviors and Anatomic Comparative Surgical Approaches of Median Skull Base Tumor
     中间颅底肿瘤临床生物学行为及手术入路解剖比较研究
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     The Status of p53 and p16 Examined by IHC in the Laryngeal Squamous-cell Carcinoma and the Surgical Margins and Its Clinical Significance
     P53和p16在喉癌及手术切缘中的表达及其临床意义
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     An Evaluation of the Surgical Treatment of Indirect Inguinal Hernias(A Clinical Analysis of 831 Cases)
     腹股沟斜疝手术治疗的探讨(附831例临床分析)
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     On Surgical Treatment of Granulomatous Type of Cerebral Schistosomiasis
     手术治疗脑瘤型血吸虫病问题的探讨(附20例病例报告)
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     Experience on Surgical Treatment of 134 Cases of Urinary Fistula
     134例尿瘘的分析与手术治疗体会
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  外科
     Clinical Anatomical Study on Cardiac Surgical
     心脏外科小切口临床解剖学研究
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     Applied Study of vascular surgical technique in treatment of thoracic tumor
     血管外科技术在胸部肿瘤外科治疗中的应用研究
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     Clinical Significance of Molecular Diagnosis of Micrometastatic Tumor Cells in Lymph Nodes in the Surgical Treatment of Patients with Stage Ⅰ Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
     Ⅰ期非小细胞肺癌淋巴结微转移分子诊断在肺癌外科治疗中的作用
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     The Studies of Anatomic Biomechanics and Clinical Treatment on the Surgical Disorders of the Upper Cervical Spine
     上颈椎外科疾患的解剖学与生物力学研究及临床治疗
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     Clinical Research of Surgical Management of Adenocarcinoma of Pancreas
     胰腺癌外科治疗的临床研究
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  外科手术
     Experience for Surgical Tretment of 71 Cases of Constrictive Pericarditis
     71例缩窄性心包炎外科手术治疗的体会
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     An analysis of infected surgical incisions in nine hospitals in Nanning
     南宁市外科手术切口感染的分析
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     The surgical treatment of patients With acute massive upper gastointestinal hemorrhage (Analysis of 176 cases with surgical treatment)
     急性上消化道出血的外科治疗(附外科手术治疗176例分析)
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     BD Compound Anesthetic Agent application to Surgical Operations of ulmes and Goats
     BD麻醉合剂在骡和山羊外科手术中的应用
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     Emergency Surgical Therapy of Massive Hemoptysis Analysis of 12 Cases
     急诊外科手术治疗大咯血12例分析
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  外科的
     Results domestication , animals quality control ,fixed method,label,anesthesia and surgical technique were established.
     结果建立了动物的人工饲养、微生物和寄生虫学质量控制以及动物的保定、标记、麻醉及一般外科的一套技术和方法。
     Conclusions:There are increased in the scope of indications of surgical treatment for temporomandibular disorders, trauma, ankylosis, tumors, deformity and other kind of diseases.
     结论 :颞下颌关节紊乱病、损伤、关节强直、肿瘤、畸形以及其他关节疾病的手术适应证范围在不断地扩大 ,颞下颌关节外科的手术方法也在不断地改良。
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     The analysis of the maxillofacial surgical and clinical manifestation and diagnosis of nasopharynx carcinoma
     鼻咽癌在口腔颌面外科的临床特点与诊断分析
     Objective To review and reflect the development and achievement in surgical therapy for cancer in 20th century, and to inquire and foresee the objectives and tasks of the study on tumor surgery in 21st century.
     目的回顾、反思20世纪肿瘤外科的发展、成就,探讨21世纪肿瘤外科研究的目标和任务。
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     Materials and MethodsA total of 76 colorectal cancer tissues with their normal mucosa were obtained from patients operated in Colorectal Surgical Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from March 2001 to November 2001. Among these 76 patients, 46 cases were males, 30 cases were femals, mean age was 58.9 years old, 25 cases suffered from colon cancer, 51 cases suffered from rectal cancer, 31 cases with lymph node metastasis, 13 cases with distant metastasis.
     76例大肠癌组织标本、癌旁组织标本和正常大肠粘膜标本取自2001年3月—2001年11月浙医一院肛肠外科的手术切除标本,其中男46例,女30例,平均58.9岁,结肠癌25例,直肠癌51例,淋巴结转移31例,远处转移13例,均经病理确诊,术前均未经化疗和放疗。
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      surgical
    Force microsensor and position microsensor are used to measure surgical information of the force and depth.
          
    The experimental results show that the integration of microsensors for microsurgery robot's end-effector can satisfy the design requirements, and the robotic end trephine can accurately fulfill the surgical task of corneal cutting.
          
    After surgical operation, the operation group undertook bilateral common carotid artery permanent ligation, while the other group did not.
          
    Learning and memory function were measured by Y-maze at 4 h, 8 h, 24 h and 3 d after surgical operation, respectively.
          
    Surgical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with cirrhotic esophageal varices and hypersplenism: a 184 case report
          
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    Right heart catheterization was performed 120 times in 112 cardiac cases admitted into Chung-Shan Hospital of Shanghai First Medical College in a period of 13 months from September 1957 to September 1958. Catheterization was done in this series of cases chiefly for the purpose of studying the hemodynamic changes in the lesser circulation and as an aid to diagnosis in congenital heart diseases and rheumatic mitral valvular disease, when cardiac surgery was considered for treatment. In 8 of them catheterization...

    Right heart catheterization was performed 120 times in 112 cardiac cases admitted into Chung-Shan Hospital of Shanghai First Medical College in a period of 13 months from September 1957 to September 1958. Catheterization was done in this series of cases chiefly for the purpose of studying the hemodynamic changes in the lesser circulation and as an aid to diagnosis in congenital heart diseases and rheumatic mitral valvular disease, when cardiac surgery was considered for treatment. In 8 of them catheterization was repeated 6 weeks after surgical repair of an interauricular septal defect or valvotomy of a stenotic pulmonic valve. In this paper the entire procedure of catheterization has been described in detail, particuhrly with regard to some technics of manipulation of the catheter in order to let it get through the tricuspid and pulmonic orifice, and to wedge it into the "pulmonary capillary". Indications, contraindications, complications and results of catheterization in our cases have been dicussed. Among the complications, cardiac arrhythmia was the most common but it was seldom serious. Electrocardiographic observation during the procedure showed that premature beats especially of ventricular origin occured nearly in every case. Two patients developed pulmonary edema shortly after catheterization. One of them survived, while the other unfortunately died in spite of energetic treatment. Both were cases of mitral stenosis with marked pulmonary hypertension. In the entire series of 112 cases, catheterization helped us to establish the diagnosis in 107 of them, among which 68 patients were operated upon after catheterization, and in 66 of them the preoperative diagnoses proved to be correct. According to the material presented, right heart catheterization appears to be a comparatively safe and useful procedure in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases.

    一、本文分析报告112例住院心脏病病人,120次右心导管檢查的結果。二、本组病例檢查的指征主要是对先天性心脏病及二尖瓣病的診断和外科治疗的选擇。三、对檢查方法加以描述,对影响檢查成敗的因素加以討論。四、分析檢查的結果,认为右心导管檢查对上述心脏病的診断有重大的价值,而危險性不大,但檢查时仍应提高警惕,掌握禁忌証并注意安全防止严重并发症的发生。

    Removal of the cerebral hemispheres or transection behind them does not interfere with the motor activities of the toad. Even after transection of the brain between the optic cbiasma and the pituitary body, the toad shows no other abnormalities than the retardation of the righting reflexes. The electroencephalograms of these toads do not differ very much from the normals, which show mainly lower voltage and faster rate (12—32 c.p.s.) superimposed on higher voltage and slower rate (7—9 c.p.s.) waves. Forced abduction...

    Removal of the cerebral hemispheres or transection behind them does not interfere with the motor activities of the toad. Even after transection of the brain between the optic cbiasma and the pituitary body, the toad shows no other abnormalities than the retardation of the righting reflexes. The electroencephalograms of these toads do not differ very much from the normals, which show mainly lower voltage and faster rate (12—32 c.p.s.) superimposed on higher voltage and slower rate (7—9 c.p.s.) waves. Forced abduction of the jaws produces inhibition of the brain waves as described previously. After transection of the brain at the level of obex, the toad shows immediately an exaggeration of the embracing reflex and a disappearance of the righting reflex. The electroencephalogram also changes immediately to a new pattern with waves of moderately fast rate (12—20 c.p.s.) and still higher amplitude. Surgical removal of the lower jaw can also produce considerable inhibition of the brain waves, as much as does the forced opening of the jaws. But when the medulla is totally destroyed, all the brain waves disappear. By the destruction of the upper spinal cord, the toad is entirely paralyzed except the preservation of the flexor reflex of the hind limbs. The electroencephalogram of such a toad is somewhat depressed, due probably to reduction of afferent impulses. On the basis of the above observations the conclusion is drawn that the process of the inhibition of the brain waves and of the motor activities in toads resulting from forcing the mouth open or from the removal of the lower jaw, is to be localized somewhere in the medulla.

    根据中枢神經系統不同部位的破坏对于蟾蜍运动和脑电图的影响,可以看出来机械地支开口腔或剪去下頜都能使蟾蜍的延髓发生抑制过程。

    The upper 8 centimeters of the great saphenous vein were studied on 102 sides (84male, 18 female) of adult Chinese cadavers. The chief results were as follows: 1. The surface projection of the sapheno-femoral junction is variable. It lies at avariable distance below the point which is situated opposite the junction of the lateraltwo thirds and medial third of the line joining the anterior superior iliac spine to thepubic tubercle. The mean value of the distance between this point and the sapheno-femoral junction...

    The upper 8 centimeters of the great saphenous vein were studied on 102 sides (84male, 18 female) of adult Chinese cadavers. The chief results were as follows: 1. The surface projection of the sapheno-femoral junction is variable. It lies at avariable distance below the point which is situated opposite the junction of the lateraltwo thirds and medial third of the line joining the anterior superior iliac spine to thepubic tubercle. The mean value of the distance between this point and the sapheno-femoral junction is 3.84±0.07 cm (min. 2.1 cm, max. 5.5 cm). 2. Duplication of the great saphenous vein is rare. It is found on 6 sides only(5.88±2.33%) in our material. 3. There is a close relation between the terminal part of the great saphenous veinand the superficial external pudendal artery. In 65.63±4.85% of the cases, this arterypasses behind the terminal part of the vein. 4. The upper part of the great saphenous vein is joined by lateral, medial, or bothaccessory saphenous veins in 86 sides (84.31±3.60%), among which the lateral accessorysaphenous vein occurs most frequently (61.61±5.24%). 5. The junction between the deep external pudendal vein and the great saphenousvein lies within the fossa ovalies in 25 sides (24.51±4.26%). 6. The patterns of the tributaries of the great saphenous vein may be classifiedinto 4 types and 11 subtypes, according to the number of veins and the manner of theircombination. Type II_2, in which two tributaries are combined, occurs more often thanany other types (38.23±4.81%). In the point of view of practical application, the pat-terns of the tributaries may be classified into different types, according to the numberof the direct opening on the upper part of the great saphenous vein, among which the3 tributary and 4 tributary types are the highest in percentage, being 34.31±4.70% and33.33±4.67% respectively. 7. The position of the tributaries which open into the upper part of the greatsaphenous vein is variable. In the majority of sides (91.18±2.80%), the position lieswithin the uppermost 4 centimeters of the great saphenous vein (min. 0.3 cm, max.7.2 cm). The surgical significance is briefly discussed.

    大隐静脉上段的形态特点对大隐静脉高位结扎手术具有重要的意义。本文观察了52具(102例)不同性别成年下肢,得到下列主要结果: 1.大隐静脉全部经卵圆窝汇入股静脉,根据它汇入股静脉的部位不同,可把它分为三个类型,其中第Ⅲ型最多占61.76±4.81%。 2.隐股结合点的体表投影是在经髂前上棘与耻骨结节连线外侧2/3与内侧1/3交界点下方平均为3.89±0.07厘米、隐胶结合点的内外位置变化较小。 3.绝大多数个体(95.96±1.95%)的阴部外浅动脉与大隐静脉上端发生紧密的紧邻关系,其中约半数(65.63±4.85%)经静脉上端的后方。 4.双隐静脉是一种较少见的变异,我们仅观察到6例(5.88±2.33%)。 5.大隐静脉上段除接纳三个浅属支外并通常也接纳内、外侧副隐静脉(84.31±3.60%),其中外侧副隐静脉出现率是61.63±5.24%,内侧副隐静脉出现率为16.28±3.98%,内、外侧副隐静脉同时出现率为22.09±4.47%。 6.在观察的全部材料中有24.51±4.26%个体的阴部外深静脉任卵圆窝内汇入大隐静脉末端的内侧面,因此易为手术者所忽略。 7.大隐静脉上段属支根据参加联合的数目和联合...

    大隐静脉上段的形态特点对大隐静脉高位结扎手术具有重要的意义。本文观察了52具(102例)不同性别成年下肢,得到下列主要结果: 1.大隐静脉全部经卵圆窝汇入股静脉,根据它汇入股静脉的部位不同,可把它分为三个类型,其中第Ⅲ型最多占61.76±4.81%。 2.隐股结合点的体表投影是在经髂前上棘与耻骨结节连线外侧2/3与内侧1/3交界点下方平均为3.89±0.07厘米、隐胶结合点的内外位置变化较小。 3.绝大多数个体(95.96±1.95%)的阴部外浅动脉与大隐静脉上端发生紧密的紧邻关系,其中约半数(65.63±4.85%)经静脉上端的后方。 4.双隐静脉是一种较少见的变异,我们仅观察到6例(5.88±2.33%)。 5.大隐静脉上段除接纳三个浅属支外并通常也接纳内、外侧副隐静脉(84.31±3.60%),其中外侧副隐静脉出现率是61.63±5.24%,内侧副隐静脉出现率为16.28±3.98%,内、外侧副隐静脉同时出现率为22.09±4.47%。 6.在观察的全部材料中有24.51±4.26%个体的阴部外深静脉任卵圆窝内汇入大隐静脉末端的内侧面,因此易为手术者所忽略。 7.大隐静脉上段属支根据参加联合的数目和联合的形式得出四个类型和11个分型,本材料中以第Ⅱ型最多,为总数的38.23±4.81%,其次是第Ⅰ型,占总数的29.41±4.51%。同时考虑实际应用根据注入属支数目来分型,其中以三支型和四支型最多,分别为总数的34.31±4.70%、33.33±4.67%,其次是二支型占24.51±4.26%,六支型最少占0.98±0.68%。 8.大隐静脉上段的绝大多数属支(91.18±2.80%)是在隐股结合点下方4厘米以内汇入大隐静脉。本文曾在湖南省医药卫生学会1962年年会解剖学分会上宣读,并加以补充和修改。

     
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