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nitrification
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  硝化
    Using a multi-layer soil column device,the effect of new nitrification inhibitor DMPP(3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate) on nitrogen leaching was studied for understanding the nitrogen vertical transformation and lowering the nitrogen leaching losses.
    采用自制模拟原状土柱装置,进行新型硝化抑制剂3,4-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐(3,4-dimethyl pyrazole phosphate,DMPP)对氮素淋溶效应试验,探讨其对氮素垂直迁移转化及降低淋溶损失的影响.
短句来源
    3 (5)-Methylpyrazole for Nitrification Inhibitor of Nitrogen Fertilizers
    3(5)-甲基吡唑──氮肥硝化抑制剂
短句来源
    EFFECT OF UREASE / NITRIFICATION INHIBITORS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF TRANSFORMED UREA-N FORMS IN SOIL
    脲酶抑制剂/硝化抑制剂对土壤中尿素氮转化及形态分布的影响
短句来源
    Effect of modified ammonium bicarbonate on nitrification denitrification process and NO and N_2O emission.
    长效碳酸氢铵对土壤硝化硝化过程和NO与N_2O排放的影响
短句来源
    Effect of urease/nitrification inhibitors on the behavior of urea-N in the soil planted to rice
    脲酶抑制剂/硝化抑制剂对植稻土壤中尿素N行为的影响
短句来源
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  硝化作用
    Mineralization and Nitrification of Soil Nitrogen in Calcareous Soil Profile
    石灰性土壤剖面氮素的矿化和硝化作用
短句来源
    Nitrification Inhibition by High Concentration Acetylene in Straw-amended Soil
    较高浓度乙炔对秸秆还田土壤硝化作用的抑制
短句来源
    Dynamics of Soil Nitrification Potential and Microbial Populations After Applying 3,5-dimethylpyrazole
    3,5-二甲基吡唑(DMP)施用后土壤硝化作用潜势及微生物群落动态变化研究
短句来源
    Effects of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole phosphate(DMPZP) on soil nitrification.
    3,5-二甲基吡唑磷酸盐(DMPZP)对土壤硝化作用的影响
短句来源
    Irrigation prompts nitrification, and-NH4+-N turns to NO2--N and NO3--N swiftly, thus the concentration of NH4+-N in soil decreases.
    泡田加速了土壤中的硝化作用,NH_4~+-N迅速向NO_2~--N和NO_3~--N转化,降低了土壤中NH_4~+-N的浓度。
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  “nitrification”译为未确定词的双语例句
    N_2O Production from Soil Nitrification and Denitrification Bacteria at Different Water-filled Pore Space
    不同水分条件下不同土壤微生物类群产N_2O量的初步研究
短句来源
    1. Added S0 and DCD could inhibit nitrification of soil NH4+, decrease soil NO3--N content, and maintain a high soil NH4+-N content within 72 days at NH4HCO3 treatment, and within 48days at urea treatment.
    1、S~0、DCD及其组合施入土壤可抑制NH_4~+向NO_3~-的转化,降低土壤NO_3~- -N水平,使土壤内NH_4~+ -N长时间保持较高水平。
短句来源
    The nitrification inhibition was greater at treatment of DCD combined with S掳or Na2S2O3 than DCD treatment.
    NO_3~- -N抑制率总平均为27.2~28.2%,分别是S~0和Na_2S_2O_3作用下的2.5~2.9倍和2.1~4.0倍;
短句来源
    , 12-12-17) with nitrification inhibitor DMPP on vegetable and fruit were also discussed.
    ,12-12-17)在蔬菜、瓜果上的应用效果,取得如下主要结果:
短句来源
    At the completion of leachate experiment, different soil depths in the DMPP-amended soil led to the maintenance of relatively high levels of NH_4~+-N and low levels of NO_3~--N in soil, and nitrification was slower.
    同时DMPP也能够提高残留在土壤不同深度中NH_4~+-N含量,降低NO_3~--N含量。
短句来源
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  nitrification
Low levels of NO3- in these forest soils generally correspond to low net rates of nitrification.
      
Nitrification and denitrification in subalpine coniferous forests of different restoration stages in western Sichuan, China
      
Nitrification is the biological conversion of organic or inorganic nitrogen compounds from a reduced to a more oxidized state.
      
The results showed that forest restoration stage had no significant effects on gross nitrification rates or denitrification rates (One-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), p >amp;lt; 0.05).
      
There was no significant difference in the temperature coefficient (Q10) for gross nitrification rate among all the forest sites (One-way ANOVA, p >amp;lt; 0.05).
      
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The present paper reports studies on the relative rate of decomposition of nine different oil cake-meals [soybean, peanut, sesame, rape seed, cotton seed(with and without hull), chinese tallow seed (with and without hull)]. In the course of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals, freguent measurement were made of the quantity of evolved CO_2 gas, and amount of the NH_4~+, NO_3~-, and NO_2~- nitrogen formed at the given intervals of the day. These measurement served as indices of the intensity of decomposition...

The present paper reports studies on the relative rate of decomposition of nine different oil cake-meals [soybean, peanut, sesame, rape seed, cotton seed(with and without hull), chinese tallow seed (with and without hull)]. In the course of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals, freguent measurement were made of the quantity of evolved CO_2 gas, and amount of the NH_4~+, NO_3~-, and NO_2~- nitrogen formed at the given intervals of the day. These measurement served as indices of the intensity of decomposition and rate of ammonification and nitrification of the oil cake-meals that may be occur in the soil. These studies were performed in the laboratory, under room temperature condition of the summer season. All cakes were ground into meals to such particle size as to pass through a 20-mesh sieve. The cake-meals were separately mixed with cultivation soil in the proportion of one part of cake-meal to hundred parts by weight of soil. The soil used was of alluvial origin, low in organic matter and somewhat sandy in texture. It was found that decomposition of the cake-meals began soon after their application to the soil. The daily evolution of CO_2 reached its maximum for about one week. Immediately after that, the daily evolution of CO_2 declined rapidly to a such lower level and attained a rather steady declining rate after about two weeks. The trends were common in character irrespective of the kind of the cake-meals. Among the organic constituents of tile cake-meals that underwent into decomposition in the early days, nitrogeneous organic compou ads seemed to be of major importance. The production of ammonium compounds as a result of ammonification followed a trend similar to that shown by the evolution of CO_2. The maximum rate of ammonification was noticed sometime before the evolution of Co_2 had reached a maximum. The positive correlation existing between the total nitrogen content of the oil cakes and the rate of ammonification was evident. Other factors, however seemed to be also affecting the status of transformation of Nitrogen compounds. Nitrate compounds began to appear soon after ammonification had proceeded to an appreciable degree. In the course of decomposition their accumulation in the soil increased steadily with the time. Small amounts of nitrites were found under the experiment conditions which were characterized by low moisture content (25%) of the soil and meal mixtures. From the quantity of the total available nitrogen accumulated at different intervals in the course of decomposition as in the case here given, it seemed that some nitrogen might be lost through volatilization of ammonium compounds, since the soil was alkaline in reaction (the soil here used had a PH value of 7.2) Soaking the cake meals with water, lime-water, or straw-ash extract as sometimes practiced by the local farmers in some districts in Chekiang province brought about the effect of hastening ammonification and nitrification processes. But, gain in readiness of availability of the meals by this hastening effect might not compensate for the loss in total amount of available nitrogen formed. The loss was particularly evident when the cake-meals were pretreated with lime-water or straw-ash extract. It is believed that the alkaline reaction of the treated cake-meals accounts for this loss. The relative readiness of decomposition of the different oil cake-meals followed in descending order: soybean, sesame, peanut, Cotton seed (without hulls)>Cotton seed (with hulls), rape seed>Chinese tallow seed (with and without bulls). Similarly, the relative total amount of available nitrogen (including ammonium and nitrate nitrogen) formed during decomposition shows in the following order: soybean, peanut, sesame, chiness tallow seed(without hulls)>Cotton seed (with and without hulls)>rape seeds>Chiness tallow seed (with hlls).

研究了浙江省施用的九种主要餅肥在土壤中分解的情况,各种餅肥都經磨碎,并通过20孔篩。实驗証明,在夏天的温度下,餅肥施入土壤后即迅速分解,它的分解最盛时期是在一星期左右,此后即迅速下降,到二星期后,即漸趋穩定。餅肥施入土壤后,铵态氮的大量發生是在一星期以內,此后即迅速降低,轉化成硝酸态氮。硝酸态氮在一星期到二星期的时間内开始大量發生,到二星期后就漸趋穩定。土壤中有效态氮总量在各个形态轉化的过程中,有顯著的減少趋势。餅肥在施入土壤前用石灰、草灰或水处理一星期,可提早土壤中有效氮的發生,其中單用水处理的效果尤其好。实驗証明,用石灰或草灰处理餅肥,使有效态氮大量損失,而用水处理則沒有这种情况。在本实驗的条件下,各种餅肥的分解速率依次为:豆餅、芝麻餅、花生餅、棉仁餅>棉籽餅、生菜餅、熟菜餅>桕餅、青餅。各种餅肥中氮素化合物转化后所產生的有效态氮总量依次为:豆餅、花生餅、芝麻餅、青餅>棉仁餅、生菜餅、棉籽餅>熟菜餅>桕餅。

The microbiological characteristics of the red soils occurring on the hilly land of juxian,Jinhua,jiangshan,Anji and Yiwu Counties in Zhejiang province were summarized as following;1.pH,organic matter,and nitrogen in red soil tended to increase with the improvement of soil fertility.2.The abundance of soil microorganisms increased with the improvement of soil fertility.Among the microbial population,bacteria were the most abundant organisms in all soils.The number of bacteria was relatively higher in more fertile...

The microbiological characteristics of the red soils occurring on the hilly land of juxian,Jinhua,jiangshan,Anji and Yiwu Counties in Zhejiang province were summarized as following;1.pH,organic matter,and nitrogen in red soil tended to increase with the improvement of soil fertility.2.The abundance of soil microorganisms increased with the improvement of soil fertility.Among the microbial population,bacteria were the most abundant organisms in all soils.The number of bacteria was relatively higher in more fertile soils.The relative number of fungi decreased as cultivation went on,but it was always less than 5% in virgin soils.3.The respiratory capacity,measured with warburg apparatus,also increased with the improvement of soil fertility and both the release of CO2 and the absorption of O2 were less than 20 microlitres in virgin soils.4.During the first two weeks,the rate of nitrification of red soil increased with the improvement of soil fertility but in the later stage their differences were not significant.The nitrifying bacteria could hardly be propagated on virgin soils.The number of nitrifying bacteria was also positively correlated with soil fertility.5.The cellulose decomposing capacity of these soils,as measured by embedding cloth method,also showed positive correlation with soil fertility.In the case of virgin soils,the dry weight loss of the embedded cloth was not more than 13% at most.Among the cellulose decomposing population,bacteria(mostly Cytophaga and Cellvibrio)were the most abundant in cultivated red soils and there was no Cytophaga in virgin soils while Fusarium predominated in all soils.6.with the exception of virgin soils,the nitrogen fixing bacterium Clostridium pasteurianum could be found in all soil samples analyzed and with the most abundance.In general,a small number of Azotobacter Chroo- coccum could be found in most of the soils,while Beijerinck sp.was found 玱nly in some soils.7.As compared with the higher fertile red soil of Juxian,the chemical and microbiological characteristics of Jinhua,Jiangshan,Yiwu,Anji soils of different fertility stages showed that there is a need to improve the fertilities of these red soils.

综合衢县、金华、江山、义乌及安吉五个地点代表性低丘黄筋泥的微生物学分析,浙江省低丘红壤的微生物学特性主要有如下几点: 1.在红壤的一般理化性状中,土壤pH值、有机质及氮素含量随红壤熟化程度的提高而有增加的趋势。 2.红壤中微生物总数随土壤熟化度提高而增大。各级肥力的土壤,均以细菌占最大优势。往往熟化程度愈高,细菌数量所占的比重愈大。反之,不一定是熟化程度较高的土壤。熟化程度低的红壤,真菌的相对数量较高,但在荒地中,真菌的数量也不超过微生物总数的5%。 3.红壤荒地的呼吸强度,在本试验条件下,二氧化碳释放量及氧吸收量均在20微升以下。随着红壤熟化程度的增加,其数值也增大。 4.在培养初期二周内,红壤的硝化作用强度随熟化程度提高而增大。后期差异不一定显著。硝化细菌在荒地中几乎不能繁育,其数量随熟化程度提高而增加。 5.红壤的纤维素分解强度,在试验条件下,荒地中布片失重量最大不超过13%。分解强度及纤维素分解微生物相对数量,随红壤熟化程度提高而增加。纤维素分解微生物种类中,在熟化红壤以细菌占优势,在荒地则以霉菌占优势。在纤维素分解细菌中,熟化度高的红壤,以噬纤维菌属(Cytophaga)及纤维弧菌属(Cellvib...

综合衢县、金华、江山、义乌及安吉五个地点代表性低丘黄筋泥的微生物学分析,浙江省低丘红壤的微生物学特性主要有如下几点: 1.在红壤的一般理化性状中,土壤pH值、有机质及氮素含量随红壤熟化程度的提高而有增加的趋势。 2.红壤中微生物总数随土壤熟化度提高而增大。各级肥力的土壤,均以细菌占最大优势。往往熟化程度愈高,细菌数量所占的比重愈大。反之,不一定是熟化程度较高的土壤。熟化程度低的红壤,真菌的相对数量较高,但在荒地中,真菌的数量也不超过微生物总数的5%。 3.红壤荒地的呼吸强度,在本试验条件下,二氧化碳释放量及氧吸收量均在20微升以下。随着红壤熟化程度的增加,其数值也增大。 4.在培养初期二周内,红壤的硝化作用强度随熟化程度提高而增大。后期差异不一定显著。硝化细菌在荒地中几乎不能繁育,其数量随熟化程度提高而增加。 5.红壤的纤维素分解强度,在试验条件下,荒地中布片失重量最大不超过13%。分解强度及纤维素分解微生物相对数量,随红壤熟化程度提高而增加。纤维素分解微生物种类中,在熟化红壤以细菌占优势,在荒地则以霉菌占优势。在纤维素分解细菌中,熟化度高的红壤,以噬纤维菌属(Cytophaga)及纤维弧菌属(Cellvibrio)占优势。在荒地红壤中,没有发现噬纤维菌属。分解纤维素的霉菌

The transformation of fertilizer-NH_4 in three representative arable soils in Hessia, West Germany (loess, alluvial soil and soil of basaltic origin)have been studied by incubation(no plant)under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the amounts of fertilizers NH_4-N fixed by clay minerals in loess and alluvial soils were up to 40% and 32%, respectively after fertilizer application. In soils of basaltic origin, on the other hand, only about 9% of fertilizers NH_4-N were fixed. It is supposed that the...

The transformation of fertilizer-NH_4 in three representative arable soils in Hessia, West Germany (loess, alluvial soil and soil of basaltic origin)have been studied by incubation(no plant)under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the amounts of fertilizers NH_4-N fixed by clay minerals in loess and alluvial soils were up to 40% and 32%, respectively after fertilizer application. In soils of basaltic origin, on the other hand, only about 9% of fertilizers NH_4-N were fixed. It is supposed that the specific adsorbed sites of clay minerals in that soil were mainly occupied by K~+ ions. During the incubation process, the amount of fixed ammoniums increased obviously in early stage (about two weeks) and then declined slowly, but at last increased continuously once again. This suggests that the so-called fixed ammonium in clay minerals is no static fraction in soil. It can convert into available N for plants and exists mainly in the form of NO_3~-. The mechanism that NH_4~+ releases from clay minerals is not yet completely understood. From this experiment it is evident that there is a near relationship between the release of NH_4~+ and nitrification in soil. The content of fixed ammoniums declines obviously with the increasing of NO_3-N content. There is a significant negative correlation between the fixed ammonium and nitrate. The γ value was -0.743 for the loess and -0.578 for the alluvial soil. It may be supposed that the significant correlation also exists among these three different N-forms, fixed NH_4~+, exchangeable NH_4~+ and soluble NO_3-N. In general, there is a negative correlation between the fixed NH_4~+ and NO_3-N, and positive correlation between the fixed NH_4~+ and exchangeable NH_4~+; but a significant negative correlation between exchangeable NH_4~+ and NO_3~-. As to the correlation among these three different N-forms it is necessary to be examined by further experiments.

在室内培养条件下(不生长植物)对西德黑森州三种代表性耕作土壤(黄土、冲积土、玄武岩发育土壤)进行铵态氮的转化研究。表明;在黄土和冲积土中,施肥后肥料铵离子分别有40%和32%被粘土矿物固定。在玄武岩发育土壤中,由于粘土矿物的特殊结合位置主要被钾离子所占据,所以施肥后肥料铵离子仅有很少量约9%被粘土矿物固定。在培养过程中固定态铵离子含量呈上升—下降—上升的趋势,说明这种形态的氮在土壤中不是静止不变的,它可以转化为植物可利用的有效氮,主要是硝态氮。可以作为土壤矿质氮的一种“储备”形态。对减少氮的淋洗损失和保证肥料氮在全生长季有较多供应起重要作用。关于粘土矿物中的铵离子的释放机制目前尚未完全清楚。本试验表明,它与土壤中硝化作用有密切关系。随着固定态铵含量下降,硝态氮含量明显上升,两者呈显著的负相关。在黄土中γ=-0.743,在冲积土中γ=-0.578。此外在固定态铵离子和代换性铵离子,以及可溶性硝态氮之间,彼此亦有密切相关。固定态铵离子和硝态氮之间一般呈负相关,固定态铵离子和代换性铵离子一般呈正相关,而代换性铵离子和硝态氮呈显著的负相关。但尚待进一步的试验加以证实。

 
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